• genome
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • crucial aspects when full genome gene expression profiles are generated and interpreted. (jove.com)
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, for a species to make evolutionary progress, new genes must first be installed into its genome from outside. (panspermia.org)
  • We will discuss well-known processes which can install new genes into the genome of a given species. (panspermia.org)
  • However, in recent gene therapy techniques, retroviruses are often used to deliver desired genes instead of their own viral genome into the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium is then used as a vector to transfer the engineered T-DNA into the plant cells where it integrates into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA along with associated proteins (called T-complex) to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and expression of the transferred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, although many of the genes of the organelles have moved to the nucleus during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246). (jove.com)
  • This fact and the shape of the tree suggest either that isoforms of these proteins arose by gene duplication before the three domains of life split off from each other or that horizontal gene transfer has occurred between these domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two lipid transfer proteins found in human plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • To interact with host plant proteins many Agrobacterium virulence proteins encoded by vir genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the genes in the mitochondrion, and in case of plants, also the chloroplast, which host their own genetic system and can produce proteins from scratch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the proteins of a cell are the product of messenger RNA transcribed from nuclear genes, including most of the proteins of the organelles, which are produced in the cytoplasm like all nuclear gene products and then transported to the organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Potential advantages of a full cDNA versus a mini-gene include: maintaining structural-functional protein domains, evading protein misfolding, and avoiding novel epitopes that could be immunogenic. (plos.org)
  • Herein we show for the first time in vivo that homologous recombination following AAV5.DYSF gene transfer leads to the production of full length transcript and protein. (plos.org)
  • Moreover, gene transfer of full-length dysferlin protein in dysferlin deficient mice resulted in expression levels sufficient to correct functional deficits in the diaphragm and importantly in skeletal muscle membrane repair. (plos.org)
  • Expression levels for the Col2A1 gene and protein were significantly higher in the IGF-1 pellets than in the control pellets, but expression levels for Col10, MMP-13, ALP, and Osterix were not higher. (hindawi.com)
  • Phospholipid transfer protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLTP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) to apolipoproteins A-I and A-II: location of a PLTP binding domain in the amino terminal region of apoA-I". J. Lipid Res. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of viral megagenomes with genes coding for energy metabolism and protein synthesis fueled the debate about whether viruses belong in the tree of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it was found later that the genes coding for energy and protein metabolism have a cellular origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the specific nucleotide sequence of an mRNA specifies which amino acids are incorporated into the protein product of the gene from which the mRNA is transcribed, the role of tRNA is to specify which sequence from the genetic code corresponds to which amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, a four-amino-acid insert in the protein pyruvate flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase, a protein which plays important roles in photosynthetic organisms, has been found exclusively among all members in the Chloroflexus genus, and is thought to play an important functional role. (wikipedia.org)
  • adeno-assoc
  • As with other forms of muscular dystrophy, adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer is a particularly auspicious treatment strategy, however the size of the DYSF cDNA (6.5 kb) negates packaging into traditional AAV serotypes known to express well in muscle (i.e. rAAV1, 2, 6, 8, 9). (plos.org)
  • To address this issue, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver the TrkB gene into adult RGCs. (jneurosci.org)
  • chromosome
  • In 1911, after observing that linked traits could on occasion be inherited separately, Thomas Hunt Morgan suggested that "crossovers" can occur between linked genes, where one of the linked genes physically crosses over to a different chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • If the transferred genetic material is a passenger on a ship, in the transfer of plasmids by conjugation, the ships come alongside each other and the passenger walks across a gangplank to the new ship. (panspermia.org)
  • transduction
  • Intravascular regional gene transfer through the femoral artery produced high levels of transduction and enabled targeting of specific muscle groups affected by the dysferlinopathies setting the stage for potential translation to clinical trials. (plos.org)
  • Unlike transduction and conjugation, transformation is clearly a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer, because it depends on numerous bacterial gene products that specifically interact to perform this complex process. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently while taking care of critically important factors like the genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgene
  • Methods and Results -We aerosolized 3×10 9 pfu of an adenoviral vector containing inducible NOS gene (AdNOS2), constitutive NOS3 gene (AdNOS3), or no transgene (AdRR5) into rat lungs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transformation
  • This natural process of horizontal gene transfer in plants is being utilized as a tool for fundamental and applied research in plant biology through Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated foreign gene transformation and insertional mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is a common mode of DNA transfer, and 67 prokaryotic species are thus far known to be naturally competent for transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • In addition, some species also contain carbohydrate-enclosed microcompartments, which have distinct physiological roles (e.g. carboxysomes or gas vacuoles). (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • Methods and Results- We used a novel multicompartmental model to simultaneously determine the kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B and triglyceride (TG) in VLDL 1 and VLDL 2 after a bolus injection of [ 2 H 3 ]leucine and [ 2 H 5 ]glycerol and to follow the catabolism and transfer of the lipoprotein particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • novel
  • Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. (jove.com)
  • In 2005, his team identified a novel molecule that serves as a signal transfer station. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Traditional PCR typing schemes classify SCC mec by targeting and identifying the individual mec and ccr gene complex types, but require the use of many primer sets and multiple individual PCR experiments. (jove.com)
  • Through a series of experiments, they discovered that the product of this gene greatly influences TLR3-independent IFN-β signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Due to several difficult issues (e.g., sparseness of data in high dimensions and low replication or validation rate), development of fast, powerful and robust methods for detecting various forms of gene-gene interactions continues to be a challenging task. (jove.com)
  • and that ISG56 (IFN-stimulated gene 56) is related to VSV replication, and negatively mediates virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • The phenotypic variants with a relatively restricted distribution of muscle weakness set the stage for potential regional vascular gene replacement therapy that could impact quality of life for this disorder , . (plos.org)
  • The effects of NO synthase (NOS) gene transfer on pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension are unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -Aerosol NOS2 gene transfer increases pulmonary NO production and significantly reduces hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aerosol NOS2 gene transfer may be a promising strategy to target pulmonary vascular disorders. (ahajournals.org)
  • significantly
  • The Gβ genes have very similar sequences, while significantly greater variation is seen in the Gγ genes, indicating that the functional specificity of the Gβγ dimer may be dependent on the type of Gγ subunit involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • play
  • They play major roles in pathogenicity of, for example, Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of ulcers. (wikipedia.org)
  • proviral
  • This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. (jove.com)
  • decades
  • For more than two decades, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been exploited for introducing genes into plants for basic research as well as for commercial production of transgenic crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Reverse genetics approaches are difficult because the genes are often differentially expressed, often at low levels, between cell types 6 . (jove.com)
  • The term "gene" most often refers to nuclear genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Previously in 2003, a Japanese team had already demonstrated several genes involved in NF-kappaB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • In excess of 2,000 genes have Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans been predicted to be involved in cell wall glycan biosynthesis and modification in Arabidopsis 5 . (jove.com)
  • These TAL effectors activate the production of plant genes that are beneficial to bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A CSI has been found to be shared among both Chloroflexia and Chlorobi members, which has been interpreted as the result of a horizontal gene transfer event between the two relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This work was supported by the Day Foundation, MDA, and Jesse's Journey Foundation for Gene and Cell Therapy. (plos.org)
  • The stolen piece may be a whole gene with which the cell acquires a new function, as was reported in June, 1996, by two scientists at Harvard Medical School (5) . (panspermia.org)
  • delivery
  • We provide proof of principle that AAV5 mediated delivery of dysferlin is a highly promising strategy for treatment of dysferlinopathies and has far-reaching implications for the therapeutic delivery of other large genes. (plos.org)
  • evolution
  • Specifically, the model depicts possibilities for the roles that horizontal gene transfer plays in the evolution of life, which is not depicted in Darwin's illustration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 49: 557 - 577 (2005) (Free full text) Hoffmeister M, Martin W Interspecific evolution: microbial symbiosis, endosymbiosis and gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)