• citric acid
  • NDPK activities maintain an equilibrium between the concentrations of different nucleoside triphosphates such as, for example, when guanosine triphosphate (GTP) produced in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • mucosa
  • Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • intracellular
  • Gastric-brain communication is an essential part of energy homeostasis, and several communication pathways are probable, including the gastric intracellular mTOR/S6K1 pathway mediating the interaction among ghrelin, nesfatin and endocannabinoid gastric systems, and both afferent and efferent vagal signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • 12. A process according to claim 11, wherein the agent is a member selected from the group consisting of water-soluble saccharides, amine acids, proteins and water-soluble cellulose. (google.es)
  • lactic acid
  • 8. A process according to claim 7, wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polylactic acid, copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid, copolymer of 2-hydroxybutyric acid and glycolic acid and a mixture thereof. (google.es)
  • hydronium
  • Note that chemists often write H+(aq) and refer to the hydrogen ion when describing acid-base reactions but the free hydrogen nucleus, a proton, does not exist alone in water, it exists as the hydronium ion, H3O+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polar water molecules help ionize the acid by pulling the hydrogen atom away: HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (~100%) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (~1%) The hydronium ion, H 3 O +, is formed when the aqueous hydrogen ion attaches to a water molecule. (docplayer.net)
  • concentrations
  • 2. Students will be able to predict relative concentrations of species (HA, H +, A -, HB, B -, OH - ) in solution given K a for various solutions including: a) An acid dissolved in water. (docplayer.net)
  • The quantitative nature of the neutralization reaction is most conveniently expressed in terms of the concentrations of acid and alkali. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ba(OH)2 + 2H+ → Ba2+ + 2H2O The same equation relating the concentrations of acid and base applies. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells have a more acidic pH inside the cell than outside (gastric mucosal cells being an exception). (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonia
  • An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital which can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this reaction ammonia is the base because it accepts a proton from the water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia and other bases similar to it usually have the ability to form a bond with a proton due to the unshared pair of electrons that they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaCl
  • Historically, this reaction was represented as acid + base(alkali) → salt + water For example: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O The statement is still valid as long as it is understood that in an aqueous solution the substances involved are subject to dissociation, which changes the substances ionization state. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • It reduces or eliminates infusion related metabolic acidosis, may improve gastric mucosal blood flow, and increases survival in experimental endotoxaemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The net result of these processes is reflected in body weight, and is under continuous monitoring and adjustment based on metabolic signals and needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquids
  • As these examples show, acids (in the colloquial sense) can be solutions or pure substances, and can be derived from acids (in the strict sense) that are solids, liquids, or gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • amines
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • unless otherwise specified, acid-base reactions are assumed to involve the transfer of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) (~100%) NH 4 OH(aq) NH 4+ (aq) + OH (aq) (~1%) 13 Neutralization Reactions Recall that an acid neutralizes a base to produce a salt and water. (docplayer.net)
  • Standard reduction potentials for reactions directly involving nitrous acid are shown in the table below: The data can be extended to include products in lower oxidation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Because transmembrane equilibrium must be maintained, another unionized molecule must diffuse into the cell to repeat the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • pKa ≈ 3.3 at 18 °C Nitrous acid is also highly volatile - in the gas phase it exists predominantly as a trans-planar molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaOH
  • Examples of bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • This article is about acids in chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion of a base as a concept in chemistry was first introduced by the French chemist Guillaume François Rouelle in 1754. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry the NO− 2 group is present in nitrous acid esters and nitro compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate
  • Compared with calcium-based phosphate binders, sevelamer is less likely to cause hypercalcemia, low levels of PTH, and progressive coronary and aortic calcification in hemodialysis patients. (bioportfolio.com)