• single nucleotide po
  • The fact that we see no association with any of the tumour necrosis factor single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes makes it highly unlikely that polymorphisms in this gene play a major role in the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for highly conserved cellular pathways may cause subtle functional deficiencies (or proficiencies) in those pathways that could increase (or decrease) susceptibility to breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The association of diabetic retinopathy with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was studied on two genes: VEGF, an important mediator of neovascularisation, and MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme. (bmj.com)
  • The importance of complement regulation for good health is highlighted by recent work that seems to imply that individuals carrying point mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms in their genes for factor H may be more susceptible to diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, dense deposit diseases (or membranoproliferative glomrulonephritis type 2) and - most notably because of its prevalence in the elderly - age-related macular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection) bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. (scielo.br)
  • Putative "driver" mutations in genes encoding splicing factors---including recurrent mutations in U2AF1, which encodes a component of the U2 auxiliary factor to regulate pre-mRNA splicing---have been identified in myeloid dysplasias, related neoplasms, and lung adenocarcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with multifocal stenosing ulceration of the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While previous studies have identified members of this family, a recent spurt in gene expression data coupled with genome update and reannotation calls for a reassessment of the prevalence of ARF genes and their interaction networks in M. truncatula . (frontiersin.org)
  • We performed a comprehensive analysis of the M. truncatula genome and transcriptome that entailed search for novel ARF genes and the co-expression networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our investigation revealed 8 novel M. truncatula ARF (MtARF) genes, of the total 22 identified, and uncovered novel gene co-expression networks as well. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we explore a novel approach to neurotrophic factor-based therapy by engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) that activate the expression of the endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor, and small changes in its expression levels can have profound effects on neuronal survival. (jneurosci.org)
  • To explore new strategies exploiting the neurotrophic activity of GDNF within this therapeutic window, we set out to activate GDNF expression from its endogenous gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hypothesizing that the Amazonian water system differences would affect the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818), this study aimed to analyze the morphometric data and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in the white and red muscle from tambaqui obtained from clear and black Amazonian water systems. (hindawi.com)
  • The changes in MRFs gene expression in muscle fibers of tambaqui from black water system provide relevant information about the environmental influence as that of water systems on gene expression of muscle growth related genes in the C. macropomum . (hindawi.com)
  • Our results showed that the physical and chemical water characteristics change the expression of genes that promote muscle growth, and these results may be also widely applicable to future projects that aim to enhance muscle growth in fish that are of substantial interest to the aquaculture. (hindawi.com)
  • This work therefore emphasizes the importance of local gene expression in the neural circuits responsible for specific behaviors. (phys.org)
  • In addition, Shumyatsky said that the gene is a negative regulator of microtubule formation and consequently microtubule dynamics are important for fear expression and fear learning. (phys.org)
  • In fact, the majority of oncogenic signalling pathways converge on sets of TFs that ultimately control gene expression patterns, resulting in aggressive phenotype, disease progression and increased resistance to drug therapy. (els.net)
  • TFs are essential for controlling gene expression during normal physiological conditions and disease. (els.net)
  • Hallmarks of cancer, such as control of cell cycle, protection from apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and invasion are controlled by gene expression patterns and signalling pathways that are regulated by TFs. (els.net)
  • These events lead to transcription factor aberrant expression and abnormal activity and activate an intra‐cellular signalling cascade resulting in the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of target genes involved in many aspects of tumorigenesis, inflammation and proliferation survival of cancer cells and resistance to therapeutic agents. (els.net)
  • 2007) Reduced PDEF expression increases invasion and expression of mesenchymal genes in prostate cancer cells. (els.net)
  • These genes exhibit highly correlated mRNA expression across 200 experimental conditions, and are annotated to Nitrogen Catabolite Repression (NCR), the means by which yeast cells switch between using rich and poor nitrogen sources. (bioconductor.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae, two genes have a 50% chance of having a common transcription factor binder if the correlation between their expression profiles is equal to 0.84. (bioconductor.org)
  • Network edges indicate correlated expression of the two connected genes across all 200 conditions. (bioconductor.org)
  • NCR-sensitive expression is modulated by the synchronized action of four DNA-binding GATA factors . (bioconductor.org)
  • Using primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) gene expression were elevated by static incubation with recombinant tilapia SL. (omicsonline.org)
  • These findings, taken together, provide evidence for the first time that SL may serve as a novel regulator in fish stimulating IGF1 and IGF gene expression in hepatocytes. (omicsonline.org)
  • At present, the effect of SL on IGFs gene expression is confined to in vivo studies and still controversial. (omicsonline.org)
  • In either case, binding of the promoter element leads to an increased expression of ISG (Interferon-Stimulated Genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • At a molecular level, expression of the gene RUNX1 is upregulated by the RUNX1 intronic cis-regulatory element (+23 RUNX1 enhancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tyrosine kinase activity, in turn, initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell - a rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis, and increases in the expression of certain genes including the gene for EGFR - that ultimately lead to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptome instability correlates significantly with reduced expression level of splicing factor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ plasm effectively turns off gene expression to render the genome of the cell inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA binding and transcriptional activity of this protein, in conjunction with its expression pattern, suggests that this protein may participate in the regulation and/or maintenance of the basal expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein genes and possibly other TATA box-less genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Thus, denervation of the rat iris in situ does not cause the observed accumulation of NGF by increasing the level of NGF mRNA, and the increase in NGF content must be due to other factors. (rupress.org)
  • Upstream of the coding sequence is the promoter region that contains sequences that regulate the transcription of the IFNA2 gene into a messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes play a role in germ line development to localize nanos mRNA to the posterior and localize germ cell determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Genes referred to as early or primary auxin response genes can undergo transcriptional alterations within minutes of exposure to auxin, and fall into three major classes- Aux/IAA s, SAURs , and GH3 s ( Hagen and Guilfoyle, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • receptor
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to its receptor, type I IFNs activate multiple cellular factors that transduce the signal from the cell surface into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), also known as RTR (retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor) or NR6A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR6A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor has been shown to interact with epidermal growth factor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, bFGF was also shown to act on preosteoblasts - in the form of an increased proliferation - after binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • An elevated percentage of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes encode TFs. (els.net)
  • There are two possible trancripts (due to alternative splicing) that encode 2 isoforms of STAT1 STAT1 is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I, type II, or type III interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs
  • These analyses suggest a genetic complexity that may be under estimated when SNPs in single genes are analyzed or when pathway coverage is incomplete. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, the studied VEGF SNPs were not associated with the risk of diabetic retinopathy, and so it is unlikely that the VEGF gene is a major locus determining the risk of diabetic retinopathy. (bmj.com)
  • Platelet Derive
  • Specifically STAT1 can be activated by several ligands such as Interferon alpha (IFNa), Interferon gamma (IFNg), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Type I interferons (IFN-a, IFN-b) bind to receptors, cause signaling via kinases, phosphorylate and activate the Jak kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and also STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • 1. A DNA molecule encoding Tumor Necrosis Factor Stimulated Gene 6 (TSG-6), wherein said DNA molecule comprises base pairs 69 to 899 of SEQ ID NO:1. (google.com)
  • 2. A DNA molecule encoding a human Tumor Necrosis Factor Stimulated Gene 6 (TSG-6), protein having the amino acid sequence SEO ID NO:2, substantially free of other human nucleotide sequences. (google.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a powerful pleiotropic cytokine important in host defenses against tumors and infectious agents. (google.com)
  • 2009) Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer. (els.net)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, was shown to be localized in the artery injury-induced rat neointima. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal splicing variants are also thought to contribute to the development of cancer, and splicing factor genes are frequently mutated in different types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "record-holder" for alternative splicing is a D. melanogaster gene called Dscam, which could potentially have 38,016 splice variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glial Cell L
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • tumour
  • 1 studied polymorphisms in the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin A genes with respect to their effect on lung function of smokers, and failed to find any association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes. (ersjournals.com)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract A39: Initial characterization of genetically engineered mice carrying a conditional allele of a splicing factor gene (U2AF1) commonly mutated in myeloid disorders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear
  • Inactivation of inflammasome, such as apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, C-reactive protein, and nuclear factor-κB, was observed in exudate peritoneal macrophages from ApoE-/- mice infused with TSG-6 compared to those infused with saline (control). (ahajournals.org)
  • characterization
  • In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several genes activated by TNF have been identified but many more require characterization. (google.com)
  • transcripts
  • Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also observed in the early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • No such relation was found for the growth regulatory factors (p-trend = 0.94). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (IRF9), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT molecules form dimers and bind to ISGF3G/IRF-9, which is Interferon stimulated gene factor 3 complex with Interferon regulatory Factor 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recognition induces the activation of specific serine kinases, enzymes which activate by phosphorylation the IFN regulatory factors (IRF), IRF3 and IRF7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon regulatory factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF9 gene, previously known as ISGF3G. (wikipedia.org)
  • This +23 RUNX1 enhancer contains conserved motifs that encourage binding of various haematopoiesis related regulators such as Gata2, ETS factors (Fli-1, Elf-1, PU.1) and the SCL / Lmo2 / Ldb1 complex, as well as RUNX1 itself acting in an auto-regulatory loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate cancer
  • 2015) Improvements in radiographic progression‐free survival stratified by ERG gene status in metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate. (els.net)
  • family
  • updated cancer risk factor and family cancer history information was collected from all cases and controls at the time of blood collection by telephone interview. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Somatolactin (SL), a member of the growth hormone (GH)/ prolactin (PRL) family, is fish-specific hormone as the gene has been lost in tetrapods during the period of land invasion [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) family of genes which are also called core binding factor-α (CBFα). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a transcription factor (TF), its DNA binding ability is encoded by the runt domain (residues 50 - 177), which is homologous to the p53 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family history: Smoking: Smoking tobacco increases the risk of AMD by two to three times that of someone who has never smoked, and may be the most important modifiable factor in its prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) Factor H (fH) Other soluble complement regulators that do not belong to the RCA/CCP family are Complement Factor I and C1 inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides EGF itself other family members include: Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) Amphiregulin (AR) Epiregulin (EPR) Epigen Betacellulin (BTC) neuregulin-1 (NRG1) neuregulin-2 (NRG2) neuregulin-3 (NRG3) neuregulin-4 (NRG4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Mice knockout for the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) develop a resistan. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stathmin knockout mice, or mutants bred to be deficient in this gene, showed an increase in the amount of microtubules. (phys.org)
  • Stress hormones in mice such as serum corticotropin releasing factor, adrenal corticotropin releasing hormone, and corticosterone were reduced after psoralidin administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuing his research at the institute, Deo and his colleagues, discovered an Enhancing Factor (EF), a 14 kDa protein, isolated from the small intestine of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is presently in use for producing transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • C. These results seem to suggest that a SNP in the BRCA2 gene may act as a low penetrance breast cancer risk allele. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A higher frequency of the AlaAla genotype (p = 0.03) and Ala16 allele (p = 0.04) of the MnSOD gene in the DR group was found when compared with the DC group. (bmj.com)
  • pathway
  • For example, C3b.Bb is an important convertase that is part of the alternative pathway, and it is formed when factor B binds C3b and is subsequently cleaved. (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX1
  • RUNX1 is a transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal translocations involving the RUNX1 gene are associated with several types of leukemia including M2 AML. (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX1 can bind DNA as a monomer, but its DNA binding affinity is enhanced by 10 fold if it heterodimerises with the core binding factor β (CBFβ), also via the runt domain. (wikipedia.org)