• Variations
  • Telomeres help maintain chromosomes' integrity during replication and protein production, but a few variations in the TERT gene can causes damaging changes that lead to cancer, City of Hope researchers found. (cityofhope.org)
  • Variations are sometimes mistakenly introduced into genes when they replicate. (cityofhope.org)
  • But, Yao added, "our results show that these genetic variations, which contribute to the function of vitamin D, are strongly associated with ER-negative breast cancer and may contribute to the more aggressive breast cancer features seen in African-American women. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Each of these variations can be of no consequence (they are benign), or perhaps they have been statistically shown to slightly increase risk for a disease like breast cancer, or they can lead some or most of the time to the disease if the person lives long enough (these are causal mutations). (snpedia.com)
  • Therefore, the most effective manner to assess familial breast cancer risk is not via SNP testing, but rather through identifying (if possible) the specific causative mutations within one's family and then testing relatives for those variations. (snpedia.com)
  • 1%). For example, at a specific base position in the human genome, the C nucleotide may appear in most individuals, but in a minority of individuals, the position is occupied by an A. This means that there is an SNP at this specific position, and the two possible nucleotide variations - C or A - are said to be alleles for this position. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), also known as RHAMM (Receptor for Hyaluronan Mediated Motility) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HMMR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible role of the protein in cancer etiology. (springer.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-D-binding Myb-like transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DMTF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-27 has been found to target and inhibit gene expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, enabling it to regulate osteoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kallikrein-10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLK10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its encoded protein is secreted and may play a role in suppression of tumorigenesis in breast and prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name was coined in 2009 to describe the dual role of this gene, encoding both an antisense RNA that regulates the p53 tumor suppressor and a protein involved in DNA repair, telomere elongation and maintenance of nuclear organelles Cajal bodies (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The WRAP53 gene also encodes a protein termed WRAP53β (alias WRAP53 or WDR79 or TCAB1), which belongs to the WD40 protein family (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • WRAP53β is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell lines of different origins and such overexpression promotes carcinogenic transformation indicating that this protein possesses oncogenic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the CXC-R5 protein is encoded by the CXCR5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid), also known as PTPN22, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTPN22 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] This gene encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase which is expressed primarily in lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane Protein 217 is a protein encoded by the gene TMEM217. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene uses retinal as a substrate, either in a free or a cellular retinol-binding protein form. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3, also known as ALDH1A3 or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (RALDH3), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH1A3 gene, Aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes are thought to play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Although tissue distribution and transcriptional regulation of these two genes are significantly different, the two proteins are functionally equivalent in vivo ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • But as genes work at replicating themselves or producing proteins, the telomeres get worn down, and the cell can breakdown. (cityofhope.org)
  • This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial member of the thioredoxin family, a group of small multifunctional redox-active proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome-the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins-by applying molecular biology to medical testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the cellular process of expressing genes as proteins, it offers a measure of gene expression but it is vulnerable to hydrolysis and breakdown by ever-present RNAse enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • germline
  • Germline mutations in WRAP53β result in disorder known as dyskeratosis congenita, characterized by bone marrow failure, premature ageing, predisposition for cancer and a triad of mucocutaneous features including oral leukoplakia, abnormal skin pigmentation and nail dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • RHAMM has also been identified as one of 4 gene products identified in circulating tumor cells in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance gene 1 (ABCB1): effects on its expression and clinicopathological characteristics in breast cancer patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genotype distribution in breast cancer patients (CC 63.9 %, CT 33.7 %, TT 2.4 %) and controls (69.7 %, CT 28.3 %, TT 2 %) showed no significant difference (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.41-1.42, p = 0.4). (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, we are the first to report on 811C/T SEP 15 polymorphism in white breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • mir-27b expression is associated with survival in triple negative breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of nuclear WRAP53β is also correlated with shortened survival and resistance to radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study based on the 1998 Patient Care Evaluation in the US found that about a third of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer had one or more such symptoms, while two-thirds had no symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The presence of breast tumor cell subsets with high RHAMM expression is associated with reduced metastasis free survival and mediates migration, transformation, and metastatic spread of the triple negative human BCa cell line MDA-MB-231. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 2002 onwards, the HapMap Project aggregated information on the one-letter genetic differences that recur in the human population-the single nucleotide polymorphisms-and their relationship with disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • As a result, β-catenin accumulates in the nucleus and associates with T cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor to activate a number of target genes that promote cell growth, proliferation, and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The FOXO (Forkhead Box O) gene sub-family encodes tumour-suppressive transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of cell cycle progression and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate
  • Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most prostate cancers are grow slowly, some grow relatively quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer is diagnosed by biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer screening is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people with prostate cancer do not end up dying from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of males who died from unrelated causes have found prostate cancer in 30% to 70% of those over age 60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early prostate cancer usually has no clear symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes prostate cancer does cause symptoms, often similar to those of diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body can cause additional symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing tingling, leg weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer is very uncommon in men younger than 45, but becomes more common with advancing age. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Fodor and colleagues developed a unique fabrication process (later used by Affymetrix) in which a series of microlithography steps is used to combinatorially synthesize hundreds of thousands of unique, single-stranded DNA sensors on a substrate one nucleotide at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Two mRNA transcripts of the TXN2 gene differ by ~330 bp in the length of the 3′-untranslated region, and both are believed to exist in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESR1
  • There are two different forms of the estrogen receptor, usually referred to as α and β, each encoded by a separate gene (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively). (wikipedia.org)