• GCRs
  • Possible acute and late risks to the CNS from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar proton events (SPEs) are a documented concern for human exploration of our solar system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high energies of GCRs allow them to penetrate to hundreds of centimeters of any material, thus precluding radiation shielding as a plausible mitigation measure to GCR risks on the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hiroshima and Naga
  • Related radiological effect studies have shown that survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear reactor workers and patients who have undergone therapeutic radiation treatments have received low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) doses in the same 50-2000 mSv range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies are being conducted on populations accidentally exposed to radiation (such as Chernobyl, production sites, and Hiroshima and Nagasaki). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D , is Professor Emeritus of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California (Berkeley), former Associate Director of the Livermore National Laboratory, and author of four scholarly books on radiation health effects. (ratical.org)
  • A Basic Problem of Microdosimetry and Interpretation," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION BIOLOGY 47: 731-744. (ratical.org)
  • mice
  • This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study, demonstrates radioprotective potential of a formulation, prepared by combining podophyllotoxin and rutin (G-003M), in mice exposed to 11 Gy thoracic gamma radiation (TGR). (frontiersin.org)
  • tissue
  • This kind of radiation can produce tissue damage directly by striking a vital molecule, such as DNA, or indirectly by striking a water molecule and producing highly reactive free radicals that chemically attack vital molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oxidative
  • The observations revealed that G-003M could regulate immune system by curtailing radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, which has helped in minimizing radiation-inflicted pneumonitis and fibrosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives, but the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more powerful per gram and the temperatures reached are briefly in the tens of millions of degrees. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Intense thermal radiation at the hypocenter forms a nuclear fireball and if the burst is low enough, it is often associated with a mushroom cloud. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the history of atomic power development, at least 60 criticality accidents have occurred, including 22 in process environments, outside nuclear reactor cores or experimental assemblies, and 38 in small experimental reactors and other test assemblies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they exceed their allowable radiation exposure limit at a specific facility, they often migrate to a different nuclear facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • supportive
  • There are reports where radiation exposed patients were kept alive by supportive and prophylactic care but died few months later, predominantly due to pulmonary infections and pneumonitis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • space radiation
  • The contribution of microgravity effects on space radiation has not yet been estimated, but it is expected to be small. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types of tumors in humans who are exposed to space radiation will be different from those who are exposed to low-LET radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vigorous ground-based cellular and animal model research program will help quantify the risk to the CNS from space radiation exposure on future long distance space missions and promote the development of optimized countermeasures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is not viable for estimating CNS risks from space radiation, however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several experimental studies, which use heavy ion beams simulating space radiation, provide constructive evidence of the CNS risks from space radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the problem of extrapolating space radiation effects in animals to humans will be a challenge for space radiation research, such research could become limited by the population size that is used in animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on new approaches to risk assessment may be needed to provide the necessary data and knowledge to develop risk projection models of the CNS from space radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • astronauts
  • The various approaches to setting acceptable levels of radiation risk are summarized below: Unlimited Radiation Risk - NASA management, the families of loved ones of astronauts, and taxpayers would find this approach unacceptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Countless experiments have been done on cells to measure the speed with which they repair radiation-induced DNA damage, both single-strand and double-strand injuries. (ratical.org)
  • The radiation causes cellular degradation due to damage to DNA and other key molecular structures within the cells in various tissues. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • radioisotopes
  • Ingested alpha emitter radioisotopes such as transuranics or actinides are an average of about 20 times more dangerous, and in some experiments up to 1000 times more dangerous than an equivalent activity of beta emitting or gamma emitting radioisotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • X-ray absorption measurements on nickel cathode of sodium-beta alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-Cl chemical associations. (pnnl.gov)
  • rapidly
  • When there is a surrounding material such as air, rock, or water, this radiation interacts with and rapidly heats it to an equilibrium temperature (i.e. so that the matter is at the same temperature as the atomic bomb's matter). (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • With the increasing incidences of radiation-induced reproductive disorders, there is an urgent need to identify a radio-protector that is effective in multidirectional manner and can supplement the tissue's own antioxidant strategies to rescue the testes from the deleterious consequences of ROS attack. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • damage
  • Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)