• Drosophila
  • In Drosophila, the female-specific Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein is required for oogenesis, but how Sxl interfaces with the genetic circuitry controlling oogenesis remains unknown. (sdbonline.org)
  • Drosophila, like mammals 4, increase the transcript levels of a large number of diversely regulated genes along the length of the single male X-chromosome precisely two-fold relative to each female X-chromosome 5. (grantome.com)
  • The objective of this application is to understand how dosage compensation in Drosophila is established, the critical first step in the regulatory process. (grantome.com)
  • The Drosophila Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is central to dosage compensation;it first identifies the X chromosome using a combination of cis-acting DNA sequences 6 and co-transcriptional recruitment by its roX (RNA on X) non-coding RNA components7 and then spreads into the bodies of active genes 8. (grantome.com)
  • Some definitions consider sperm activation to consist of these two processes of hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction Hyperactivation is a term also used to express an X chromosome gene dosage compensation mechanism and is seen in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, this study has analyzed if neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning . (sdbonline.org)
  • IN Drosophila melanogaster , the gene Sex-lethal ( Sxl ) controls the processes of sex determination, sexual behavior, and dosage compensation (the products of the X-linked genes are present in equal amounts in males and females). (genetics.org)
  • The Bodmer lab is pursuing this interest by studying the genetic functions and interactions that specify heart development and maintain heart performance in the Drosophila model. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • The laboratory combines genetic, molecular, neuroanatomical, and electrophysiological studies in both Drosophila and mouse to identify pathways required for the development, maintenance, and regeneration of axons and synapses. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Evidence for a genetic basis of circadian rhythms in higher eukaryotes began with the discovery of the period (per) locus in Drosophila melanogaster from forward genetic screens completed by Ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the analysis of per circadian mutants and additional mutations on Drosophila clock genes, a model encompassing positive and negative autoregulatory feedback loops of transcription and translation has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suggested a methodology for achieving dosage compensation in Drosophila by way of a hyperactive male-X model and elucidated its cellular anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • His studies also attempted to identify how these genes impact the modulation of apoptosis and neurodegeneration in Drosophila models of human diseases as well as the effects of some of the ayurvedic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six months later Goldschmidt returned the critique to Stern without comment, called him into his office and offered him a post-graduate fellowship financed by the Rockefeller University at Columbia University, N.Y. to study genetics in Thomas Hunt Morgan's lab, the famous "Fly Room", so-named for the fruit fly Drosophila, the subject of genetic research for Morgan. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein codin
  • These authors are convinced that "SSU and LSU rRNA genes fulfill the requirements of ideal phylogenetic markers to an extent far greater than do protein coding genes. (blogspot.com)
  • aneuploidy
  • These liabilities are counterbalanced by specific advantages: In many clonally propagated species, novel genotypes, such as dosage variants involving aneuploidy (loss or gain of one or more entire chromosome arms) or duplication or deletion of smaller chromosomal segments, can be maintained vegetatively, even if they are meiotically unstable, and these new variants can be directly incorporated in breeding programs if they exhibit the desired characteristics. (plantcell.org)
  • Unlike single gene disorders, diseases caused by aneuploidy are the result of improper gene dosage, not nonfunctional gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Genetic studies of complex traits have mainly identified associations with noncoding variants. (stanford.edu)
  • Clonal propagation allows for replication and maintenance of meiotically unstable ploidy or structural variants and provides an alternative approach to investigating gene dosage effects not possible in sexually propagated species. (plantcell.org)
  • Effect of predicted protein-truncating genetic variants on the human transcriptome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results illustrate the value of transcriptome data in the functional interpretation of genetic variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • XIST
  • Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) is an RNA gene on the X chromosome of the placental mammals that acts as a major effector of the X inactivation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The XIST gene is expressed exclusively from the XIC of the inactive X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reported experiments, a single 19-bp antisense cell-permeating PNA targeted against a particular region of Xist RNA prevented the formation of Xi and inhibited cis-silencing of X-linked genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human Xist RNA gene is located on the long (q) arm of the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xist RNA gene consists of conserved repeats within its structure and is also largely localized in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xist RNA gene consists of an A region, which contains 8 repeats separated by U-rich spacers. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ortholog of the Xist RNA gene in humans has been identified in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ortholog is a 15 kb Xist RNA gene that is also localized in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene also consists of an Xist Inactivation Center (XIC), which plays a major role in X inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • compensate
  • These mutants are compromised in their ability to recruit MSL3 and MOF, dosage compensate the X, and support long distance spreading from roX1 transgenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • deletions
  • 500 F1 seedlings containing dosage lesions in the form of deletions and insertions of chromosomal segments (indel mutations). (plantcell.org)
  • determination
  • The results obtained suggest genetic sex determination inP. (deepdyve.com)
  • Based on the fact that genetic sex determination is also characteristic of other species of the genus Polydora, which diverged independently during several million years, and taking into account that only six recombination events occurred in the history of 376P. (deepdyve.com)
  • Studies have shown that two copies of the gene are necessary for male sex determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the SRY gene on the Y chromosome encodes the transcription factor TDF and is vital for male sex determination during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because genetic determination of coat colors in calico cats is linked to the X chromosome, calicoes are nearly always female, with one color linked to the maternal X chromosome and a second color linked to the paternal X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any event, because the genetic conditions for calico coloring are X linked, a fertile male calico's coloring would not have any determination in the coloring of any male offspring (who would receive the Y, not the X chromosome from their father). (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • We have identified the catalytic subunit of the complex as the product of ESA1 , an essential gene required for cell cycle progression in yeast. (embopress.org)
  • Additionally, we have identified another subunit of the complex as the product of TRA1 , an ATM‐related essential gene homologous to human TRRAP, an essential cofactor for c‐Myc‐ and E2F‐mediated oncogenic transformation. (embopress.org)
  • Guided by strong preliminary data, we propose the following novel mechanism for identifying genes for coordinate regulation: CLAMP and the MSL complex associate inter-dependently, thereby generating a positive feedback amplification system that creates X- specificity from a two-fold X-enrichment of MRE sequences. (grantome.com)
  • The rationale for this work is that determining how the MSL complex specifically targets the X-chromosome will yield key insight into how genes are identified for coordinately regulation within sub-nuclear domains. (grantome.com)
  • Our proposed research is significant because we expect to describe for the first time the previously unknown mechanism that allows MSL complex to identify its high affinity sites, thereby defining the critical first step in establishing coordinate gene regulation. (grantome.com)
  • Defining the novel mechanism by which CLAMP and the MSL complex function together to generate a domain of enhanced transcription is likely to provide key insight into how genes are identified for coordinate regulation across species. (grantome.com)
  • The protein is called Dosage Compensation Complex (DCC). (medindia.net)
  • molecular
  • the genetic, molecular and cellular basis of gravity-induced changes is not well known. (peerj.com)
  • Although altering gravity can affect motor neuron development, the genetic and molecular mechanism of gravity's effect on neuron development is unknown. (peerj.com)
  • locus
  • Manchenko, G. 2004-10-07 00:00:00 In Polydora brevipalpa (Polychaeta, Spionidae), an unusual electrophoretic pattern of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) which is determined by a single GPI gene locus and represented by two isozymes (GPI-1 and GPI-2) has been revealed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Calico cats are almost always female because the locus of the gene for the orange/non-orange coloring is on the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Y chromosome does not have any locus for the orange gene, there is no chance that an XY male could have both orange and non-orange genes together, which is what it takes to create tortoiseshell or calico coloring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • It is unknown whether a similar gene plays a role in human X inactivation, although a 2008 study found that skewing in humans is mostly caused by secondary events rather than a genetic tendency. (wikipedia.org)
  • elegans
  • To identify genes required for cell migration and differentiation, we screened for mutants with defects in the migrations of the C. elegans c anal- a ssociated n eurons (CANs). (genetics.org)
  • traits
  • Gene dosage is particularly important to variation observed in quantitative traits, including many of the traits of economic or ecological importance, including heterosis. (plantcell.org)
  • Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pedigree is a diagram showing the ancestral relationships and transmission of genetic traits over several generations in a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We identified high-frequency QTLs and found evidence of selection near genes involved in malarial resistance and increased multiple sclerosis risk, reflecting the epidemiological history of Sardinia. (stanford.edu)
  • In spite of this bias, they compiled a database of protein trees from conserved genes that are found in all three of the proposed Domains. (blogspot.com)
  • We found that one of the genes, ceh-10 , specifies CAN fate. (genetics.org)
  • X-linked genes are found on the sex X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The X-chromosome controlling element (Xce) gene in mice has been found to influence genetically mediated skewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of cats having the orange mutant gene found in calicoes was traced to the port cities along the Mediterranean in Greece, France, Spain and Italy, originating from Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Studies have suggested an X linked gene or genes that control this effect, but the exact gene has not yet been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • His later studies revealed the existence of two distinct replicon types and assisted in a wider understanding of the non-coding hsromega gene and its essential functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveal
  • Results of genetic epistasis experiments further reveal that bam 's differentiation-promoting function depends on Sxl . (sdbonline.org)