• crude oil
  • Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene is one of the constituents of crude oil. (sbwire.com)
  • Further, the report states that volatility in crude oil prices affects the profitability of benzene producers as benzene prices are directly related to international crude oil prices. (sbwire.com)
  • The thick crude oil that comes out of the earth bears little resemblance to the gasoline powering your Porsche. (slate.com)
  • To appreciate the role these additives play, however, we need a basic understanding of hydrocarbons, the main ingredient of both crude oil and gasoline. (slate.com)
  • Benzene can be produced both organically and inorganically, coming from things such as forest fires, volcanoes, and is also a natural part of crude oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • See link to partial list of 144 by-products listed by Ranken Energy Sample of Crude oil (petroleum) Cylinders of Liquified petroleum gas Sample of Gasoline Sample of Kerosene Sample of Diesel fuel Motor oil Pile of asphalt-covered aggregate for formation into asphalt concrete Sulphur Walther W. Irion, Otto S. Neuwirth, "Oil Refining" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The new understanding of benzene, and hence of all aromatic compounds, proved to be so important for both pure and applied chemistry that in 1890 the German Chemical Society organized an elaborate appreciation in Kekulé's honor, celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of his first benzene paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was well established that it had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1 which suggested the presence of double or triple bond carbon-to-carbon bonds, yet such unsaturated compounds typically undergo addition reactions, which benzene does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene is the prototypical example of an aromatic compound, a hitherto unknown class of compounds, and its synthesis was the first example of aromatization, the process and chemical reactions whereby an aromatic system is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common fuels like gasoline and kerosene often contain carcinogenic additives or refining by-products, such as sulfurated compounds, or benzenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1920s, antiknock compounds were introduced by Thomas Midgley Jr. and Boyd, specifically tetraethyllead (TEL). This innovation started a cycle of improvements in fuel efficiency that coincided with the large-scale development of oil refining to provide more products in the boiling range of gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • detergents
  • These exotic molecules include long chains of carbons, detergents, and chemical enhancers that supposedly make gasoline cheaper, greener, and more efficient-values that are often at odds with each other. (slate.com)
  • You can also be exposed to dangerous levels of the solvent from indoor air that contains benzene from products that contain it such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents. (yourlawyer.com)
  • solvent
  • Industrial solvent coupled with production of benzene are fastest growing segment owing to widespread applications and strong demand from end users. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Techron consists of five components: Distillates, hydrotreated light at 40-70% weight Stoddard solvent at 15-40% weight Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aromatic at 5-10% weight Benzene, 1,2,4-trimethyl at 1-5% weight PEA (detergent), polyether amines at 20-49% weight Techroline was the predecessor to Techron. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Michael Faraday first isolated and identified benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The empirical formula for benzene was long known, but its highly polyunsaturated structure, with just one hydrogen atom for each carbon atom, was challenging to determine. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuels
  • These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiknock
  • TEL had been identified chemically in the mid-19th century, but its antiknock effectiveness was discovered in 1921 by the General Motors research laboratory, which had spent several years attempting to find an additive that was both highly effective and inexpensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lead itself is the reactive antiknock agent, and TEL serves as a gasoline-soluble lead carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEL was extensively used as a gasoline additive beginning in the 1920s, wherein it served as an effective antiknock agent and prevented exhaust valve and valve seat wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • In the United States, it was produced in very large quantities (more than 200,000 barrels (32,000 m3) per day in 1999) during its use as a fuel additive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction
  • Drip gas, so named because it can be drawn off the bottom of small chambers (called drips) sometimes installed in pipelines from gas wells, is another name for natural-gas condensate, a naturally occurring form of gasoline obtained as a byproduct of natural gas extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1950s
  • Since the 1950s, it has been used as an additive in plastic production, and is found in baby and water bottles, thermal paper, CDs and DVDs. (chiroweb.com)
  • mixture
  • Internal combustion engines work by compressing a mixture of air and gasoline in a closed cylinder, then igniting the mixture to create a controlled explosion. (slate.com)
  • fuel
  • The State Agreed To Reimburse Kissimmee For Cleaning The Site, Where Soil And Ground Water Are Contaminated By Fuel Additives. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Tests done last spring show that soil and ground water at the site, a former gasoline depot, were contaminated by fuel additives, according to city and county records. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline" is the term that is used in North America to refer to the most popular automobile fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • British refiners originally used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oil dominance as a motor fuel was questioned in the U.S. only after the 1973 oil crisis, which resulted in gasoline shortages and awareness on the dangers of oil dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • These vehicles could operate on either gasoline or methanol with only one fuel system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current gasoline infrastructure is designed to operate around a liquid fuel, not a gaseous fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techron is a patented fuel additive developed by the Chevron Corporation, usually consisting of gasoline mixed with 400 ppm of polyetheramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the introduction of Techron, Chevron gasolines became designated as meeting Top Tier standards for fuel cleanliness. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAGR
  • Lewes, DE -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 03/26/2015 -- Report forecast the Global Benzene market to grow at a CAGR of 4.68 percent over the period 2014-2019. (sbwire.com)
  • petrol
  • Because TEL is charge neutral and contains an exterior of alkyl groups, it is highly lipophilic and soluble in petrol (gasoline). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The word "benzene" derives from "gum benzoin" (benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known to European pharmacists and perfumers since the 15th century as a product of southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • He said that he had discovered the ring shape of the benzene molecule after having a reverie or day-dream of a snake seizing its own tail (this is a common symbol in many ancient cultures known as the Ouroboros or Endless knot). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Benzene is a known human carcinogen. (yourlawyer.com)
  • This electronic structure provides benzene with unusual stability and contributes to the molecular and chemical properties which are now known as aromaticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Production
  • Four years later, Mansfield began the first industrial-scale production of benzene, based on the coal-tar method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1845, Charles Mansfield, working under August Wilhelm von Hofmann, isolated benzene from coal tar and began the industrial-scale production based on this method four years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene's most abundant use is in the production of benzene, another chemical found at the site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline may also enter the environment uncombusted, as liquid and as vapors, from leakage and handling during production, transport and delivery, from storage tanks, from spills, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • However, benzene disappears rapidly from the blood and test results are only accurate if the test is performed after recent exposure. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Kekulé suggested in reply that benzene had two complementary structures and that these forms rapidly interconverted, which would also explain the lack of addition reactions (as the valency of each carbon atom is not that expected of a double bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • When gasoline leaked from tanks, the MBTE mixed easily with water and soil and biodegraded much slower than gasoline's other ingredients. (slate.com)
  • Benzene can pass into the air from water and soil. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Benzene, another additive, was found at 300 times its legal limit in the ground water. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • However, the most glaring problem with the EPA's proposed regulations is its clear failure to keep gasoline out of the nation's water supply. (rachel.org)
  • The EPA has set a "criteria level" for benzene in drinking water, based on the agency's estimate of benzene's ability to cause cancer. (rachel.org)
  • The EPA estimates that one cancer would be caused among a million people if they drank water for a lifetime contaminated with 0.66 micrograms of benzene in each liter of water. (rachel.org)
  • combustion
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines has a significant impact on the environment, both in local effects (e.g., smog) and in global effects (e.g., effect on the climate). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Gradually, the sense developed among chemists that a number of substances were chemically related to benzene, comprising a diverse chemical family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curiously, a similar, humorous depiction of benzene had appeared in 1886 in a pamphlet entitled Berichte der Durstigen Chemischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the Thirsty Chemical Society), a parody of the Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, only the parody had monkeys seizing each other in a circle, rather than snakes as in Kekulé's anecdote. (wikipedia.org)