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  • compounds
  • It was well established that it had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1 which suggested the presence of double or triple bond carbon-to-carbon bonds, yet such unsaturated compounds typically undergo addition reactions, which benzene does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene is the prototypical example of an aromatic compound, a hitherto unknown class of compounds, and its synthesis was the first example of aromatization, the process and chemical reactions whereby an aromatic system is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common fuels like gasoline and kerosene often contain carcinogenic additives or refining by-products, such as sulfurated compounds, or benzenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1920s, antiknock compounds were introduced by Thomas Midgley Jr. and Boyd, specifically tetraethyllead (TEL). This innovation started a cycle of improvements in fuel efficiency that coincided with the large-scale development of oil refining to provide more products in the boiling range of gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • C6H6
  • Another one of the more dangerous and abundant chemicals found at the site was 130,000 pounds of Benzene, another VOC with the chemical formula C6H6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substance now called benzene, C6H6, was known as a component of Southeast Asian aromatic resins used in perfumery since the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • In 1948, a toxicological review prepared for the American Petroleum Institute (API), the oil and gas industry trade group, stated: "it is generally considered that the only absolutely safe concentration of benzene is zero. (ucsusa.org)
  • As a series of documents obtained and analyzed by the Center for Public Integrity reveal, the major petrochemical companies-BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, and Shell Chemical-all worked through API to plan and fund $36 million worth of scientific research on benzene exposure intended to bring "tremendous economic benefit to the petroleum industry" by reducing "onerous regulations" and "litigation costs. (ucsusa.org)
  • Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • detergents
  • These exotic molecules include long chains of carbons, detergents, and chemical enhancers that supposedly make gasoline cheaper, greener, and more efficient-values that are often at odds with each other. (slate.com)
  • fuels
  • These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • Benzene is a hydrocarbon that contains six carbon and six hydrogen atoms. (sbwire.com)
  • The most influential proposal was that of Kekulé who in 1865 suggested a cyclic structure of six carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds Kekulé based his argument on the now well-known observations of arene substitution patterns, namely that there are always only one isomer of any monoderivative of benzene and three isomers of every disubstituted derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • To accurately reflect the nature of the bonding as having neither single nor double bonds, but rather something in between, benzene is often depicted with a circle inside a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, similar to the structure first illustrated by Thiele. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiknock
  • TEL had been identified chemically in the mid-19th century, but its antiknock effectiveness was discovered in 1921 by the General Motors research laboratory, which had spent several years attempting to find an additive that was both highly effective and inexpensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lead itself is the reactive antiknock agent, and TEL serves as a gasoline-soluble lead carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEL was extensively used as a gasoline additive beginning in the 1920s, wherein it served as an effective antiknock agent and prevented exhaust valve and valve seat wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • aromatic
  • Aromatization includes the formation of any aromatic system (including heterocyclic systems), and is not restricted to benzene and its derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction
  • Drip gas, so named because it can be drawn off the bottom of small chambers (called drips) sometimes installed in pipelines from gas wells, is another name for natural-gas condensate, a naturally occurring form of gasoline obtained as a byproduct of natural gas extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lawsuits
  • To avoid regulation and protect itself from lawsuits, the fossil fuel industry funded nearly $40 million of research downplaying the link between the petrochemical benzene and cancer. (ucsusa.org)
  • But the 30 scientific papers deriving from the Shanghai research project found comparatively limited links between benzene and disease, and the industry has used these papers to defend itself in multiple lawsuits. (ucsusa.org)
  • Benzene Side Effects Injury Lawsuits. (yourlawyer.com)
  • 1950s
  • Since the 1950s, it has been used as an additive in plastic production, and is found in baby and water bottles, thermal paper, CDs and DVDs. (chiroweb.com)
  • diesel
  • Cars Light Duty and Heavy Duty Trucks Buses Motorbikes Aircraft Motorboats (Diesel and Gasoline) Locomotives Construction Equipment There are a number of different pollutants that are emitted by mobile sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • Because TEL is charge neutral and contains an exterior of alkyl groups, it is highly lipophilic and soluble in petrol (gasoline). (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • In 1997, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) published a major study of Chinese workers suggesting that benzene's dangers went beyond acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the cancer most closely linked to benzene exposure. (ucsusa.org)
  • The authors concluded, "the results of the study suggest that benzene exposure is associated with a spectrum of hematologic neoplasms and related disorders in humans. (ucsusa.org)
  • The idea that benzene could be tied to multiple types of cancer was of grave concern to petrochemical companies-not necessarily because of worker safety, but because of potentially expensive reforms the companies would have to make to prevent exposure to benzene. (ucsusa.org)
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Several tests can measure your exposure to benzene. (yourlawyer.com)
  • There is a test for measuring benzene in the breath that must be done shortly after exposure. (yourlawyer.com)
  • However, benzene disappears rapidly from the blood and test results are only accurate if the test is performed after recent exposure. (yourlawyer.com)
  • If you or a loved one suffered side effects from benzene exposure, please fill out the form at the right for a free case evaluation by a qualified pollutants attorney or call us at 1-800-YOURLAWYER (1-800-968-7529). (yourlawyer.com)
  • fuel
  • In the United States, it was produced in very large quantities (more than 200,000 barrels (32,000 m3) per day in 1999) during its use as a fuel additive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline" is the term that is used in North America to refer to the most popular automobile fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • British refiners originally used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oil dominance as a motor fuel was questioned in the U.S. only after the 1973 oil crisis, which resulted in gasoline shortages and awareness on the dangers of oil dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • These vehicles could operate on either gasoline or methanol with only one fuel system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current gasoline infrastructure is designed to operate around a liquid fuel, not a gaseous fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techron is a patented fuel additive developed by the Chevron Corporation, usually consisting of gasoline mixed with 400 ppm of polyetheramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the introduction of Techron, Chevron gasolines became designated as meeting Top Tier standards for fuel cleanliness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of this include corporate average fuel economy standards and laws that ban leaded gasoline in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAGR
  • The market for benzene and xylene is growing with 5% of CAGR. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Lewes, DE -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 03/26/2015 -- Report forecast the Global Benzene market to grow at a CAGR of 4.68 percent over the period 2014-2019. (sbwire.com)
  • pesticides
  • Wells tainted with gasoline, pesticides and toxic degreasers have been isolated, and technicians test the water from the base's treatment plants monthly. (yahoo.com)
  • liquid
  • Depending on the feedstock used to produce the olefins, steam cracking can produce a benzene-rich liquid by-product called pyrolysis gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline may also enter the environment uncombusted, as liquid and as vapors, from leakage and handling during production, transport and delivery, from storage tanks, from spills, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • limits
  • To meet specific limits of benzene, an accurate quantitative determination of the compound is essential to the assessment of potential health hazards to persons handling and using gasoline. (selectscience.net)
  • In other words, benzene exposures at even low limits could trigger diseases other than leukemia, in particular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). (ucsusa.org)
  • mixture
  • Internal combustion engines work by compressing a mixture of air and gasoline in a closed cylinder, then igniting the mixture to create a controlled explosion. (slate.com)
  • workers
  • Yet despite the fact that petrochemical companies knew for as long as 70 years that benzene was dangerous-even lethal-for workers at their facilities, that knowledge was not enough to deter major companies' executive and legal teams from pouring millions of dollars into industry-shaped science " designed to protect member company interests " that downplayed the link between benzene and disease. (ucsusa.org)
  • Workers in industries that make or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of Benzene and are at the highest level of risk. (yourlawyer.com)
  • rapidly
  • Kekulé suggested in reply that benzene had two complementary structures and that these forms rapidly interconverted, which would also explain the lack of addition reactions (as the valency of each carbon atom is not that expected of a double bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • Production
  • In 1845, Charles Mansfield, working under August Wilhelm von Hofmann, isolated benzene from coal tar and began the industrial-scale production based on this method four years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines has a significant impact on the environment, both in local effects (e.g., smog) and in global effects (e.g., effect on the climate). (wikipedia.org)