• currents
  • Sodium channels are modulated by protein kinase A and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, which reduce peak sodium currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine and acetycholine reduce sodium currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons through phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, serotonin receptors in the prefrontal cortex are regulated by PKC in order to reduce sodium currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • It blocks mechanosensitive ion channels (also named stretch-activated channels or SACs), without having effect on whole-cell voltage-sensitive currents. (uniprot.org)
  • Electrophysiological studies of GABAergic interneurons in the brains of adult GEFS+ flies reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying heat-induced seizures: the deactivation threshold for persistent sodium currents reversibly shifts to a more negative voltage when the temperature is elevated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electrophysiological recordings from GABAergic neurons in brains of adult mutant flies at both permissive and high temperature revealed a temperature-dependent alteration in sodium currents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A systematic survey of the effect of drugs commonly used in a clinical setting for treating neuropathic pain on tetrodotoxin-resistant currents flowing through the VGSC in DRG neurons indicated that there are no drugs capable of preferentially blocking these channels over the tetrodotoxin-sensitive channels, 8 although a depolarized membrane potential does increase the sensitivity of the tetrodotoxin-resistant channels to blockade by some drugs. (asahq.org)
  • Inhibition of Nav{beta}4 Peptide-mediated Resurgent Sodium Currents in Nav1.7 Channels by Carbamazepine, Riluzole and Anandamide. (epfl.ch)
  • cardiac
  • We directly tested the effects of propranolol on heterologously expressed recombinant human cardiac (Na V 1.5) and brain (Na V 1.1, Na V 1.2, Na V 1.3) sodium channels using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings establish sodium channels as targets for propranolol and may help explain some beneficial effects of the drug in treating cardiac arrhythmias, and may explain certain adverse central nervous system effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • The action of NSTX produces minimal effect on cardiac Nav, where it exhibits about 20-60 fold lesser affinity than in Nav channels from rat skeletal muscle and rat brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxins such as neosaxitoxin and tetrodotoxin have less affinity for most cardiac Nav channels than for most Nav channels in nerve tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • Given the location of Nav1.6, the channel contributes to the firing threshold of a given neuron, as the electrical impulses from various inputs are summed at the axon hillock in order to reach firing threshold before propagating down the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion channel clustering at the axon initial segment and node of Ranvier evolved sequentially in early chordates. (epfl.ch)
  • The genetic deletion of ankyrin-G from multiple neuron types has shown that ankyrin-G is required for the normal clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axon hillock and for action potential firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • In rat cultured hippocampal neurons and cortical organotypic slices, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of ankG membrane partners (voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) or neurofascin-186) led to a decrease of ankG concentration and perturbed the AIS formation and maintenance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Principles underlying their polarized distribution and function in neurons are better understood and might be paradigmatic to understand the mechanisms controlling the subcellular distribution and function of other ion channels present in axons and dendrites. (frontiersin.org)
  • NaV1.8, formerly called the sensory neuron-specific or the peripheral nerve sodium channel type 3 (PN3), is a tetrodotoxin-resistant VGSC α subunit selectively expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (asahq.org)
  • Inwardly permeating Na ions generate the voltage dependence of resurgent Na current in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (epfl.ch)
  • isoforms
  • Although multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, the full-length nature of only two have been characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • ankyrin
  • These effects were rescued by expressing a recombinant AIS-targeted Nav or by a minimal construct containing the ankyrin-binding domain of Nav1.2 and a membrane anchor (mABD). (frontiersin.org)
  • Within the nodes of Ranvier where action potentials are actively propagated, ankyrin-G has long been thought to be the intermediate binding partner to neurofascin and voltage-gated sodium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The independent splicing of 11 exons allows for the unique cytoplasmic loops, the alternative splicing also can effect the Na+ channel kinetics, such as the varying gating conductivities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene consists of 28 exons, of which exon 1 and in part exon 2 form the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and exon 28 the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Acts by partitioning into the membrane and perturbing the interface between the channel and the lipid bilayer without necessarily being in physical contact with the channel. (uniprot.org)
  • Some functional channels result in membrane hyperexcitability while others result in hypoexcitability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nav1.8
  • 2 A critical role of NaV1.8 in mediating pathologic pain has been suggested by the observation that sensory neuron-specific tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel α-subunit knock out mice demonstrated pronounced analgesia to noxious mechanical stimuli and delayed development of inflammatory hyperalgesia while exhibiting generally normal behavior, viability, and fertility. (asahq.org)
  • regulation
  • Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns. (frontiersin.org)
  • dependence
  • It acts by shifting the voltage dependence of channel activation to more depolarized potentials and by blocking the inward component of the sodium current (PubMed:16267209). (rcsb.org)
  • whereas
  • A 10 Hz stimulation of wild-type channels causes current to decrease to approximately 70% of maximum whereas the same stimulation of mutant channels results in rundown to 90% of maximum. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The D188V mutant, for example, recovers to 90% maximal current in 200ms while wild-type channels are unable to recover to this degree in >1000ms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 10 (LQT10). (epfl.ch)