• exchangers
  • Functionally, eight of these proteins fall into two major groups: three Cl-HCO− 3 exchangers (AE1-3) and five Na+-coupled HCO− 3 transporters (NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, NDCBE). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the energy derived from the concentration gradient of the ions/molecules across the membrane the cotransporter protein is integrated within. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cycle of conformational changes only transports one substrate ion at a time, which results in a fairly slow transport rate (100 to 104 ions or molecules per second) when compared to other transport proteins like ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Red blood cells (RBC) from patients with CHC have increased membrane permeability to Na + and K + ions, which is particularly pronounced at 0°C. 1 - 6 In rare cases, these patients' RBC have a deficiency of stomatin accompanied by mental retardation, seizures, cataracts, and hepatosplenomegaly. (haematologica.org)
  • The transmembrane domain of band 3 is responsible for its anion exchange activity, transporting bicarbonate ions (produced from the carbon dioxide released from respiring tissues) out of the red cell in exchange for chloride ions, which allows the whole blood volume to be used for carriage of carbon dioxide. (haematologica.org)
  • The beginning of a new impulse: A) An exchange of ions (charged atoms) across the nerve cell membrane sends a depolarizing current towards the end of the nerve cell (cell terminus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrotoxins: Dendrotoxins inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the exchange of positive and negative ions across the neuronal membrane lead to no nerve impulse, thereby paralysing the nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is the barrier that keeps ions, proteins and other molecules where they are needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilayers are particularly impermeable to ions, which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological membranes are impermeable to magnesium (and other ions), so transport proteins must facilitate the flow of magnesium, both into and out of cells and intracellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • The erythrocyte isoform of AE1, known as eAE1, is composed of 911 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In calciuric normomagnesemic patients, sensitive to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (classic Bartter's syndrome), red blood cell Na + ,K + ,2Cl − cotransport was markedly reduced, calcium-dependent K + permeability was moderately increased, and up to 60% of sodium permeability was represented by cAMP-activated fraction (presumably human analog of β-isoform of Na + /H + exchange). (ahajournals.org)
  • 1997
  • Several guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, the dbl or DH family) have been identified as oncogenes because of their ability to upregulate Rho GTPase activity during malignant transformation ( Van Aelst and D'Souza-Schorey 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • binds
  • MCT1 has a substrate binding site open to the extracellular matrix which binds a proton first followed by the lactate anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter proteins
  • Goodman JR, Gamble D, Kay MMB (1994) Distribution and function of multiple anion transporter proteins in brain tumor cell lines in relation to glucose transport. (springer.com)
  • Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show "transceptor" functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the chemical modifications of the nucleoside analogs can alter their ability to interact with canonical transporter proteins implicated in the uptake of natural nucleosides. (frontiersin.org)
  • signal transduction
  • This molecule is largely hydrophilic and contains several functional domains found in signal transduction proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The cellular response in signal transduction cascades involves alteration of the expression of effector genes or activation/inhibition of targeted proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • Bettendorff L, Margineanu I, Wins P, Grisar T (1995) An atypical anion transporter functioning at acid pH in neurobalstoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Guthrie N, Crandall IE, Marini S, et al (1995) Monoclonal antibodies that react with human band 3 residues 542-555 recognize different conformations of this protein in uninfected and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Golan, DE (1 July 1995). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (jax.org)
  • Expression of the anion exchanger (AE) gene family in human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Expression and Purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target gene of scFv (MOv19)-CD28-OX40-CD3ζ packaged in lentiviral particles could be used for high efficency tranduction of T cells and stably integrated expression. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The precise mechanism of action is not yet clear, but it appears that hydroxycarbamide increases nitric oxide levels, causing soluble guanylyl cyclase activation with a resultant rise in cyclic GMP, and the activation of gamma globin gene expression and subsequent gamma chain synthesis necessary for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production (which does not polymerize and deform red blood cells like the mutated HbS, responsible for sickle cell disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modest changes in expression of proteins that affect Ca 2+ -handling were observed, but Ca 2+ -transient analysis of AE3-null myocytes showed normal twitch-amplitude and Ca 2+ -clearance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides inhibit protein expression by hybridizing to a specific mRNA transcript and disrupting translation through a variety of mechanisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the induction or repression of the expression of genes requires the binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory sequences of these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary messengers like DAG or Ca2+ could also induce or repress gene expression, via transcriptional factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • Cotransporters are a subcategory of membrane transport proteins (transporters) that couple the favorable movement of one molecule with its concentration gradient and unfavorable movement of another molecule against its concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biol
  • Mechanism of Redox-Mediated Guanine Nucleotide Exchange on Redox-Active Rho GTPases" Jongyun Heo and Sharon L. Campbell, J. Biol. (uta.edu)
  • Superoxide Anion Radical Modulates the Activity of Ras and Ras-Related GTPases by a Radical-Based Mechanism Similar to that of Nitric Oxide" Jongyun Heo and Sharon L. Campbell, J. Biol. (uta.edu)
  • mRNA
  • The anti-inflammatory activity of free and liposome-encapsulated oligonucleotide targeted against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA was investigated in a delayed type hypersensitivity model of acute inflammation in mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • pharmacological
  • Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic proteins (which also have pharmacological properties), and many enzymes, especially hydrolytic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • deletion
  • Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO, Melanesian ovalocytosis) results from the heterozygous presence of a deletion in the encoded protein and is common in areas where Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Guanine Nucleot
  • Recognition and Activation of Rho GTPases By Vav1 and Vav2 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" Jongyun Heo, Roopa Thapar and Sharon L. Campbell, Biochemistry 2005, 44, 6573-6585. (uta.edu)
  • cellular
  • Bosman GJCGM, Bartholomeus IGP, De Man AJM, et al (1991) Erythrocyte membrane characteristics indicate abnormal cellular aging in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Cellular redox agents contribute to a plethora of both physiological and pathophysiological processes as they can promote DNA damage as well as oxidative inactivation or activation of certain redox-active proteins. (uta.edu)
  • 1 The cation leak results in deregulation of cellular volume, which can lead to morphological abnormality. (haematologica.org)
  • Members of the AE family are generally responsible for the transport of anions across cellular barriers, although their functions may vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • In view of this diversity of thiol metabolism it is perhaps a surprising finding that, despite the key role of these compounds in cellular metabolism, e.g., such as coenzyme A, there are few species of low molecular weight thiols to be found in the cellular acid soluble fraction left after the removal of protein and nucleic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Because bilayers define the boundaries of the cell and its compartments, these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • It is different from the anion exchanger that present in erythrocytes, renal tubule, and several other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1962 Bartter et al 1 described renal tubular alkalosis associated with hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, elevated plasma concentrations of angiotensin II, normotension, and absent peripheral edema. (ahajournals.org)
  • conformation
  • In one conformation the protein will have the binding site (or sites in the case of symporters) exposed to one side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein then undergoes a conformational change to a new 'closed'' conformation that exposes both the proton and lactate to the opposite surface of the membrane where they are released, lactate first and then the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • In mammals, it is present in two specific sites: the erythrocyte (red blood cell) cell membrane and the basolateral surface of the alpha-intercalated cell (the acid secreting cell type) in the collecting duct of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Mutated forms of band 3 have been found to be less efficient in transporting anions and have a decreased affinity to stilbene disulfonic acid derivatives. (haematologica.org)
  • Research showed that alkylamine can coordinate with Pt2+ ion and form tetrakis(amine)platinate precursor and replace the original acac− ligand in Pt(acac)2, and oleic acid can further exchange with acac− and tune the formation kinetics of platinum nanoparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The encoded protein associates with the red cell membrane protein glycophorin A and this association promotes the correct folding and translocation of the exchanger. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • These epitopes correspond to regions in the membrane domain that are involved in generation of senescent cell-specific antigen from AE1 in aging erythrocytes. (springer.com)
  • eAE1 is an important structural component of the erythrocyte cell membrane, making up to 25% of the cell membrane surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • AE1 was discovered following SDS-PAGE ( sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ) of erythrocyte cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the infection is brought under control, many of these effectors die by apoptosis, but a small proportion of the primed CD8 + T cell population survive to generate a long-lived memory cell pool ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For this reason, exchange of one monocarboxylate inside the cell with another outside is considerably faster than net transport of a monocarboxylate across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Band 3 is the most abundant erythrocyte membrane protein and plays a central role in red cell structure and function. (haematologica.org)
  • The primary defect in SAO differs significantly from other forms of elliptocytosis in that it is a defect in the gene coding for a protein that is not directly involved in the cytoskeleton scaffolding of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The band 3 proteins aggregate on the cell membrane at the site of entry, forming a circular orifice that the parasite squeezes through. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased rigidity of the erythrocyte membrane in SAO is thought to reduce the capacity of the band 3 proteins to cluster together, thereby making it more difficult for the malaria parasite to properly attaching to and enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their N-terminal hydrophilic domains may interact with cytoskeletal proteins and therefore play a cell structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • SP-1 cell line). (rupress.org)
  • After lipid modification, this protein is secreted directly across the cell surface by a dedicated ABC transporter, Ste6. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The inability to synthesize a peptidoglycan cell wall is due to the absence of genes encoding its formation and results in an increased importance in maintenance of osmotic stability to avoid desiccation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of a cell wall also calls for increased support of the cell membrane(reinforced with sterols), which includes a rigid cytoskeleton composed of an intricate protein network and, potentially, an extracellular capsule to facilitate adherence to the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. pneumoniae are the only bacterial cells that possess cholesterol in their cell membrane (obtained from the host) and possess more genes that encode for membrane lipoprotein variations than other mycoplasmas, which are thought to be associated with its parasitic lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cell Na + /H + and Cl − /HCO 3 − exchanges were enhanced in all patients with Bartter's syndrome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Molecular
  • For the bioinformatics information of protein, the protein structure, sequence alignment or both, were obtained from the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Conserved Domain Database (CDD) on the website of NCBI by searching their scientific names of species and their protein names. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2000
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells have an elongated shape that is approximately 0.1-0.2 µm (100-200 nm) in width and 1-2 µm (1000-2000 nm) in length. (wikipedia.org)