• Peptides
  • doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2011.03.014 PMID 21453735 Bochicchio G, Charlton P, Pezzullo JC, Kosutic G, Senagore A. Ghrelin agonist TZP-101/ulimorelin accelerates gastrointestinal recovery independently of opioid use and surgery type: covariate analysis of phase 2 data. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are discriminated from other cells of the gastrointestinal epithelial crypts by the presence of basally located granulations that contain serotonin and other peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • irritable bowel sy
  • Impaired (i.e., slowed) motility of the gastrointestinal system, which can be involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis (e.g., diabetic and postsurgical), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, is one of the largest health care burdens of industrialized nations. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Despite stress being considered a key factor in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a paucity of information regarding the ability of IBS patients to respond to acute experimental stress. (cambridge.org)
  • neurons
  • Ghrelin and synthetic ghrelin mimetics (growth hormone secretagogues) increase body weight and fat mass by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of EC cells is to synthesise and secrete serotonin for modulation of gastrointestinal neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Patients with cirrhosis frequently experience gastrointestinal symptoms [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This Phase 2 trial is designed to evaluate the effects of RM-131 on symptoms and lower gastrointestinal (GI) function in patients with significant chronic constipation. (biospace.com)
  • The test does not directly detect colon cancer but is often used in clinical screening for that disease, but it can also be used to look for active occult blood loss in anemia or when there are gastrointestinal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Octreotide (trade name Sandostatin, among others) is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequent adverse effects (more than 10% of patients) are headache, hypothyroidism, cardiac conduction changes, gastrointestinal reactions (including cramps, nausea/vomiting and diarrhoea or constipation), gallstones, reduction of insulin release, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, and (usually transient) injection site reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Stress can alter gastrointestinal function but the mechamism of the stress induced intestinal response is still obscure. (bmj.com)
  • The major abnormalities are altered gastrointestinal motility, disrupted gut barrier function with increased intestinal permeability and malabsorption. (omicsonline.org)
  • Various abnormalities in gastrointestinal structure and function have been described in patients with liver cirrhosis, including altered gastrointestinal motility, intestinal permeability and absorption. (omicsonline.org)
  • This review aims to highlight the abnormalities in gastrointestinal function that are commonly observed in patients with chronic liver disease and their impact on the overall outcomes in these patients ( Figure 1 ). (omicsonline.org)
  • hormones or compounds produced by the stomach and their respective function: Hydrochloric acid (HCl): This is in essence positively charged hydrogen atoms (H+), or in lay-terms stomach acid, and is produced by the cells of the stomach called parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through these cross connections, the gut can provide sensory information to the CNS, and the CNS can affect gastrointestinal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • More generally, the orexinergic neural projections of the lateral hypothalamus are involved in thermoregulation, regulating gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal function by way of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve, reducing pain and nociception through several output structures (e.g., periaqueductal gray matter), modulating the rewarding property of stimuli through the ventral tegmental area projections and other outputs in the reward system, regulating energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors
  • Vella A and Drucker DJ (2011)Chapter 39 Gastrointestinal Hormones and Gut Endocrine Tumors, pp 1697-1707. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octreotide is used for the treatment of growth hormone producing tumors (acromegaly and gigantism), when surgery is contraindicated, pituitary tumors that secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropinoma), diarrhea and flushing episodes associated with carcinoid syndrome, and diarrhea in people with vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumors (VIPomas). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The method comprises administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a growth hormone secretagogue compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Ghrelin acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A (GHSR-1A), a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the brain ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Octreotide can also be used in the treatment of Acromegaly, a disorder of excessive growth hormone (GH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulimorelin (INN, USAN) (developmental code name TZP-101) is a drug with a modified cyclic peptide structure which acts as a selective agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike many related drugs, ulimorelin is peripherally selective and has little or no effect on growth hormone (GH) release, instead having a specific laxative effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Huynh D, Nguyen NQ (2015) Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Chronic Liver Disease. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gastrointestinal dysfunction frequently occurs in liver cirrhosis and increases with disease severity. (omicsonline.org)
  • The aim of this paper is review the details of gastrointestinal dysfunction in chronic liver disease and the associated impact on the clinical outcomes. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. (omicsonline.org)
  • The overproduction of cytokines [ 1 ] and inflammatory mediators may account for systemic inflammatory response once the onset of disease of AP, which might cause multiple organ dysfunctions and/or failures if the inflammatory response was out of control, including the gastrointestinal dysfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) at the early stage [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Gastrointestinal dysfunction in AP, the trigger of multiple organ failure [ 1 ], was related to the intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and/or abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). (hindawi.com)
  • reduce
  • The extent to which screening procedures reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer or mortality depends on the rate of precancerous and cancerous disease in that population. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • 5 6 These phenomena in rats are mimicked by intracerebroventricular 6-9 or intravenous 9 administration of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and are blocked by the CRH antagonist, α helical CRH 9-41 . (bmj.com)
  • The effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and ALI in rats with AP was investigated to verify the theory of "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related" in traditional Chinese medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • chronic
  • Testoni P, Bagnolo F, Masci E, Colombo E, Tittobello A (1993) Different interdigestive antroduodenal motility patterns in chronic antral gastritis with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. (springer.com)
  • Conclusion
  • CONCLUSION: The fact that the patient improved during pregnancy and breast feeding, would seem to indicate the involvement of factors in the physiology of pregnancy and breast feeding that are of importance for gastric motility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • digestion
  • Animals have a tube (gastrointestinal tract) in which internal digestion occurs, which is more efficient because more of the broken down products can be captured, and the internal chemical environment can be more efficiently controlled. (wikipedia.org)