• vitro
  • Taken together, these data suggest that itraconazole has potent and selective inhibitory activity against multiple key aspects of tumor-associated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo , and strongly support clinical translation of its use. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiC, an EpCAM aptamer linked to an siRNA sense strand and annealed to the siRNA antisense strand) are selectively taken up and knock down gene expression in EpCAM + cancer cells in vitro and in human cancer biopsy tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PLK1 EpCAM-AsiCs inhibit colony and mammosphere formation ( in vitro TIC assays) and tumor initiation by EpCAM + luminal and basal-A triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, but not EpCAM − mesenchymal basal-B TNBCs, in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In summary, we have used in vitro and in vivo models systems to identify key interactions within populations of tumors cells, as well as between tumor microenvironmental components and cancer cells, to identify mechanisms that influence tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug response. (harvard.edu)
  • Additional genes that have been shown, either by in vitro or in vivo studies, to be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms include leptin, SOCS3, glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In autologous cancer immunotherapy, T cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and returned to the same patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description of T cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) in 1976 allowed T lymphocytes to be grown in vitro, often without loss of effector functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro applications are possible provided the classifier molecule can be safely integrated into cultured cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in mouse and human epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though T-cadherin can mediate weak adhesion in aggregation assays in vitro, the lack of intracellular domain suggests that T-cadherin is not involved in stable cell-cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike 2D environments (e.g. a petri dish), a 3D cell culture allows cells in vitro to grow in all directions, similar to how they would in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies in the 80's, led by Mina Bissell from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, highlighted the importance of 3D techniques for creating accurate in vitro culturing models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eric Simon, in a 1988 NIH SBIR grant report, showed that electrospinning could be used to produced nano- and submicron-scale polystyrene and polycarbonate fibrous mats (now known as scaffolds) specifically intended for use as in vitro cell substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Within tissues, IGFBP-3 can bind IGF-1 and IGF-2 released by many cell types, and block their access to the IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), which is activated by both IGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • The antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab has been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although the survival benefit associated with this agent is marginal, and toxicities and cost are substantial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this article, we define and characterize the antiangiogenic and anticancer activities of itraconazole in relevant preclinical models of angiogenesis and lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The only antiangiogenic therapy currently approved for use in lung cancer is the α-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A landmark phase III clinical study, ECOG 4599, randomized patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to a standard chemotherapy doublet with or without bevacizumab ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocytes infiltrating the stroma of growing, transplantable tumors provided a concentrated source of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and could stimulate regression of established lung and liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2015 the technique had expanded to treat cervical cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, bile duct cancer and neuroblastoma and in 2016, lung cancer, breast cancer, sarcoma and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The short, stubby tail of the T7-like phages is too short to span the cell envelope and, in order to eject the phage genome into the cell at the initiation of infection, virion proteins must first make a channel from the tip of the tail into the cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genetic selection scheme remains one of the standard methods to establish transfected CHO cell lines for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHO cells are the most common mammalian cell line used for mass production of therapeutic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHO cells are also suitable for human applications, as they allow post translational modifications to recombinant proteins which can function in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGFBP-3 also interacts with cell-surface proteins, affecting cell signaling from outside the cell or after internalization, and also enters the cell nucleus where it binds to nuclear hormone receptors and other ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • biopsy
  • Despite all recent advances, intra-tumor heterogeneity is poorly understood, and it still represents the main challenge to judge how representative the analysis of a small biopsy is. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trafficking to tumor tissues was confirmed in a tumor biopsy from one of three patients. (springer.com)
  • If a large polyp or tumor is found, a biopsy may be performed to check if it is cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin lesions may be difficult to diagnose clinically but a punch biopsy will usually reveal a Grenz zone separating the tumour from the overlying skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • multicellular
  • Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work focused on the importance of the extracellular matrix and the ability of cultures in artificial 3D matrices to produce physiologically relevant multicellular structures, such as acinar structures in healthy and cancerous breast tissue models. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, lymphodepletion using a nonmyeloablative chemotherapy regimen administered immediately before TIL transfer increased cancer regression, as well as the persistent oligoclonal repopulation of the host with the transferred lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • We then investigated the potential of genes highly expressed in cancer cells with faster growth as new therapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anchorage-independent cell growth was evaluated by colony formation in soft agar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although many putative regulators of angiogenesis have been identified, 2 secreted factors, VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), have been, in particular, strongly implicated in tumor-associated angiogenesis ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subcutaneously administered EpCAM-AsiCs concentrate in EpCAM + Her2 + and TNBC tumors and suppress their growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our model revealed that tumor growth can be driven by a minor clone, expressing IL11, in a non-cell autonomous fashion mediated through the microenvironment. (harvard.edu)
  • A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, CHO cells were mutagenized with gamma radiation to yield a cell line in which both alleles of the DHFR locus were completely eliminated, termed CHO-DG44 These DHFR-deficient strains require glycine, hypoxanthine, and thymidine for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third dimension of cell growth provides more contact space for mechanical inputs and for cell adhesion, which is necessary for integrin ligation, cell contraction and even intracellular signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2D, the cells must undergo regular trypsinization in order to provide them with sufficient nutrients for normal cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D spheroids have been cultured in a lab setting for up to 302 days while still maintaining healthy, non-cancerous growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • No cases of IGFBP3 gene deletion in humans have been reported, but mice lacking the gene show near-normal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • benign
  • It typically starts as a benign tumor, often in the form of a polyp, which over time becomes cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lesions, which are typically painful and most often present during the third decade of life, are piloleiomyomata-a benign smooth muscle tumour arising from the arrectores pilorum muscles of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Researchers based at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Center for Engineering in Medicine and the MGH Cancer Center have created a microchip device, called the CTC-iChip, which can capture circulating tumor cells in order to track ongoing genetic mutation within a tumor. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The focus of this study was to examine the CTC-iChip and determine if the device could properly capture CTCs to aid the formation of cell lines to represent the genetic status of all existing tumor sites. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Circulating tumor cells captured with a microchip-based device developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Center for Engineering in Medicine and the MGH Cancer Center can be cultured to establish cell lines for genetic analysis and drug testing. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Most colorectal cancers are due to old age and lifestyle factors with only a small number of cases due to underlying genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greater than 75-95% of colorectal cancer occurs in people with little or no genetic risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells had four genetic modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell lines with mutated DHFR are useful for genetic manipulation as cells transfected with a gene of interest along with a functional copy of the dhfr gene can easily be screened for in thymidine-lacking medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the genetic manipulation done in CHO cells is done in cells lacking DHFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are a big part of genetic variation in the human genome, and copy number variation (CNV), pose problems in single cell sequencing, as well as the limited amount of DNA extracted from a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most of the Hippo pathway components were identified in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) using mosaic genetic screens, orthologs to these components (genes that function analogously in different species) have subsequently been found in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Epigenetic modification of these genes may lead to "metabolic programming" of the fetus and result in long-term changes in metabolism and energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications that occur during development may not be expressed until later in life depending on the function of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneous
  • Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, having not only several intrinsic sub-types but also significant sub-clonal heterogeneity within tumors. (harvard.edu)
  • human
  • Altogether, our findings indicate that deactivation of human monocytes in the presence of tumor cells involves IRAK-M up-regulation, and this effect appears to be mediated by hyaluronan through the engagement of CD44 and TLR4. (jimmunol.org)
  • Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A). (biomedcentral.com)
  • All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar to our previous observations in human bladder cancer cells, Boswellia sacra essential oil induces breast cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • T7 has been tested on human osteosarcoma to treat tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nonviral vector contains a T7 autogene, T7T7, and a human herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene driven by a second T7 promoter (T7TK). (wikipedia.org)
  • When co-transfected with T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) into cultured human osteosarcoma 143B cells, about 10-20% of the cells were found to express HSV-TK, and more than 90% of the cells were killed in the presence of 1 microM ganciclovir (GCV) within 4 days after DNA transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently it has been discovered that small RNA can trigger specific gene silencing in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical human cell consists of about 3.3 billion base pairs of DNA and 600 million bases of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • As many cancers are marked by unchecked cell division, this signaling pathway has become increasingly significant in the study of human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-3) a locus commonly deleted in various tumor entities and human cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF
  • The clinical management of colorectal cancer patients has significantly improved because of the identification of novel therapeutic targets such as EGFR and VEGF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • VEGF and bFGF interact with distinct families of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTK) on the surface of endothelial cells and activate multiple downstream signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Methods
  • Usually a mix of millions of cells are used in sequencing the DNA or RNA using traditional methods like Sanger sequencing or Illumina sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the platforms can be classified in two types of 3D culturing methods: 1) scaffold techniques and 2) scaffold-free techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, there are two types of 3D culture methods: scaffold techniques and scaffold-free techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several methods for generating immortalized cell lines: Isolation from a naturally occurring cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • In trial C-9702, CART72 cells were administered via direct hepatic artery infusion in patients with colorectal liver metastases. (springer.com)
  • Effective therapeutic strategies for in vivo siRNA delivery to knockdown genes in cells outside the liver are needed to harness RNA interference for treating cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent early-phase clinical trials have shown vigorous (75%-95%), sustained (lasting up to several months) and safe knockdown of a handful of gene targets in the liver using lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated or GalNAc-conjugated siRNAs ( 2-5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The major obstacle to harnessing RNAi for treating most diseases, however, has yet to be solved, namely efficient delivery of small RNAs and gene knockdown in cells beyond the liver. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rat liver IGFBP-3 mRNA is found in nonparenchymal cells including sinusoidal endothelium, but not in hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • These cancers present earlier than is usual for renal cell carcinomas (typically in the twenties and thirties) and to be at relatively advanced stages at presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was noted that as opposed to the flattened morphology typically seen in 2D culture, cells grown on the electrospun fibers exhibited a more histotypic rounded 3-dimensional morphology generally observed in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Like typical NGS experiments, the protocols of single cell sequencing generally contain the following steps: isolation of a single cell, nucleic acid extraction and amplification, sequencing library preparation, sequencing and bioinformatic data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • We also found that non-cell autonomous driving and clonal interference stabilizes sub-clonal heterogeneity, thereby enabling inter-clonal interactions leading to new phenotypic traits. (harvard.edu)
  • We believe that these findings will increase our understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity and enable us to design better therapeutic regimens to eradicate the disease. (harvard.edu)
  • cytotoxic
  • Although blood monocytes possess significant cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, tumor-infiltrating monocytes are commonly deactivated in cancer patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • The protective influence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TIMs) is depressed in cancer patients ( 9 , 10 ), as tumors counteract the cytotoxic and proinflammatory activities of TIMs in their local environments ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • commonly
  • The cells are most commonly derived from the immune system with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The renal cell carcinoma tends to be of the papillary (type 2) form and tends to occur more commonly in women than men with this syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • Aptamer-linked siRNAs, known as aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiC), have been used in small animal models to treat prostate cancer and prevent HIV infection ( 10-18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • uterine
  • It predisposes for renal cell cancer, an association denominated hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, and it is also associated with increased risk of uterine leiomyosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all women present with uterine fibroids, approximately 76% with dermal manifestations and 10-16% with renal tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Consistently, the essential oil represses signaling pathways and cell cycle regulators that have been proposed as therapeutic targets for breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Administration of IL-2 after cell transfer enhanced therapeutic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Symptoms consistent with low-grade, cytokine release syndrome were observed in both trials without clear evidence of on target/off tumor toxicity. (springer.com)
  • Standard 2D, or monolayer, cell cultures are inadequate representations of this environment, which often makes them unreliable predictors of in vivo drug efficacy and toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Daily online exclusives cover late breaking oncology news, safe handling and administration of chemotherapy drugs, side effect management, and new developments in specific cancers. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • Moreover, blood monocytes from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and patients with metastasis also overexpressed IRAK-M. Low concentrations of hyaluronan, a cell surface glycosaminoglycan released by tumor cells, also up-regulated IRAK-M. The induction of IRAK-M by hyaluronan and tumor cells was abolished by incubation with anti-CD44 or anti-TLR4 blocking Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer depend on the location of the tumor in the bowel, and whether it has spread elsewhere in the body (metastasis). (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Angiogenesis, the summation of multiple cellular and biologic processes culminating in the propagation of blood vessels, has been the subject of extensive examination in the context of tumor biology over the past 4 decades since it was first proposed by Judah Folkman in 1971 ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, these phenomena can also be influenced by interactions of cancer cells with those of the microenvironment, thereby adding an extra layer of complexity to the study of tumor biology. (harvard.edu)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Cancers that are confined within the wall of the colon may be curable with surgery while cancer that has spread widely are usually not curable, with management being directed towards improving quality of life and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • By contrast, another IRAK family member, IRAK-M, negatively regulates this pathway, and is up-regulated in cultures of endotoxin-tolerant monocytes and in monocytes from septic patients within the timeframe of tolerance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, the delineation of the pathway in Drosophila has helped to identify many genes that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, researchers announced the first use of donor cells (rather than the patients' own cells) to defeat leukemia in two infants for whom other treatments had failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The CHO and CHO-K1 cell lines can be obtained from a number of biological resource centres such as the European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC) which is part of the Health Protection Agency Culture Collections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 3D cell culture is an artificially created environment in which biological cells are permitted to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-21 (MMP-21) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP21 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • Single cell sequencing examines the sequence information from individual cells with optimized next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, providing a higher resolution of cellular differences and a better understanding of the function of an individual cell in the context of its microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppression
  • Suppression of cellular network formation and disruption of spheroid development of breast cancer cells by Boswellia sacra essential oil suggest that the essential oil may be effective for advanced breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytokines
  • Neutralization of TIMs involves multiple mechanisms, among them the production of certain cytokines and prostaglandins by tumor cells ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)