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  • 2017
  • Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria . (cancerindex.org)
  • A number of studies reported IL-11 as a possible cancer progression marker suggesting that therapeutic targeting of IL-11 or IL11RA in humans may be beneficial, however as of 2017 clinically relevant IL-11 signalling antagonists were still under development. (wikipedia.org)
  • CNTF
  • The receptor systems for IL6, LIF, OSM, CNTF, IL11 and CT1 can utilize IL6ST for initiating signal transmission. (uniprot.org)
  • It is also shared by many other receptors like leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotropic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), IL-11, and cardiotropin 1 (CT-1). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • stromal
  • Martin JW, Chen JC, Neidleman J, Tatsumi K, Hu J, Giudice LC, Greene WC, Roan NR. Potent and rapid activation of tropomyosin-receptor kinase A in endometrial stromal fibroblasts by seminal plasma. (ucsf.edu)
  • IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • The ligand binding of this receptor leads to the activation of various JAK kinases and STAT proteins, which connect to different biologic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Aldesleukin, a lymphokine, is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a genetically engineered E. coli strain containing an analog of the human interleukin-2 gene. (drugbank.ca)
  • Interleukin 11 is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a protein therapeutic called oprelvekin, for the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia in cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • 1997). "The IL-9 receptor gene, located in the Xq/Yq pseudoautosomal region, has an autosomal origin, escapes X inactivation and is expressed from the Y". Hum. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Knockout mice deficient in either p40 or p19, or in either subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R and IL12R-β1) develop less severe symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and inflammatory bowel disease highlighting the importance of IL-23 in the inflammatory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory gene polymorphisms may be associated with glioma risk. (cancerindex.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of certain inflammatory gene and some clinical factors on patient survival.The clinical information of 269 glioma patients conceived operation from September 2010 to May 2014 to decide the 1-, 3-year survival rates according to follow-up results and analyze age, gender, the WHO classification, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy factors effects on prognosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • A common variant of the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r) gene increases IL-6r and IL-6 levels, without other inflammatory effects. (springer.com)
  • Scheller J, Garbers C, Rose-John S. Interleukin-6: from basic biology to selective blockade of pro-inflammatory activities. (springer.com)
  • Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interleukin 31 is an inflammatory cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, in particular activated TH2 helper cells, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ciliary
  • This particular receptor is very similar to ciliary neurotrophic factor, since both contain an extracellular region with a 2-domain structure composed of an immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytokine receptor-like domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide sy
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)
  • antigen
  • Five of eight NF-κBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-κB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings that excreted pTECs demonstrate activated NF-κB and IL-6 antigen and that AGE-albumin and CML lead to a perpetuated activation of NF-κB in vitro infer that a perpetuated increase in proinflammtory gene products, such as IL-6, plays a role in damaging the renal tubule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin, by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, induce acute phase proteins, modulate antigen-antibody responses, participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble form
  • The AGE- and CML-dependent activation of NF-κBp65 and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression could be inhibited using the soluble form of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (soluble RAGE [sRAGE]), RAGE-specific antibody, or the antioxidant thioctic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • neuronal
  • Fyn is located downstream of several cell surface receptors, commonly associated with neuronal development and T-cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • de Groot RP, Coffer PJ, Koenderman L. Regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival by the IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF receptor family. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of hypoxia inducible factors alpha (HIF-alpha) and their inhibiting factor (FIH-1) of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) under hypoxia. (auburn.edu)
  • The P2X7 receptor also serves as a pattern recognition receptor for extracellular ATP-mediated apoptotic cell death, regulation of receptor trafficking, mast cell degranulation, and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The ligand binding of this receptor leads to the activation of various JAK kinases and STAT proteins, which connect to different biologic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P2X7 receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that opens in response to ATP binding and leads to cell depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA-1 (integrin), a receptor found on leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain II comprises four repeats homologous to the ligand-binding portion of the LDL receptor with six conserved cysteine residues and a pentapeptide, DGSDE, which mediates ligand binding by the LDL receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Changes in cellular gene expression in the initiation of DNA synthesis and the formation of differentiated derivatives can lead to cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, by forming stable heterodimers with c-Jun, the bZIP region of v-Fos increases the binding of c-Jun to target genes whose activation is involved in the differentiation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated NFATc is then translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), which, in turn, stimulates the growth and differentiation of T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel mechanism by which interferon-gamma can regulate interleukin (IL)-13 responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The EUBREC_0645 gene translates into the YP_002936568 protein from Eubacterium rectale , the most abundant member of Firmicutes phyla in the human gut, and it is the first solved representative of the bacterial TIR-like domain family (DUF1863/PF08937, e-value=0.00017). (burnham.org)
  • IL9R also denotes its human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhancer in B cells
  • Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) is an ubiquitous transcription factor that was identified based on its interaction with an 11-base pair sequence in the immunoglobulin light-chain enhancer in B cells. (clontech.com)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • ICAM-1 can be induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and is expressed by the vascular endothelium, macrophages, and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • The promoter gene polymorphism of this gene has been reported to be associated with the severity of atopic and non-atopic asthma in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • Alternate names for p65 include v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian), NFKB3, NFKB-p65, NF-kappa-B p65delta3, transcription factor p65, and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit. (clontech.com)
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor is assembled through the dimerization of a characteristic bZIP domain (basic region leucine zipper) in the Fos and Jun subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • For example, TNFα has been shown in vitro to drive the production of IL-17 by equipping DC with the ability to differentiate T cells toward a Th17 phenotype ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • A mutation in this gene, which results in aberrant splicing, leads to ciliary neurotrophic factor deficiency, but this phenotype is not causally related to neurologic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine
  • This gene is one of two neighboring gene family members that encode mitochondrial enzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. (genecards.org)
  • Calcineurin is linked to receptors for several brain chemicals including glutamate, dopamine and GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • This allows further activation of purinergic receptors and physiological responses such a spreading cytoplasmic waves of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The JAK Janus kinase proteins on the cytoplasmic end of the receptors allows for the phosphorylation of STAT6, which then forms an activated homodimer and are transported to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine
  • Conserved cysteine residues located in the carboxyl terminus seem to be important for receptor trafficking to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • As expected, it adopts a three layered alpha/beta fold, with a central beta-strands, but it contains additional structural elements as compared to classical TIR domains. (burnham.org)
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Microglial P2X7 receptors are thought to be involved in neuropathic pain because blockade or deletion of P2X7 receptors results in decreased responses to pain, as demonstrated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)