• Duodenal
  • Furthermore, the similar patterns of neuronal activation after different duodenal infusions may indicate a large degree of convergence at the level of primary and second-order sensory neurons, whereas the distinctly different pattern obtained earlier with gastric distension indicates partially separate neural pathways for satiety signals generated by duodenal nutrients and gastric mechanoreceptors. (physiology.org)
  • Chronically implanted duodenal catheters allow infusions of nutrients directly into the intestine, thereby bypassing oral and gastric sensory receptors. (physiology.org)
  • Duodenal infusions of nutritionally complete liquid diet ( 8 ) or specific macronutrients ( 16 , 31 ) suppress feeding in animals with open gastric fistulas (sham feeding) and in animals that are feeding normally ( 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • fibrin glue
  • Eventually both gastric fistulas closed with repeated fibrin glue applications. (sages.org)
  • Repeated laparoscopic interventions, gastric stenting and fibrin glue application were required to control localized sepsis and achieve fistula closure over the course of 2 months. (sages.org)
  • Aggressive control of intra abdominal sepsis, localization of infection with conversion to narrow drain tract and subsequent fistula repair with fibrin glue appeared in our experience as an effective treatment strategy though associated with 2-6 month recovery. (sages.org)
  • intestine
  • In a vesicointestinal fistula , there is leakage of urine from the bladder into the intestine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterocutaneous fistula: between the intestine and the skin surface, namely from the duodenum or the jejunum or the ileum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine is prevented by various mechanical and chemical factors which include the constant peristaltic movement of contents along the length of the gastrointestinal tract and the antibacterial properties of gastric secretions, pancreatic secretions and bile. (wikipedia.org)
  • feces
  • Various surgical procedures are commonly used, most commonly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining), or an endorectal flap procedure (where healthy tissue is pulled over the internal side of the fistula to keep feces or other material from reinfecting the channel). (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • The pancreas further produces large amounts of bicarbonate and secretes bicarbonate through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum to completely neutralize any gastric acid that passes further down into the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • closure
  • The closure of perforations, gastro-gastric, or intestinal fistulas usually requires invasive open or laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia and can be complex surgeries due to their reoperative or inflammatory nature. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fistula closure was obtained after one, two and three sessions in 6 (30%), 11 (55%) and 3 (15%) patients, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • acid
  • J. N. Hunt and M. T. Knox, The regulation of gastric emptying of meals containing citric acid and salts of citric acid, J. Physiol. (springer.com)
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric acid is produced by cells in the lining of the stomach, which are coupled in feedback systems to increase acid production when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells also produce mucus, which forms a viscous physical barrier to prevent gastric acid from damaging the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main constituent of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid which is produced by parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) in the gastric glands in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of gastric acid is 1.5 to 3.5 in the human stomach lumen, the acidity being maintained by the proton pump H+/K+ ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical adult human stomach will secrete about 1.5 liters of gastric acid daily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric acid secretion happens in several steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric acid is then secreted into the lumen of the gastric gland and gradually reaches the main stomach lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact manner in which the secreted acid reaches the stomach lumen is controversial, as acid must first cross the relatively pH neutral gastric mucus layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest concentration that gastric acid reaches in the stomach is 160 mM in the canaliculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a small continuous basal secretion of gastric acid between meals of usually less than 10 mEq/hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three phases in the secretion of gastric acid which increase the secretion rate in order to digest a meal: The cephalic phase: Thirty percent of the total gastric acid secretions to be produced is stimulated by anticipation of eating and the smell or taste of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric phase: About sixty percent of the total acid for a meal is secreted in this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonic
  • Traditional surgical approaches include gastrostomy followed by gastric pull-up, colonic transposition and jejunum transposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • anastomosis
  • It is surgically corrected, with resection of any fistula and anastomosis of any discontinuous segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fistulae are usually secondary to prior vascular surgery and usually occur at the proximal anastomosis at the third or fourth portion of the duodenum where it is retroperitoneal and near the aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • Recently, it has been thought that sucralfate also stimulates the production of prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factors (EGF), bFGF, and gastric mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • In women, difficult labor in childbirth may result in formation of a vesicovaginal fistula between the bladder and the vagina with resulting leakage of urine into the vagina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Along with UUN, values for BUN, protein content of diet, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and notable outputs other than urine (gastric residual, fistula output, drainages) are needed to calculate nitrogen balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal
  • Patients who are scheduled to undergo surgery for intestinal fistulas will be screened for study eligibility. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the present study we wanted to test the hypothesis with respect to different small intestinal nutrient sensors and compare it with gastric distension. (physiology.org)
  • abnormal connection
  • A fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fistula, from the Latin meaning 'a pipe', is an abnormal connection running either between two tubes or between a tube and a surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • rectal
  • Prompt treatment with a combination of sucrasulfate enema and coagulation is effective in controlling Grade 1 and 2 rectal bleeding without the development of fistula or stricture. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophagus
  • The most immediate and effective treatment in the majority of cases is a surgical repair to close the fistula/s and reconnect the two ends of the esophagus to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Fistulas at different places of the body may be caused by tuberculosis , actinomycosis (a fungus infection), the presence of diverticula , or certain other serious diseases, and the fistula itself may be a site of infection and discomfort. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • physiology
  • Beaumont published the account of his experiments in 1838 as Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eminent physician Sir William Osler took a great interest in retracing the details of this early incident in the history of gastric physiology and published his research in the form of a well-known essay entitled A Backwoods Physiologist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Various causes of fistula include: Treatment for fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that surgical treatment of a fistula without diagnosis or management of the underlying condition, if any, is not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgery
  • A commercially available flexible endoscope will be inserted through the mouth and the fistula or perforation will be closed using the Tissue Approximation System (Ethicon Endo Surgery, Cincinnati, OH). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • like other kinds of fistula, it can be corrected by surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fistulas are usually caused by injury or surgery, but they can also result from an infection or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery is often required to assure adequate drainage of the fistula (so that pus may escape without forming an abscess). (wikipedia.org)
  • These conditions include: Strictures Fistulae Diverticula Sabiston textbook of surgery board review, 7th edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • To this end, we have shown that gastric balloon distension with two paradigms designed to preferentially stimulate different types of gastric mechanosensors produced similar topographical patterns of neuronal activation in the rat caudal brain stem, with a similar proportion of catecholaminergic neurons recruited ( 28 ). (physiology.org)