• hemoglobin
  • The majority of iron in the body is present as hemoglobin located within erythrocytes [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Lack of iron, therefore, leads to a reduction in hemoglobin available for the red blood cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of healthy red blood cells (RBCs) or reduced hemoglobin (Hgb), the iron-bearing protein in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to tissues throughout the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia in newborn infants is noted when hemoglobin levels are lower than expected for the birth weight and postnatal age. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absorbed iron is primarily stored in the liver as ferritin (protein used for iron storage) and subsequently made available to the body for various functions, primarily for incorporation into the red blood cells' hemoglobin, thereby transporting oxygen in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement after 90 days by 2.16g/dL (iron polymaltose) and 1.93g/dL (iron sulfate). (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement after 4 months by 2.3g/dL (iron polymaltose) and 3g/dL (iron sulfate). (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: hemoglobin improvement in both groups after 3, 6, and 9 weeks, whereby after 3 and 6 weeks, a significant improvement was observed in the iron sulfate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total body iron amounts to 3 to 4.5 grams, the largest part being bound to hemoglobin in red cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia is a condition characterized by inadequate red blood cells (erythrocytes) or hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • intervention
  • INTERVENTION: Iron polymaltose 100 mg 2x a day in comparison to iron sulfate 100 mg 2x a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • INTERVENTION: Iron polymaltose 5 mg/kg body weight in one administration a day, compared to iron sulfate 5 mg/kg body weight, divided up over 2 administrations a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophageal
  • Eggs can also become lodgedin the liver, leading to high blood pressure through the liver, enlarged spleen, the build-up of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), and potentially life-threatening dilations or swollen areas in the esophagus or gastrointestinal tractthat can tear and bleed profusely (esophageal varices). (faqs.org)
  • ulcers
  • There may be signs of specific causes of anemia, e.g., koilonychia (in iron deficiency), jaundice (when anemia results from abnormal break down of red blood cells - in hemolytic anemia), bone deformities (found in thalassemia major) or leg ulcers (seen in sickle-cell disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive tests ("positive stool") may result from either upper gastrointestinal bleeding or lower gastrointestinal bleeding and warrant further investigation for peptic ulcers or a malignancy (such as colorectal cancer or gastric cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Women and young children are most commonly affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The problem is seen most commonly in low-income countries, but iron deficiency and anaemia are more common in women in all contexts. (cochrane.org)
  • The most commonly used iron form was ferrous sulphate. (cochrane.org)
  • Most commonly, people with anemia report feelings of weakness or tired, and sometimes poor concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease was named after gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, who, in 1932, together with two other colleagues at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum of the small intestine, the area most commonly affected by the illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • Normal values for men are 76- 198 mcg/L. For women, a normal range is 26-170 mcg/L. Barring a systemic problem like blood loss, your physician will likely advise you to increase your intake of iron rich foods and possibly take an iron supplement. (brighthub.com)
  • diarrhea
  • Side effects of therapy with oral iron are most often diarrhea or constipation and epigastric abdominal discomfort. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, children receiving iron-enriched foods have demonstrated an increased rate in diarrhea overall and enteropathogen shedding. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Causes of increased breakdown include a number of genetic conditions such as sickle cell anemia, infections like malaria, and certain autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Prior to administration, the iron deficiency should be diagnostically established and verified via laboratory tests (e.g., low ferritin concentration, low transferrin saturation). (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant women
  • We sought to review the evidence of iron, taken orally for at least five days per week, for improving health outcomes in non-pregnant women of reproductive age (menstruating women). (cochrane.org)
  • Certain groups of individuals, such as pregnant women, benefit from the use of iron pills for prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Excessive flatus and abdominal bloating may reflect excessive gas production due to fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrate, especially among patients with primary or secondary disaccharidase deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • If calcium deficiency is prolonged, secondary hyperparathyroidism may develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Serum ferritin radioimmunoassay is considered the test of choice for diagnosis and is helpful in indicating the amount of iron bound to transferrin in the blood (serum). (brighthub.com)
  • When a decisive diagnosis is needed, a bone marrow aspiration test is completed, which involves taking a sample of fluid and cells.This test is necessary to detect abnormal red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and in the possible case of some anemias, leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkins lymphoma, infections or tumors. (brighthub.com)
  • infection
  • Replacement of iron stores is seldom such an emergency situation that it cannot wait for any such acute infection to be treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • destruction
  • Anemia develops when either blood loss, a slow-down in the production of new RBCs (erythropoiesis), or an increase in red cell destruction (hemolysis) causes significant reductions in RBCs, Hgb, iron levels, and the essential delivery of oxygen to body tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anemia can also be caused by the destruction of red blood cells or reduced red blood cell production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pernicious anemia is usually caused by autoimmune destruction of gastric parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of anemia may be classified as impaired red blood cell (RBC) production, increased RBC destruction (hemolytic anemias), blood loss and fluid overload (hypervolemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible reasons that athletics may contribute to lower iron levels includes mechanical hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells from physical impact), loss of iron through sweat and urine, gastrointestinal blood loss, and haematuria (presence of blood in urine). (wikipedia.org)
  • stool
  • The non-absorbed iron is excreted via the stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lesions may bleed intermittently, which is rarely significant enough to be noticed (in the form of bloody vomiting or black stool), but can eventually lead to depletion of iron in the body, resulting in iron-deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Iron poisoning may result in mortality or short-term and long-term morbidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extent to which screening procedures reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer or mortality depends on the rate of precancerous and cancerous disease in that population. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • The current review identifies the root causes of the problem, assesses the clinical impact of iron deficienc y and iron deficiency anemia with a specific focus on the condition in developing countries, and outlines the potential solutions to address the problem. (omicsonline.org)
  • It may affect up to 30% of regular blood donors because each whole blood donation causes a loss of 200 to 250 mg of iron. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Iron overdose has been one of the leading causes of death caused by toxicological agents in children younger than 6 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of blood loss include trauma and gastrointestinal bleeding, among others. (wikipedia.org)