• Inflammatory
  • In men and postmenopausal women, occult gastrointestinal blood loss from aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, colorectal cancer, benign gastric ulceration, and angiodysplasia are the most common causes. (bmj.com)
  • parenteral irons can also be used to treat functional iron deficiency, where requirements for iron are greater than the body's ability to supply iron such as in inflammatory states. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pediatric gastroenterology program focusing on researching inflammatory bowel disease, infectious diarrhea, and motility disorders associated with gastrointestinal complications such as constipation and gastro esophageal reflux was established by Murray Davidson at the Albert Einstein Medical School and the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center in New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is associated with a general inflammatory process that can affect many parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • The majority of iron in the body is present as hemoglobin located within erythrocytes [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Lack of iron, therefore, leads to a reduction in hemoglobin available for the red blood cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of healthy red blood cells (RBCs) or reduced hemoglobin (Hgb), the iron-bearing protein in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to tissues throughout the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia in newborn infants is noted when hemoglobin levels are lower than expected for the birth weight and postnatal age. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absorbed iron is primarily stored in the liver as ferritin (protein used for iron storage) and subsequently made available to the body for various functions, primarily for incorporation into the red blood cells' hemoglobin, thereby transporting oxygen in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement after 90 days by 2.16g/dL (iron polymaltose) and 1.93g/dL (iron sulfate). (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement after 4 months by 2.3g/dL (iron polymaltose) and 3g/dL (iron sulfate). (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement in both groups after 3, 6, and 9 weeks, whereby after 3 and 6 weeks, a significant improvement was observed in the iron sulfate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia is a condition characterized by inadequate red blood cells (erythrocytes) or hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Serum ferritin radioimmunoassay is considered the test of choice for diagnosis and is helpful in indicating the amount of iron bound to transferrin in the blood (serum). (brighthub.com)
  • When a decisive diagnosis is needed, a bone marrow aspiration test is completed, which involves taking a sample of fluid and cells.This test is necessary to detect abnormal red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and in the possible case of some anemias, leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkins lymphoma, infections or tumors. (brighthub.com)
  • The objective of the study is to describe the prevalence of iron depletion and iron deficiency anemia in children with FD and to seek associations with diagnosis and its markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was no effect of diagnosis of FD on Hb ( p = 0.18) or ferritin ( p = 0.52). (biomedcentral.com)
  • No evidence of association between diagnosis of FD or repertory of foods to anemia or iron depletion was found, which could be a reassuring factor for caregivers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • supplements
  • Individuals may be given iron preparations by injection or advised to take oral iron supplements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Iron supplements and vitamin C may be recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron-deficiency anaemia is considered to impair health and well-being in women, and iron supplements - tablets, capsules, syrup or drops containing iron - are a commonly used intervention to prevent and treat this condition. (cochrane.org)
  • We found evidence that iron supplements reduce the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency, and raise levels of haemoglobin in the blood and in iron stores. (cochrane.org)
  • Further definitive studies are needed to identify whether taking iron supplements orally for at least five days a week has an impact on key, health-related outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • When iron supplements are given in a liquid form, teeth may reversibly discolor (this can be avoided through the use of a straw). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron supplements may be needed in those with heavy periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although red or black stools can be an indication of bleeding, a dark or black color can also be due to black licorice, blueberries, iron supplements, lead or Pepto-bismol, and a reddish color can result from artificial or natural colorings as found in red sweets (gelatin, popsicles, Kool-Aid), or large quantities of beets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such instances of deficiency, choline supplements or (if able) dietary changes may be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant women
  • We sought to review the evidence of iron, taken orally for at least five days per week, for improving health outcomes in non-pregnant women of reproductive age (menstruating women). (cochrane.org)
  • Iron-deficiency anaemia is highly prevalent among non-pregnant women of reproductive age (menstruating women) worldwide, although the prevalence is highest in lower-income settings. (cochrane.org)
  • Certain groups of individuals, such as pregnant women, benefit from the use of iron pills for prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophageal
  • Eggs can also become lodgedin the liver, leading to high blood pressure through the liver, enlarged spleen, the build-up of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), and potentially life-threatening dilations or swollen areas in the esophagus or gastrointestinal tractthat can tear and bleed profusely (esophageal varices). (faqs.org)
  • ulcers
  • There may be signs of specific causes of anemia, e.g., koilonychia (in iron deficiency), jaundice (when anemia results from abnormal break down of red blood cells - in hemolytic anemia), bone deformities (found in thalassemia major) or leg ulcers (seen in sickle-cell disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive tests ("positive stool") may result from either upper gastrointestinal bleeding or lower gastrointestinal bleeding and warrant further investigation for peptic ulcers or a malignancy (such as colorectal cancer or gastric cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • Normal values for men are 76- 198 mcg/L. For women, a normal range is 26-170 mcg/L. Barring a systemic problem like blood loss, your physician will likely advise you to increase your intake of iron rich foods and possibly take an iron supplement. (brighthub.com)
  • diseases
  • Other causes include vitamin and mineral deficiencies, inherited conditions, and certain diseases that affect red cell production or destruction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Causes of increased breakdown include a number of genetic conditions such as sickle cell anemia, infections like malaria, and certain autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • intervention
  • INTERVENTION: Iron polymaltose 100 mg 2x a day in comparison to iron sulfate 100 mg 2x a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • INTERVENTION: Iron polymaltose 5 mg/kg body weight in one administration a day, compared to iron sulfate 5 mg/kg body weight, divided up over 2 administrations a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • CD affects approximately 1-2% of general population all over the world, but most cases remain unrecognized, undiagnosed and untreated, and exposed to the risk of long-term complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Excessive flatus and abdominal bloating may reflect excessive gas production due to fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrate, especially among patients with primary or secondary disaccharidase deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • If calcium deficiency is prolonged, secondary hyperparathyroidism may develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • It can be caused by increased iron demand / loss or decreased iron intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • In babies and adolescents, rapid growth may outpace dietary intake of iron and result in deficiency in the absence of disease or a grossly abnormal diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • When loss of iron is not sufficiently compensated by adequate intake of iron from the diet, a state of iron deficiency develops over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacing flour from wheat or other gluten-containing cereals with gluten-free flours in commercial products may lead to a lower intake of important nutrients, such as iron and B vitamins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insufficient intake of selected vitamins, or certain metabolic disorders, may affect cognitive processes by disrupting the nutrient-dependent processes within the body that are associated with the management of energy in neurons, which can subsequently affect synaptic plasticity, or the ability to encode new memories. (wikipedia.org)
  • accordingly, there is risk of deficiency if the level of intake is reduced only for a few weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • If this negative balance persists, there comes the second phase- the iron deficient erythropoiesis -characterized by decrease in serum iron, low saturation of transferrin, and elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (possibly with the diminishing of labor capacity and the appearance of cognitive alterations). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intravenous iron may decrease the need for blood transfusions however increases the risk of infections when compared to oral iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrhea
  • For example, children receiving iron-enriched foods have demonstrated an increased rate in diarrhea overall and enteropathogen shedding. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • Choline itself has also been shown to have additional health benefits in relation to memory and choline deficiencies may be related to some liver and neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Replacement of iron stores is seldom such an emergency situation that it cannot wait for any such acute infection to be treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • children
  • Although it is found in the developing and developed world, it predominantly affects women and children especially those living in poverty. (omicsonline.org)
  • There is not strong evidence to support an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer in children with a solitary juvenile polyp. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Iron depletion and anemia were identified in 10.1 and 6% of children, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron overdose has been one of the leading causes of death caused by toxicological agents in children younger than 6 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for gastrointestinal disorders in children began being established in the 1960s in Great Britain, Australia, and continental Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mental and physical development of children may be affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocognitive (brain development) Effect on oral vaccination Many oral vaccines, both live and non-living, have proven to be less immunogenic or less protective when administered to infants, children or adults living in low socioeconomic conditions in developing countries than they are when used in industrialized countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • transferrin
  • Two values are important, the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation, the percentage of transferrin bound to iron. (brighthub.com)
  • Prior to administration, the iron deficiency should be diagnostically established and verified via laboratory tests (e.g., low ferritin concentration, low transferrin saturation). (wikipedia.org)
  • No passive diffusion takes place, which ensures that practically no unbound (to transferrin) iron reaches the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • destruction
  • Anemia develops when either blood loss, a slow-down in the production of new RBCs (erythropoiesis), or an increase in red cell destruction (hemolysis) causes significant reductions in RBCs, Hgb, iron levels, and the essential delivery of oxygen to body tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia can also be caused by the destruction of red blood cells or reduced red blood cell production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pernicious anemia is usually caused by autoimmune destruction of gastric parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible reasons that athletics may contribute to lower iron levels includes mechanical hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells from physical impact), loss of iron through sweat and urine, gastrointestinal blood loss, and haematuria (presence of blood in urine). (wikipedia.org)
  • stool
  • The non-absorbed iron is excreted via the stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lesions may bleed intermittently, which is rarely significant enough to be noticed (in the form of bloody vomiting or black stool), but can eventually lead to depletion of iron in the body, resulting in iron-deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)