• ribosomal
  • This complex binds to a 40s ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S preinitiation complex. (mybiosource.com)
  • Translational initiation requires at least nine eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and comprises two steps: the formation of 48S initiation complexes with established codon-anticodon base pairing in the P-site of the 40S ribosomal subunits, and the joining of 60S subunits to 48S complexes to form the 80S complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 40S Ribosomal Subunits scanning the mRNA from 5' have TC bound and translate the first upstream open reading frame (uORF). (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Folding of the β-subunit is thought to be aided by the chaperone CCT (chaperonin containing tailless-complex polypeptide 1), which also prevents aggregation of folded subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A nucleic acid encoding a mutated Gq protein identical to the polypeptide contained in SEQ ID NO:1 or 37 except for the substitution of an aspartic acid residue for theglycine residue at position 66. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. A nucleic acid encoding a mutated Gq protein which is identical to the polypeptide contained in SEQ ID NO:1 except for the replacement of the last 5 amino acid residues with the 5 amino acid residues of the carboxy terminus of Golf ortransducin. (patentgenius.com)
  • interaction
  • Coexpression of RGS11 with different Gbeta subunits reveals specific interaction between RGS11 and Gbeta5. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The Gγ subunit is considerably smaller than Gβ, and is unstable on its own, requiring interaction with Gβ to fold, explaining the close association of the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prenylation is thought to be involved in directing the interaction of the subunit both with membrane lipids and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The translational initiation step includes the recognition of an mRNA by the host translational machinery and assembly of the 80S complex, in which a methionyl initiator tRNA (Met-tRNA Met ) binds at the peptidyl (P) site of the mRNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Members of this family include the signal-transducing G protein beta subunit, as well as other proteins that regulate signal transduction, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular fusion. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Translation is again initiated, uORF2,3 or 4 translated and the 40S Subunits subsequently dissociate from GCN4 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these hypotheses were initially controversial, Gβγ has since been shown to directly regulate as many different protein targets as the Gα subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary fish oil, rich in n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), regulate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, e.g. gene activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • individual subunits
  • The individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase was successfully purified, yielding three polypeptides of different molecular weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gβγ subunit is a dimer composed of two polypeptides, however it acts functionally as a monomer, as the individual subunits do not separate, and have not been found to function independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The Gβ genes have very similar sequences, while significantly greater variation is seen in the Gγ genes, indicating that the functional specificity of the Gβγ dimer may be dependent on the type of Gγ subunit involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • This protein is located on the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane and contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of converting light into an electrochemical signal begins when the membrane-bound protein, rhodopsin, absorbs light within the retina. (abcam.com)
  • Finally, PhLP is released, exposing the binding site for Gα, allowing for formation of the final trimer at the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • In elongation, aminoacyl tRNAs enter the acceptor (A) site and, if the correct tRNA is bound, the ribosome catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Binding of uncharged tRNA to this synthetase-like domain induces a conformational change in which the GCN2 domains rotate 180° normal to the dimerization surface and thereby transpose from their antiparallel to a parallel orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In a cAMP-dependent pathway, the activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated only if cAMP is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purified enzyme has typically 10-12 subunits (12 in humans and yeast) and is incapable of specific promoter recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 - an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene and in yeast is encoded by RPO21. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPB2 (POLR2B) - the second-largest subunit that in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits forms a structure within the polymerase that maintains contact in the active site of the enzyme between the DNA template and the newly synthesized RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphodiesterase
  • Molecules that activate cAMP pathway include: cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase caffeine and theophylline inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase, which degrades cAMP - thus enabling higher levels of cAMP than would otherwise be had. (wikipedia.org)
  • bucladesine (dibutyryl cAMP, db cAMP) - also a phosphodiesterase inhibitor pertussis toxin, which increases cAMP levels by inhibiting Gi to its GDP (inactive) form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules that inhibit the cAMP pathway include: cAMP phosphodiesterase converts cAMP into AMP by breaking the phosphodiester bond, in turn reducing the cAMP levels Gi protein, which is a G protein that inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • G proteins are important signal transducing molecules in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence data on free and bound BIA suggest that the binding of BIA and similar drugs to DNA is driven by a transfer of hydrophobic molecules from aqueous media to the more amphiphilic DNA environment. (jove.com)
  • Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that BIA adopt an extended conformation upon binding and that all of the molecules are tightly associated with DNA. (jove.com)
  • Two molecules of this subunit are present in each RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • It is not known whether all WD-repeat proteins are unable to fold when synthesized in an in vitro system. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Previous investigations on effects of DHA and/or EPA on gene expressions in animal studies and in vitro models have shown changes in a variety of genes, some of which are believed to be involved in inflammation and chronic neurodegenerative disorder. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mammalian
  • The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. (genes2cognition.org)
  • sub.q protein variants can be expressed in mammalian cell lines or Xenopus oocytes, and then evaluated using calcium fluorescence imaging and electrophysiological recording. (patentgenius.com)
  • amino acid
  • This protein contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain and a cysteine-rich region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of GCN4 stimulate the expression of amino acid biosynthetic genes, which code for enzymes required to synthesize all 20 major amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • G protein signaling mediates the perception of environmental cues in all higher eukaryotic organisms, including yeast, Dictyostelium, plants, and animals. (patentgenius.com)
  • enzymes
  • The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process, whereas regulation of gene expression is much longer and can take up to hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • ORFs located in the 3′-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5′ leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A wide range of transcription factors are required for it to bind to upstream gene promoters and begin transcription. (wikipedia.org)