• encodes
  • Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis
  • A new approach to inhibiting cancer growth that shows great promise for structure-based drug development is targeting enzymes central to cellular mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jingyan Fu, Minglei Bian, Qing Jiang, and Chuanmao Zhang Roles of Aurora Kinases in Mitosis and Tumorigenesis Mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on Chk1 deficient chicken lymphoma cells have shown increased levels of genomic instability and failure to arrest during the spindle checkpoint phase in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physical mechanism that guarantees the accurate segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis arises from the ring shaped cohesin complex consisting of 4 subunits (SMC1A/B, SMC3, SCC1, and SA1/2 in humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • After chromatin undergoes changes in telophase of mitosis, the hexameric protein complex of MCM proteins 2-7 forms part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) by binding to the chromatin and other aiding proteins (Cdc6 and Cdt1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal segregation during mitosis as well as meiosis is regulated by kinases and phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora A and Aurora B kinases play important roles in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ataxia
  • Previous studies have shown that the replication checkpoint, which involves the kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) and Chk1, contributes to cytarabine resistance in cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • KAT5 is an important enzyme for repairing DNA and returning cellular function to normal through its regulation of ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The kinase discovered, Eg2, is now referred to as Aurora A. It was not until 1998, however, that Aurora A's meiotic and mitotic importance was realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Aurora-A Kinase Regulates Telomerase Activity through c-Myc in Human Ovarian and Breast Epithelial Cells Cancer Res. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aurora A kinase is associated with centrosome maturation and separation and thereby regulates spindle assembly and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PER/TIM heterodimer negatively regulates transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • We analyzed the association between p.I157T and the clinico-pathological breast cancer characteristics by comparing the p.I157T carrier tumors to non-carrier and c.1100delC carrier tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, we explored the p.I157T-associated genomic gene expression profile using data from breast tumors of 183 Finnish female breast cancer patients (ten p.I157T carriers) (GEO: GSE24450). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tumors were classified into molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen 2013 criteria and the PAM50 gene expression signature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis suggested luminal A to be the most common subtype for p.I157T carriers and CDH1 (cadherin 1) target genes to be significantly enriched among genes, whose expression differed between p.I157T and non-carrier tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This can eventually lead to malignant tumors, or cancer as per the two hit hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the scientists found that restoring RASSF1A function to implanted human cancer cells prevented them from developing into tumors in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, Aurora kinases are known to be oncogenic and overexpressed in various forms of cancerous growth, including leukemia, colon cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of this gene product may be associated with neoplastic transformation for some tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Altered expression of the INT6 gene, encoding the e subunit of the translational initiation factor eIF3, occurs in human breast cancers, but how INT6 relates to carcinogenesis remains unestablished. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of cyclin kinase subunit 2 in human breast cancer and its prognostic significance. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Oncogenic potential of cyclin kinase subunit-2 in cholangiocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2, also known as ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RRM2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, telomere lengthening in cancer cells by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism has also been shown to be dependent on MRN, especially on the Nbs1 subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • The same gene called Rad27 was identified in budding yeast by Carr and associates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous kinetochore targets of Aurora kinases have been determined in organisms ranging from yeast to man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments done jointly by the Weitz, Young, and Sehgal labs using yeast 2-hybrid proved that TIM directly binds with PER. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • Activation of Chk1 results in the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage induces the activation of Chk1 which facilitates the initiation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The DNA damage response is a network of signaling pathways that leads to activation of checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis to inhibit damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate cancer
  • It is an integral membrane protein that is abundantly and preferentially expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells ," said Warren D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The growth of prostate cancer cells can be halted by combining a form of vitamin D, available only by prescription, with low doses of an over-the-counter painkiller, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Targeting Aurora Kinases for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • This characterization has facilitated the identification of cancer cell lines that are more clinically relevant for biological experiments as well as drug research and development. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, we review relevant information available in numerous studies that encompass the characterization of the different breast cancer cell lines available at Asterand US. (hindawi.com)
  • overexpression
  • Intriguingly, EB1 overexpression enhances Aurora B kinase activity, at least in part because EB1 blocks the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Aurora B by protein phosphatase 2A. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, upregulation of MRN complex sub-units has been documented in certain cancer cell lines when compared to non-malignant somatic cells, suggesting some cancer cells have developed a reliance on MRN overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. (mdpi.com)
  • human
  • Canine mammary carcinomas have epidemiologic, clinical, morphologic and prognostic features similar to those of human breast cancer and therefore represent a comparative model to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in both species [ 4 - 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human tumor-derived cell lines grown in vitro and in vivo are important models to study cancer development, progression, and therapeutic response and resistance to anticancer drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Morphology of MCF10DCIS and human breast cancer cell line in culture. (hindawi.com)
  • Identification of Stk6/STK15 as a candidate low-penetrance tumor susceptibility gene in mouse and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-15a/16-1 deletion has been shown to accelerate the proliferation of both human and mouse B-cells through modulation of the expression of genes controlling cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, KAT5 reacts with human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • In the present study, we examined whether this checkpoint is activated in clinical acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) during cytarabine infusion in vivo and then assessed the impact of combining cytarabine with the recently described Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Polizzotti and coworkers [ 2 ] used six (MCF10 series) in vitro cultures including MCF10DCIS to mimic the three grades of breast cancer along the metastatic cascade namely, nonmalignant, noninvasive carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • ovarian
  • A single tumor-suppressing gene is a key to understanding--and perhaps killing--dormant ovarian cancer cells that hide out after initial treatment, only to reawaken years later, report researchers at the University of Texas M. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another PLK4 inhibitor, CFI-400945 has demonstrated efficacy in animal models of breast and ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • The role of asbestos as a separate carcinogen in lung cancer was also described and, even more dramatically, combining cigarette smoking with asbestos increased the risk of lung cancer from 10- to almost 100-fold over that of the unexposed [ 12 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Colon cancer Lung cancer Breast cancer Pancreatic Gastric cancer Metastatic melanoma Studies have also shown that KAT5 augmented the ability of chemotherapy to stop tumor growth, demonstrating its potential for use in combination therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same is basically true for lung cancers where a correlation with survival was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • cells once believed to be peculiar to cancers, but now know to be epithelial cells differing in no respect from those found elsewhere in the body, and distinguished only by peculiarity of location and grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer cells that have traveled to new locations in the body and grown there cause most cancer pain and cancer-related deaths. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It matches the performance of FBS for cancer cells grown in suspension and eliminates some of the challenges associated with FBS, such as lot-to-lot variability, validating, sourcing and multiple-lot storing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shirly Sieh, a PhD student at IHBI, is studying the way cancer cells escape from the prostate through the bloodstream to form tumour colonies, most often in the spine and long bones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditional cancer therapies are nonspecific, designed to kill the cancer cells -- and everything else in its path. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva) attacks cells by blocking a receptor protein that's abundant on the surface of some cancer cells (SN: 8/27/05, p. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGF β and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. (mdpi.com)
  • these cells have been termed cancer stem cells (CSC) [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • However, for the last several years the relevance of cell lines in clinical cancer research has been criticized due to the properties of cell lines that differ when compared with primary tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • MCF10DCIS.com is a clonal breast cancer cell line derived from a xenograft originating from premalignant MCF10AT cells that were injected into severe combined immune-deficient mice. (hindawi.com)
  • CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions including the migration and invasion of cancer cells and has been used as a key cancer stem cell-surface marker in various malignancies including breast cancer [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The mutator genes are required for DNA replication and repair in normal cells. (coursehero.com)
  • this means that most eukaryotic cells have the Cdc7 kinase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004).[supplied by OMIM] In cancerous cells, over-expression of these enzymes causes unequal distribution of genetic information, creating aneuploid cells, a hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, cells deficient in topoisomerase II show significantly reduced Aurora B kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSP90AB1 and its co-chaperones are frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast cancers
  • Our findings reveal unexpected and striking connections of INT6 with ATM and BRCA1 and suggest that the protective action of INT6 in the onset of breast cancers relies on its involvement in the DNA damage response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • replication
  • Recombinational repair (RR) is done at this point to try to fix the CDC7 gene so replication can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activation of MCM 2 leads to helicase activity of the MCM complex at the origin of replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. (wikipedia.org)
  • KAT5 acetylates histones on genes of these transcription factors, which promote their activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timeless mRNA and protein oscillate rhythmically with time as part of a transcription-translation negative feedback loop involving the period (per) gene and its protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ends the PER/TIM repression of the CLK/CYC-mediated transcription of per and tim genes, allowing per and tim mRNA to be produced to restart the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • Calculation 1: The probability that the sample actually has the cancer DNA sequence, given a positive diagnostic signal. (openwetware.org)
  • The probability that the sample actually has a non-cancer DNA sequence, given a negative diagnostic signal. (openwetware.org)
  • Kinome Cyclin-dependent kinase Signal transduction Andrews PD, Knatko E, Moore WJ, Swedlow JR. Mitotic mechanics: the auroras come into view. (wikipedia.org)