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  • Drosophila
  • In Drosophila, the female-specific Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein is required for oogenesis, but how Sxl interfaces with the genetic circuitry controlling oogenesis remains unknown. (sdbonline.org)
  • Drosophila, like mammals 4, increase the transcript levels of a large number of diversely regulated genes along the length of the single male X-chromosome precisely two-fold relative to each female X-chromosome 5. (grantome.com)
  • The objective of this application is to understand how dosage compensation in Drosophila is established, the critical first step in the regulatory process. (grantome.com)
  • The Drosophila Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is central to dosage compensation;it first identifies the X chromosome using a combination of cis-acting DNA sequences 6 and co-transcriptional recruitment by its roX (RNA on X) non-coding RNA components7 and then spreads into the bodies of active genes 8. (grantome.com)
  • Some definitions consider sperm activation to consist of these two processes of hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction Hyperactivation is a term also used to express an X chromosome gene dosage compensation mechanism and is seen in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, this study has analyzed if neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning . (sdbonline.org)
  • Evidence for a genetic basis of circadian rhythms in higher eukaryotes began with the discovery of the period (per) locus in Drosophila melanogaster from forward genetic screens completed by Ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the analysis of per circadian mutants and additional mutations on Drosophila clock genes, a model encompassing positive and negative autoregulatory feedback loops of transcription and translation has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suggested a methodology for achieving dosage compensation in Drosophila by way of a hyperactive male-X model and elucidated its cellular anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • His studies also attempted to identify how these genes impact the modulation of apoptosis and neurodegeneration in Drosophila models of human diseases as well as the effects of some of the ayurvedic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six months later Goldschmidt returned the critique to Stern without comment, called him into his office and offered him a post-graduate fellowship financed by the Rockefeller University at Columbia University, N.Y. to study genetics in Thomas Hunt Morgan's lab, the famous "Fly Room", so-named for the fruit fly Drosophila, the subject of genetic research for Morgan. (wikipedia.org)
  • several genes
  • For example, the two genomes contributing to an F1 hybrid are slightly different, both in terms of allelic variation and because of the presence of deletions and insertions that encompass one or several genes. (plantcell.org)
  • We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. (jove.com)
  • aneuploidy
  • These liabilities are counterbalanced by specific advantages: In many clonally propagated species, novel genotypes, such as dosage variants involving aneuploidy (loss or gain of one or more entire chromosome arms) or duplication or deletion of smaller chromosomal segments, can be maintained vegetatively, even if they are meiotically unstable, and these new variants can be directly incorporated in breeding programs if they exhibit the desired characteristics. (plantcell.org)
  • Unlike single gene disorders, diseases caused by aneuploidy are the result of improper gene dosage, not nonfunctional gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • Second, recombination is profoundly suppressed between the two versions, leading to genetic differentiation between them. (pnas.org)
  • At some point, when there is clustering of genes for sex determination on one of the two autosomes, there is a suppression of recombination to ensure that the gene cluster is inherited in one block. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Based on the fact that genetic sex determination is also characteristic of other species of the genus Polydora, which diverged independently during several million years, and taking into account that only six recombination events occurred in the history of 376P. (deepdyve.com)
  • genome-wide
  • Here, we built a genome-wide structural variation system for dosage-based functional genomics and breeding of poplar. (plantcell.org)
  • To assess the genetic overlap between these migraine subgroups, we examined genome-wide association (GWA) results from analysis of 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 population-matched controls. (jove.com)
  • determination
  • Often one chromosome is smaller, and appears to retain only those genes that are necessary for sex determination. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The first instances of sexual dimorphism , where male and female reproductive organs are in different individuals, are thought to have arisen through temperature-dependent sex determination, where some genes are turned on or off depending on the ambient temperature. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Until recently, there was widespread belief that the Y chromosome in primates is undergoing rapid gene loss and that the chromosome would completely disappear in about ten million years, leading primates to an XX/XO system of sex determination. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The results obtained suggest genetic sex determination inP. (deepdyve.com)
  • Studies have shown that two copies of the gene are necessary for male sex determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the SRY gene on the Y chromosome encodes the transcription factor TDF and is vital for male sex determination during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because genetic determination of coat colors in calico cats is linked to the X chromosome, calicoes are nearly always female, with one color linked to the maternal X chromosome and a second color linked to the paternal X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any event, because the genetic conditions for calico coloring are X linked, a fertile male calico's coloring would not have any determination in the coloring of any male offspring (who would receive the Y, not the X chromosome from their father). (wikipedia.org)
  • recessive
  • He is known for his collaboration with William H. Zinkham, which demonstrated that Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • compensate
  • These mutants are compromised in their ability to recruit MSL3 and MOF, dosage compensate the X, and support long distance spreading from roX1 transgenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • traits
  • Genetic studies of complex traits have mainly identified associations with noncoding variants. (stanford.edu)
  • Gene dosage is particularly important to variation observed in quantitative traits, including many of the traits of economic or ecological importance, including heterosis. (plantcell.org)
  • Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pedigree is a diagram showing the ancestral relationships and transmission of genetic traits over several generations in a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • We have identified the catalytic subunit of the complex as the product of ESA1 , an essential gene required for cell cycle progression in yeast. (embopress.org)
  • Additionally, we have identified another subunit of the complex as the product of TRA1 , an ATM‐related essential gene homologous to human TRRAP, an essential cofactor for c‐Myc‐ and E2F‐mediated oncogenic transformation. (embopress.org)
  • Guided by strong preliminary data, we propose the following novel mechanism for identifying genes for coordinate regulation: CLAMP and the MSL complex associate inter-dependently, thereby generating a positive feedback amplification system that creates X- specificity from a two-fold X-enrichment of MRE sequences. (grantome.com)
  • The rationale for this work is that determining how the MSL complex specifically targets the X-chromosome will yield key insight into how genes are identified for coordinately regulation within sub-nuclear domains. (grantome.com)
  • Our proposed research is significant because we expect to describe for the first time the previously unknown mechanism that allows MSL complex to identify its high affinity sites, thereby defining the critical first step in establishing coordinate gene regulation. (grantome.com)
  • Defining the novel mechanism by which CLAMP and the MSL complex function together to generate a domain of enhanced transcription is likely to provide key insight into how genes are identified for coordinate regulation across species. (grantome.com)
  • locus
  • Manchenko, G. 2004-10-07 00:00:00 In Polydora brevipalpa (Polychaeta, Spionidae), an unusual electrophoretic pattern of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) which is determined by a single GPI gene locus and represented by two isozymes (GPI-1 and GPI-2) has been revealed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Calico cats are almost always female because the locus of the gene for the orange/non-orange coloring is on the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Y chromosome does not have any locus for the orange gene, there is no chance that an XY male could have both orange and non-orange genes together, which is what it takes to create tortoiseshell or calico coloring. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, there are also other less common forms of dosage compensation, which are not as widely researched and are sometimes specific to only one species (as observed in certain bird and monotreme species). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We identified high-frequency QTLs and found evidence of selection near genes involved in malarial resistance and increased multiple sclerosis risk, reflecting the epidemiological history of Sardinia. (stanford.edu)
  • The scientists found surprising variations among the women in the patterns of their genes that were switched on. (duke.edu)
  • X-linked genes are found on the sex X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of cats having the orange mutant gene found in calicoes was traced to the port cities along the Mediterranean in Greece, France, Spain and Italy, originating from Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • p. 1667 ) now use genetic fate mapping and cell transfer studies in vivo to demonstrate that Foxp3-expressing cells are remarkably stable under both basal and inflammatory conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies have suggested an X linked gene or genes that control this effect, but the exact gene has not yet been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • His later studies revealed the existence of two distinct replicon types and assisted in a wider understanding of the non-coding hsromega gene and its essential functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • These are done through a holistic application of dosage compensations through biochemical, genetic, genomic and bioinformatic methodologies Under the leadership of Thoman Boehm, the Department of Developmental Immunology strives to understand the biology and evolution of lymphoid organs and the adaptive immune system, intestinal immune system, and adaptive and innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Unfortunately, the genetic mutations that make your gut bacteria resistant to drugs, also provide resistance to antibiotics needed to stop infections and that broad resistance to antibiotics can spread to pathogens that then become the dreaded superbugs. (blogspot.com)
  • It has the possibility to not only limit the translation of abnormal proteins, but it can occasionally cause detrimental effects in specific genetic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the blood disorder Beta thalassemia is inherited and caused by mutations within the upstream of the β-globin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • autosome
  • Autosomal traits are associated with a single gene on an autosome (non-sex chromosome)-they are called "dominant" because a single copy-inherited from either parent-is enough to cause this trait to appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • elegans
  • To identify genes required for cell migration and differentiation, we screened for mutants with defects in the migrations of the C. elegans c anal- a ssociated n eurons (CANs). (genetics.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Given the necessary and present methodological diversity within QBM, the focus is on one fundamental and encompassing biological problem - the control of gene expression in all its aspects, and the interplay of the different control mechanisms in regulatory networks. (lmu.de)
  • copies
  • Therefore, in normal individuals, males carry a single copy of the STS gene and females carry two copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes that are closer to the origin site would be replicated first and would consequently be present in two copies in the cell for a longer time than the genes that are closer to the termination site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that two copies of the gene are necessary for male sex determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • A hemizygous deletion or mutation of the STS gene in a male results in complete absence of enzyme activity, while a female carrier of a mutation or deletion is heterozygous and still has a normal copy of the STS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example of an X-linked trait is Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in ribosomal protein gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pedigree is a diagram showing the ancestral relationships and transmission of genetic traits over several generations in a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • closer
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The smallest of these domains includes all the creatures, from sunflowers to yeasts to humans, that have the genetic information within their cells encased in a structure known as the nucleus. (elifesciences.org)
  • Some species (including humans) have a gene SRY on the Y chromosome that determines maleness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is unknown whether a similar gene plays a role in human X inactivation, although a 2008 study found that skewing in humans is mostly caused by secondary events rather than a genetic tendency. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Characterisation of multifocal breast cancer using the 70-gene signature in clinical low-risk patients enrolled in the EORTC 10041/BIG 03-04 MINDACT trial. (sib.swiss)
  • regulatory
  • Watch the video abstract on the newly discovered regulatory, epigenetic switch, which causes individuals with identical genetic material, such as monozygotic twins, to either be lean or obese. (mpg.de)
  • These studies, and the GTEx project ( http://www.broadinstitute.org/gtex/ ), have characterized the landscape of gene regulatory architecture, showing widespread variability in transcript structure and allelic expression, as well as variants associated with these features. (biomedcentral.com)
  • expression
  • In this video Asifa Akhtar, group leader at the MPI-IE, explains that the enzyme MOF is not only present in the nucleus but also in the mitochondria and how this finding might provide a new perspective on how changes in the environment that influence the metabolism can impinge on the expression of genes. (mpg.de)
  • In Arabidopsis, analysis of gene expression in transgenic plants in which luciferase activity is expressed from clock-regulated promoters has proven a useful tool, although technical challenges associated with the regeneration of transgenic plants has hindered the implementation of this powerful tool in B. rapa . (plantphysiol.org)
  • We observe a strong positive correlation in period length between the tissue culture rhythm in gene expression and the seedling rhythm in cotyledon movement, indicating that the circadian clock in B. rapa tissue culture provides a good model for the clock in planta. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Its main function is to reduce errors in gene expression by eliminating mRNA transcripts that contain premature stop codons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Down syndrome, the gene expression on chromosome 21 has increased 50%, and this results in significant health and mental disabilities (1 in 800 human live births have Down syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • These slight gene dosage differences are responsible for variation in gene expression depending on the position on the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to decreased levels of gene expression and is known as gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study showed that, upon inhibition of HDAC enzymes by Trichostatin A, genes inserted next to centric heterochromatin showed increased expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is of medical significance due to the potential for the expression of disease genes present on the X chromosome that are normally not expressed due to random X inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Evidence suggests that genetic vulnerability with environmental factors can act in combination resulting in the development of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a much higher concordance rate in genetically identical (monozygotic) twins compared to non-identical (dizygotic) twins, which suggests a strong genetic input. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • It is well known that DNA is the blueprint for the building blocks of life, but actually most of the genetic information in a cell codes for nothing, and has unknown roles. (elifesciences.org)
  • It can also be genetic (present from birth) or idiopathic (no known cause). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two recent reviews suggested that the evidence was strongest for two genes known as dysbindin (DTNBP1) and neuregulin (NRG1), and that a number of other genes (such as COMT, RGS4, PPP3CC, ZDHHC8, DISC1, and AKT1) showed some early promising results. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • The sexual differentiation is generally triggered by a main gene (a "sex locus"), with a multitude of other genes following in a domino effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system was based on the theory that there was one gene at a single locus on each chromosome, each contributing to production of multiple antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The resource provides options for replacing missing front tooth, demo forex Rwanda and taxonomic options for replacing missing front tooth, gene ontology mapping, protein match views and protein 3D structure data. (tothepointonline.net)
  • It has been suggested that this RNA gene evolved at least partly from a protein coding gene that became a pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Small changes in diet and exercise, e.g. omega-3 oils, vitamin D, low starch, and maintaining muscle mass, can dramatically alter predisposition to disease and aging, and minimize the negative impact of genetic risks. (blogspot.com)
  • In his book Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease, published in 1999, he argues that in the future, all medicine, or medical theory, must be based on the individuality of gene-environment interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently however, quite some large-scale studies have now begun to unravel the genetic underpinnings for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • For an individual cell or lineage the inactivation is therefore skewed or 'non-random', and this can give rise to mild symptoms in female 'carriers' of X-linked genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • In this theory, a gene R1 is supposed to give rise to the "blood factors" Rh0, rh′, and rh″ (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the D, C and E antigens) and the gene r to produce hr′ and hr″ (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the c and e antigens). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Once the SRY gene is activated, cells create testosterone and anti-müllerian hormone which typically ensures the development of a single, male reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • copy
  • Any individual that inherits the mother's normal copy of the STS gene will be unaffected and will have an extremely low chance of having a child affected with this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • However, when an extra DAX1 gene is placed on the X, the result is a female, despite the existence of SRY. (wikipedia.org)
  • On November 3, 2010, scientists announced the discovery of a female Boa constrictor that can produce offspring without mating and, through such asexual reproduction, produced 22 female offspring, all with a WW chromosome genetic makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Bombyx mori (the commercial silkworm), the W chromosome carries the female-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Although twin studies and family studies have indicated a large degree of heritability for schizophrenia, the exact genetic causes remain unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have suggested an X linked gene or genes that control this effect, but the exact gene has not yet been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • His later studies revealed the existence of two distinct replicon types and assisted in a wider understanding of the non-coding hsromega gene and its essential functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • Despite the fact that SRY seems to be the main gene in determining male characteristics, it requires the action of multiple genes to develop testes. (wikipedia.org)