• vagus nerves
  • Stretch activates two reflexes: a short reflex mediated through the myenteric nerve plexus, and a long reflex mediated through the vagus nerves and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.) Vagus nerves carry parasympathetic action potentials to the stomach (pink arrow), where enteric plexus neurons are activated. (prezi.com)
  • Action potentials generated by the chemoreceptors are carried by the vagus nerves to the medulla oblongata (green arrow), where they inhibit parasympathetic action potentials (pink arrow), thereby decreasing gastric secretions. (prezi.com)
  • peptide
  • The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vagus nerve (CN X) also releases gastrin releasing peptide onto G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are stimulated by the hormones gastrin (not depicted in the adjacent diagram) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterochromaffin-like cells also produce pancreastatin and probably other peptide hormones and growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • This secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20 - 900 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride and hydrogen ions are secreted separately from the cytoplasm of parietal cells and mixed in the canaliculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride and sodium ions are secreted actively from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the canaliculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This creates a negative potential of -40 mV to -70 mV across the parietal cell membrane that causes potassium ions and a small number of sodium ions to diffuse from the cytoplasm into the parietal cell canaliculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen ions leave the cell through H+/K+ ATPase antiporter pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parietal cell utilizes a H + /K + -ATPase pump to secrete hydrogen ions. (vetbloom.com)
  • Hydrolysis of one ATP molecule is used to catalyse the electroneutral exchange of two luminal potassium ions for two cytoplasmic protons through the gastric membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen ions are pumped out of the cell into the canaliculi in exchange for potassium ions, via the H+/K+ ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly-acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes resorption of K+ ions and secretion of H+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • To fulfill these tasks in a regulated manner, the parietal cell is equipped with an exclusive collection of apical and basolateral ion transporter proteins that are exposed on the membrane whenever their functions are required (see e.g., review Ref. 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • To discover if HGT-1 cells have additional properties found in parietal cells, [3H]omeprazole and patch clamp recording techniques were used to evaluate specific omeprazole binding sites and K+ channels in the plasma membrane. (bmj.com)
  • Increased cAMP level results in increased protein kinase A. Protein kinase A phosphorylates proteins involved in the transport of H+/K+ ATPase from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Other cells in the stomach produce bicarbonate, a base, to buffer the fluid, ensuring that it does not become too acidic. (wikipedia.org)
  • After oral administration PPIs enter the blood stream then diffuse into parietal cells wherein an acidic environment they are protonated and trapped within the cell where they cause irreversible inhibition of the H + /K + -ATPase pump. (vetbloom.com)
  • However, studies have shown that this is not necessary as an optimal pH can be achieved rapidly with PPIs alone and co-administration of H 2 RAs could theoretically decrease the efficacy of PPIs due to the requirement for PPI activation and trapping in the acidic canalicular environment of parietal cells. (vetbloom.com)
  • Gastric lipase, together with lingual lipase, comprise the two acidic lipases. (wikipedia.org)