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  • systems
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • cell cycle
  • Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G 2 / M phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • ataxia
  • Previous studies have shown that the replication checkpoint, which involves the kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) and Chk1, contributes to cytarabine resistance in cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CHEK2 functions downstream of ATM (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) to phosphorylate several substrates, including TP53 (Tumour protein p53), Cdc25C (Cell division cycle 25C) and BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset), leading to cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair or apoptosis in response to DNA double-stranded breaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent to the discovery of CHEK2*1100delC , additional moderate-risk variants were identified in candidate genes including ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), partner and localiser of BRCA2 ( PALB2 ) and BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 ( BRIP1 ). (clinlabint.com)
  • KAT5 is an important enzyme for repairing DNA and returning cellular function to normal through its regulation of ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis
  • Combining the two analyses revealed that mitosis-related kinases were critical determinants of medulloblastoma cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new approach to inhibiting cancer growth that shows great promise for structure-based drug development is targeting enzymes central to cellular mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jingyan Fu, Minglei Bian, Qing Jiang, and Chuanmao Zhang Roles of Aurora Kinases in Mitosis and Tumorigenesis Mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on Chk1 deficient chicken lymphoma cells have shown increased levels of genomic instability and failure to arrest during the spindle checkpoint phase in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physical mechanism that guarantees the accurate segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis arises from the ring shaped cohesin complex consisting of 4 subunits (SMC1A/B, SMC3, SCC1, and SA1/2 in humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xenopus, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, on the other hand, contain orthologues only to Aurora A and Aurora B. In all studied species, the three Aurora mitotic kinases localize to the centrosome during different phases of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora A and Aurora B kinases play important roles in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • After chromatin undergoes changes in telophase of mitosis, the hexameric protein complex of MCM proteins 2-7 forms part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) by binding to the chromatin and other aiding proteins (Cdc6 and Cdt1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal segregation during mitosis as well as meiosis is regulated by kinases and phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • aurora kinase
  • So far three Aurora-kinase inhibitors have been described: ZM447439, Hesperadin and VX-680. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains three members the Aurora kinase family: Aurora A kinase, Aurora B kinase and Aurora C kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora kinase B localizes to microtubules near kinetochores, specifically to the specialized microtubules called K-fibers, and Aurora kinase A (MIM 603072) localizes to centrosomes (Lampson et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, Aurora kinase B was identified in humans by a polymerase chain reaction screen for kinases that are overexpressed in cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year, rat Aurora kinase B was identified in a screen designed to find kinases that altered S. cerevisiae proliferation when overexpressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • We analyzed the association between p.I157T and the clinico-pathological breast cancer characteristics by comparing the p.I157T carrier tumors to non-carrier and c.1100delC carrier tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, we explored the p.I157T-associated genomic gene expression profile using data from breast tumors of 183 Finnish female breast cancer patients (ten p.I157T carriers) (GEO: GSE24450). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tumors were classified into molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen 2013 criteria and the PAM50 gene expression signature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis suggested luminal A to be the most common subtype for p.I157T carriers and CDH1 (cadherin 1) target genes to be significantly enriched among genes, whose expression differed between p.I157T and non-carrier tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This can eventually lead to malignant tumors, or cancer as per the two hit hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the scientists found that restoring RASSF1A function to implanted human cancer cells prevented them from developing into tumors in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, Aurora kinases are known to be oncogenic and overexpressed in various forms of cancerous growth, including leukemia, colon cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of this gene product may be associated with neoplastic transformation for some tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The kinase discovered, Eg2, is now referred to as Aurora A. It was not until 1998, however, that Aurora A's meiotic and mitotic importance was realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • Altered expression of the INT6 gene, encoding the e subunit of the translational initiation factor eIF3, occurs in human breast cancers, but how INT6 relates to carcinogenesis remains unestablished. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since CHEK2 plays a key role in the DNA damage pathway, loss of function of the protein may allow cells to evade normal cell cycle checkpoints, ultimately leading to tumour initiation or progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of Chk1 results in the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 is required for the initiation of DNA damage checkpoints and has recently been shown to play a role in the normal (unperturbed) cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage induces the activation of Chk1 which facilitates the initiation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • As of February 2018, neXtProt has integrated the GO biological processes annotations captured in the framework of this project, representing both the signaling pathways in which each kinase is implicated, as well as the role of those pathways in higher level processes, such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and development. (mdpi.com)
  • The DNA damage response is a network of signaling pathways that leads to activation of checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis to inhibit damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chek2
  • P.I157T is a CHEK2 missense mutation associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previously, another CHEK2 mutation, the protein truncating c.1100delC has been associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Checkpoint kinase 2 ( CHEK2 ) is a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple studies have shown that a CHEK2*1100delC confers about a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer in unselected females and a 10-fold increase in males 4,5 . (cityofhope.org)
  • Moreover, studies have shown that first-degree relatives of bilateral breast cancer cases who carried the CHEK2*1100delC allele had an eight-fold increased risk of breast cancer 6 . (cityofhope.org)
  • A CHEK2 mutation was also reported in 18.2% families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) 15 and was associated with a two-fold increased risk of colon cancer 16,17 . (cityofhope.org)
  • We aimed to assess whether CHEK2 was subject to DAE in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from high-risk breast cancer patients for whom no mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 had been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As part of an international breast cancer genetics study aiming to investigate candidate genes conferring an intermediate-risk of breast cancer, we mutation screened the coding exons and the adjacent proximal introns of CHEK2 in 1415 cases and 1204 controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A description of the CHEK2 gene, it's associated SNP, and the cancer-related function of the gene. (openwetware.org)
  • This variant was discovered using a combination of linkage and mutation screening in a large multiple-case breast cancer family from the Netherlands, followed by analysis of the CHEK2*110delC variant in high-risk breast cancer families, 'unselected' breast cancer cases and controls . (clinlabint.com)
  • In 1999, genetic variations of CHEK2 were found to correspond to inherited cancer susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond initial speculations, screening of LFS and LFL patients has revealed no or very rare individual missense variants in the CHEK2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evidence from these studies has suggests that CHEK2 is not a predisposition gene to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that a CHEK2 1100delC corresponds to a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer and a 10-fold increased risk of breast cancer in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CHEK2 mutation known as the I157T variant to the FHA domain in exon 3 has also been linked to breast cancer but at a lower risk than the CHEK2*1100delC mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate cancer
  • It is an integral membrane protein that is abundantly and preferentially expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells ," said Warren D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The growth of prostate cancer cells can be halted by combining a form of vitamin D, available only by prescription, with low doses of an over-the-counter painkiller, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Targeting Aurora Kinases for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Expression of cyclin kinase subunit 2 in human breast cancer and its prognostic significance. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, telomere lengthening in cancer cells by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism has also been shown to be dependent on MRN, especially on the Nbs1 subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2, also known as ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RRM2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • In addition a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed to identify kinases that, when inhibited, could prevent cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • miR-15a/16-1 deletion has been shown to accelerate the proliferation of both human and mouse B-cells through modulation of the expression of genes controlling cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been linked to premature cell cycle arrest, through impaired proliferation of heart muscle fibres and through repressed mitotic gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (jax.org)
  • Differential gene expression analysis was performed using a moderated t test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression profiling in 16 medulloblastoma patient samples and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis indicated that cell cycle-related kinases were associated with disease development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alteration in gene expression regulation provides a potential mechanism for generating disease susceptibility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The detection of differential allelic expression (DAE) represents a sensitive assay to direct the search for a functional sequence variant within the transcriptional regulatory elements of a candidate gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Key features of SDX-105 activity include its lack of cross-resistance with other DNA-alkylating agents and the unique gene expression profile it induces when compared to other 2-chloroethylamine alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CKS2 mRNA expression was higher in cancer tissue than in corresponding normal tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears to increase during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The miR-15 microRNA precursor family is made up of small non-coding RNA genes that regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of miR-15a is associated with survival in triple negative breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004).[supplied by OMIM] In cancerous cells, over-expression of these enzymes causes unequal distribution of genetic information, creating aneuploid cells, a hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The concomitant down-regulation of mitotic checkpoint genes and the induction of DNA damage by SDX-105 may amplify the cytotoxicity of SDX-105 through a necrotic cell death pathway and hence its activity in tumor cells where classical apoptotic pathways are inhibited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Cdc7 kinase is involved in regulation of the cell cycle at the point of chromosomal DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Homozygous mutation of this gene does not increase tumor incidence. (jax.org)
  • This approach would be of great interest for high-throughput mutation screening projects aiming to identify genes carrying functional regulatory polymorphisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mutation induces a premature stop codon in exon 10, and causes the truncation of the protein at codon 381 thus abrogating its kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the time of this discovery, two of the three variants (a deletion in the kinase domain in exon 10 and a missense mutation in the FHA domain in exon 3) have been linked to inherited susceptibility to breast as well as other cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • The same gene called Rad27 was identified in budding yeast by Carr and associates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous kinetochore targets of Aurora kinases have been determined in organisms ranging from yeast to man. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast
  • We included in the analyses 26,801 European female breast cancer patients from 15 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, we investigated the p.I157T associated risk of early death, breast cancer-associated death, distant metastasis, locoregional relapse and second breast cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings reveal unexpected and striking connections of INT6 with ATM and BRCA1 and suggest that the protective action of INT6 in the onset of breast cancers relies on its involvement in the DNA damage response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, the risk is elevated for certain missense variants of ATM (T7271G and L1420F) because these alleles are sufficiently penetrant to generate multiple case breast cancer families ( 10-13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 3 MRE11 , RAD50 , and NBS1 genes are all considered as hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes as well ( 16-18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, approximately 70% of familial breast cancers remain unexplained by currently known predisposition genes, suggestive of existence of other breast cancer susceptibility genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that this gene is critical for preventing breast carcinogenesis in mice and humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The loge of the breast cancer odds ratio (y-axis) is plotted against the minor allele frequency (MAF, x-axis) for the common low-penetrance variants identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and large collaborative studies. (clinlabint.com)
  • Over the last twenty-five years, breast cancer genetics has moved from linkage in high-risk families to association in population-based studies. (clinlabint.com)
  • These variants were discovered by sequencing of exons and exon/intron boundaries of DNA damage repair genes in breast cancer cases from high- and moderate-risk families. (clinlabint.com)
  • The estimated fraction of breast cancer attributed to this variant is reported to be around 1.2% in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canine mammary carcinomas have epidemiologic, clinical, morphologic and prognostic features similar to those of human breast cancer and therefore represent a comparative model to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in both species [ 4 - 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Colon cancer Lung cancer Breast cancer Pancreatic Gastric cancer Metastatic melanoma Studies have also shown that KAT5 augmented the ability of chemotherapy to stop tumor growth, demonstrating its potential for use in combination therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • However, upregulation of MRN complex sub-units has been documented in certain cancer cell lines when compared to non-malignant somatic cells, suggesting some cancer cells have developed a reliance on MRN overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intriguingly, EB1 overexpression enhances Aurora B kinase activity, at least in part because EB1 blocks the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Aurora B by protein phosphatase 2A. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. (mdpi.com)
  • Cells
  • The Cornell study involved mice bred for a gene variation called Trip13, which is known to interrupt the recombination process, resulting in damaged eggs and sperm cells for use in the study. (babymed.com)
  • cells once believed to be peculiar to cancers, but now know to be epithelial cells differing in no respect from those found elsewhere in the body, and distinguished only by peculiarity of location and grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer cells that have traveled to new locations in the body and grown there cause most cancer pain and cancer-related deaths. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It matches the performance of FBS for cancer cells grown in suspension and eliminates some of the challenges associated with FBS, such as lot-to-lot variability, validating, sourcing and multiple-lot storing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shirly Sieh, a PhD student at IHBI, is studying the way cancer cells escape from the prostate through the bloodstream to form tumour colonies, most often in the spine and long bones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditional cancer therapies are nonspecific, designed to kill the cancer cells -- and everything else in its path. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva) attacks cells by blocking a receptor protein that's abundant on the surface of some cancer cells (SN: 8/27/05, p. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGF β and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. (mdpi.com)
  • these cells have been termed cancer stem cells (CSC) [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • this means that most eukaryotic cells have the Cdc7 kinase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, cells deficient in topoisomerase II show significantly reduced Aurora B kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSP90AB1 and its co-chaperones are frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • The role of asbestos as a separate carcinogen in lung cancer was also described and, even more dramatically, combining cigarette smoking with asbestos increased the risk of lung cancer from 10- to almost 100-fold over that of the unexposed [ 12 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • The same is basically true for lung cancers where a correlation with survival was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Science Daily, 3/29/10 - 'chronic phenytoin administration modulates the expression of genes involved in mood regulation and genes that are targets of established mood stabilizers' - So Jack Dreyfus was right. (qualitycounts.com)
  • mitosis
  • E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that functions in the antephase checkpoint by actively delaying passage into mitosis in response to microtubule poisons. (abcam.com)
  • Methylation of histones is important biologically because it is the principal epigenetic modification of chromatin that determines gene expression, genomic stability, stem cell maturation, cell lineage development, genetic imprinting, DNA methylation, and cell mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved, leading to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • This model has ensured that its researchers can engage across the spectrum of cancer research, focusing on emerging fields (such as cancer genomics), and in areas that have recently achieved clinical validation (such as cancer immunotherapy), while retaining access to fields that have already yielded several new cancer therapies and continue to do so today (such as cell signaling). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a combined decision, members of the FDA's Oncology Drug Advisory Committee and Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee voted 22-1 to recommend approval of the oncolytic immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, now these technologies have been thoroughly developed, cancer is still a major cause of mortality and there is still a need for novel cancer therapies, this sidelined therapy has now gained renewed interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations in the gene
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Introduction Prion diseases are fatal degenerative disorders of the Crenolanib central nervous system (CNS) that can arise sporadically, become genetically inherited due to mutations in the gene encoding the prion protein (PrP), or acquired through illness . (stopvivisection.info)
  • mammals
  • The investigators demonstrated that this was a direct result of action by an enzyme, called in mammals checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2), whose normal role is exclusively in regulating the cell division cycle. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and mammals express two functional SphK isoenzymes, SphK1 and SphK2. (docplayer.net)
  • The numb gene protein product controls binary cell fate decisions in the peripheral and central nervous systems of both invertebrates and mammals during neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following ligand binding of the Notch receptor, the intracellular fragment of Notch (NICD, or notch intracellular domain) is released into the cytoplasm and transported to the nucleus, where it can form a complex with binding partners such as EP300 and histone acetyltransferase and act as a transcription factor for Notch target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • For this study, the researchers cloned the gene based on its position in the genome, and found it was an important cell cycle regulator. (rxpgnews.com)
  • When they eliminated the gene from the genome, the clock was normal, indicating that the mutation interfered in some way with the clock, rather than supplying something that the clock normally needs to run. (rxpgnews.com)
  • c-Abl is sometimes used to refer to the version of the gene found within the mammalian genome, while v-Abl refers to the viral gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elevation of DNA-PKcs is thought to reflect the induction of a compensatory DNA repair capability, due to the genome instability in these cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • P53, combined with the Ras pathway, downregulate cyclin D1, a cyclin-dependent kinase if they are not stimulated by the presence of mitogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon the decision to progress past the G1 checkpoint, cyclin D levels rise, and cyclin D forms a complex with CDK4 and CDK6, which in turn phosphorylate the pocket proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). (wikipedia.org)
  • hypermethylation
  • However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer through the dysregulation of cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • preferentially
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we report that the expression of Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1) protein was preferentially elevated in MPM tumor tissues (49 epithelioid and 13 sarcomatoid) compared to normal tissue (n = 13). (docplayer.net)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora
  • Phosphorylation is a key regulatory role in centrosome maturation and it is thought that Polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases are responsible for this phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • For both of these programs, Vertex research has demonstrated efficacy in relevant pre-clinical models, including demonstration of combination potential with immune checkpoint inhibition for the immuno-oncology program. (enhancedonlinenews.com)
  • upstream
  • Fusion transcripts with upstream genes such as MDS1/EVI1 (ME), AML1/MDS1/EVI1 (AME), ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 have all been identified The MECOM is primarily found in the nucleus, either soluble or bound to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, also known as DNA-PKcs, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the gene designated as PRKDC or XRCC7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crossover junction endonuclease MUS81 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MUS81 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • The G1 checkpoint is controlled most directly by mitogens: further cell cycle progression does not need mitogens to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include: Cell growth and division absent the proper signals Continuous growth and division even given contrary signals Avoidance of programmed cell death Limitless number of cell divisions Promoting blood vessel construction Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each checkpoint serves as a potential point along the cell cycle, during which the conditions of the cell are assessed, with progression through the various phases of the cell cycle occurring when favorable conditions are met. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunotherapy
  • The strength of the oncology R&D program at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, including a leading presence in immunotherapy and DNA damage and repair, demonstrates how the company is re-imagining the way cancer can be treated. (enhancedonlinenews.com)
  • favorable conditions
  • Ludwig believed that tackling the problem of cancer required the best minds operating in the most favorable conditions with the best resources to accomplish the task. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The cancer form series of molecular events that alter the properties of normal cells. (pulsusconference.com)
  • CAR T cells continue to make waves: At the latest annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, it was announced that CAR T cells, in which T cells from a patient are genetically reprogrammed to target cancer cells, removed all traces of cancer in the bone marrow of 27 out of 29 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. (hemacare.com)
  • When cancer cells are deficient in ATM the cells are "addicted" to DNA-PKcs, important in the alternative DNA repair pathway for double-strand breaks, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chimeric gene of AML1-MDS1-EVI1 (AME) formed by the chromosomal translocation (3;21)(q26;q22) has also been shown in vitro to upregulate the cell cycle and block granulocytic differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells, as well as to delay the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • the very frequent development of an immune response, while harmless to the patient, destroyed the virus and thus prevented it from destroying the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Furthermore, high cellular degrees of COX are generally used being a marker for malignant breasts cancer tumor (6,10,12). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Conclusions/Significance: The lipid kinase SphK1 plays a positive and essential role in the growth and development of malignant mesothelioma and is therefore a likely therapeutic target. (docplayer.net)
  • trigger
  • On its own, DNA-PKcs is inactive and relies on Ku to direct it to DNA ends and trigger its kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)