• GCRs
  • Possible acute and late risks to the CNS from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar proton events (SPEs) are a documented concern for human exploration of our solar system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high energies of GCRs allow them to penetrate to hundreds of centimeters of any material, thus precluding radiation shielding as a plausible mitigation measure to GCR risks on the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D , is Professor Emeritus of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California (Berkeley), former Associate Director of the Livermore National Laboratory, and author of four scholarly books on radiation health effects. (ratical.org)
  • Consequently, there is a voluminous literature on the radiation biology of the mouse that cannot be adequately summarized here. (blogspot.com)
  • A Basic Problem of Microdosimetry and Interpretation," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION BIOLOGY 47: 731-744. (ratical.org)
  • mice
  • This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study, demonstrates radioprotective potential of a formulation, prepared by combining podophyllotoxin and rutin (G-003M), in mice exposed to 11 Gy thoracic gamma radiation (TGR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Hiroshima and Naga
  • Related radiological effect studies have shown that survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear reactor workers and patients who have undergone therapeutic radiation treatments have received low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) doses in the same 50-2000 mSv range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies are being conducted on populations accidentally exposed to radiation (such as Chernobyl, production sites, and Hiroshima and Nagasaki). (wikipedia.org)
  • neutron
  • The assembly of a critical mass establishes a nuclear chain reaction, resulting in an exponential rate of change in the neutron population over space and time leading to neutron radiation and a neutron flux. (wikipedia.org)
  • This radiation contains both a neutron and gamma ray component and is extremely dangerous to any unprotected nearby life-form. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • The largest risks for adults who have been studied include several types of leukemia, including myeloid leukemia and acute lymphatic lymphoma as well as tumors of the lung, breast, stomach, colon, bladder and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1958, Brucer tested experimental treatments for leukemia, involving the application of full body radiation and bone marrow transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Low doses of ionized radiation may induce effects that could not be manifested soon after the exposure. (frontiersin.org)
  • The contribution of microgravity effects on space radiation has not yet been estimated, but it is expected to be small. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harmful effects of radiation include serious disturbances of bone marrow and other blood-forming organs, burns, and sterility. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As the problem of extrapolating space radiation effects in animals to humans will be a challenge for space radiation research, such research could become limited by the population size that is used in animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the precise area of injury in the cell, the damage may be repaired, cause cell death, or cause delayed effects. (medscape.com)
  • The series covered psychiatric, surgical, and tropical medicine, radiation health effects, and other health topics in an American military medicine context. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 January A gamma secretase inhibitor previously experimented for treating Alzheimer's disease is found to have regenerative effects on inner ear hair cells, potentially allowing for the effective treatment of deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • wounds
  • In the testimony of Dr. Hiroshi Sawachika, although he was sufficiently far away from the Hiroshima bomb himself and was not behind a pane of window glass when the blast wave arrived, those in his company who were had serious blast injury wounds, with broken glass and pieces of wood stuck into them. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10,000
  • It has been estimated that, every day, each cell copes with at least 10,000 DNA injuries induced by routine chemical sources (including free radicals produced by the cell itself). (ratical.org)
  • Oxidative
  • The observations revealed that G-003M could regulate immune system by curtailing radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, which has helped in minimizing radiation-inflicted pneumonitis and fibrosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives, but the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more powerful per gram and the temperatures reached are briefly in the tens of millions of degrees. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Intense thermal radiation at the hypocenter forms a nuclear fireball and if the burst is low enough, it is often associated with a mushroom cloud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ducking and covering is useful at conferring a degree of protection to personnel situated outside the radius of the nuclear fireball but still within sufficient range of the nuclear explosion that standing upright and un-covered is likely to cause serious injury or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the history of atomic power development, at least 60 criticality accidents have occurred, including 22 in process environments, outside nuclear reactor cores or experimental assemblies, and 38 in small experimental reactors and other test assemblies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they exceed their allowable radiation exposure limit at a specific facility, they often migrate to a different nuclear facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • supportive
  • There are reports where radiation exposed patients were kept alive by supportive and prophylactic care but died few months later, predominantly due to pulmonary infections and pneumonitis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • space radiation
  • The types of tumors in humans who are exposed to space radiation will be different from those who are exposed to low-LET radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vigorous ground-based cellular and animal model research program will help quantify the risk to the CNS from space radiation exposure on future long distance space missions and promote the development of optimized countermeasures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is not viable for estimating CNS risks from space radiation, however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several experimental studies, which use heavy ion beams simulating space radiation, provide constructive evidence of the CNS risks from space radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on new approaches to risk assessment may be needed to provide the necessary data and knowledge to develop risk projection models of the CNS from space radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • astronauts
  • The various approaches to setting acceptable levels of radiation risk are summarized below: Unlimited Radiation Risk - NASA management, the families of loved ones of astronauts, and taxpayers would find this approach unacceptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Countless experiments have been done on cells to measure the speed with which they repair radiation-induced DNA damage, both single-strand and double-strand injuries. (ratical.org)
  • radioisotopes
  • Ingested alpha emitter radioisotopes such as transuranics or actinides are an average of about 20 times more dangerous, and in some experiments up to 1000 times more dangerous than an equivalent activity of beta emitting or gamma emitting radioisotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • The application of these molecular or synthetic drugs is limited in diverse fields of radiation owing their unacceptable level of the toxicity to one or more vital body systems at the effective concentration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • absorption
  • X-ray absorption measurements on nickel cathode of sodium-beta alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-Cl chemical associations. (pnnl.gov)
  • patients
  • In patients who underwent cardiac fluoroscopy for percutaneous coronary intervention, Wei et al, in a retrospective study, found the resulting incidence of radiation ulcers to be 0.42% (nine out of 2124 patients). (medscape.com)
  • Patients volunteered to receive experimental therapies at the hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • If the radiation type is not known then it can be determined by differential measurements in the presence of electrical fields, magnetic fields, or varying amounts of shielding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some personnel were not properly trained resulting in their own exposure to toxic amounts of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • When there is a surrounding material such as air, rock, or water, this radiation interacts with and rapidly heats it to an equilibrium temperature (i.e. so that the matter is at the same temperature as the atomic bomb's matter). (wikipedia.org)