• molecule
  • It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage . (omicsgroup.org)
  • 10 A similar example of the powerful presence of Galactose is in the differentiation between blood types O and B. These two blood types are chemically identical except that B has a molecule of Galactose. (prohealth.com)
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the balance between phosphorylating and dephosphorylating enzymes is crucial and determines the net direction of transport of glucose in these organs. (medbio.info)
  • occurs
  • At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, which is waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • This difference in recombinant proteins from those normally produced in mammalian organisms may influence the effectiveness of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • However, a quarter of the free energy of sugar-binding is associated with the hydrophobic stacking interactions formed between one face of the sugar ring and the side chain of a conserved tyrosine residue in the binding site, which is not seen in MBL. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The structure of these saccharides varies depending on the structure of the molecules to which they bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligosaccharide
  • The head of the oligosaccharide serves as a binding partner in receptor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential feature of a glycolipid is the presence of a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide bound to a lipid moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, for three other keratan sulfated proteoglycans, lumican, keratocan, and mimecan (OGN), the consensus sequence NX(T/S) along with protein secondary structure was determined to be involved in N-linked oligosaccharide extension with keratan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-enriched glycosphingolipids that contain at least one monosaccharide residue associated with a ceramide chain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • blocking saccharide
  • Cytochalasin B may bind to an asparagine residue (Asn394) in the pore, blocking saccharide uptake, which is also found in the GLUT1 transporter (2,3). (wikipedia.org)
  • asparagine
  • Its 1 H-NMR spectrum showed that antrodan was a complex union of α- and β-glucans, which had (1→4)-linked α-Glc p and (1→3)-linked β-Glc p linkages to the carbohydrate chains via asparagine linked to protein site. (mdpi.com)
  • glycolipids
  • Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, and are important for modulating the function of membrane proteins that act as receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is great diversity in the binding mechanisms of glycolipids, which is what makes them such an important target for pathogens as a site for interaction and entrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Transport is mediated via a series of conformation changes, switching between a conformation where the substrate-binding cavity is accessible from the outside, and a another conformation where it is accessible from the cytoplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • Often in lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein content was 71.0%, apparently, higher than the carbohydrate content (14.1%), and thus antrodan was characterized as a glycoprotein. (mdpi.com)
  • 1 Chemically speaking, it is a simple carbohydrate called a monosaccharide with a very specific arrangement of its 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygens. (prohealth.com)
  • uronic
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • periplasmic
  • During electron transport (a key step in ATP production in respiration), energy harnessed from electrons is used to pump protons into the periplasmic space to build a proton motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among new methods developedare those based on fluorescence,3−5 fluorescence resonance energytransfer (FRET),3,5 and bioluminescence.6 These optical methods exploit the hinge-motionconformational change exhibited by the glucose/galactose binding protein(GBP) (Figure 1), a periplasmic binding proteinfound in many bacteria that undergoes a conformational change uponbinding glucose. (nih.gov)
  • utilization
  • These modifications enabled the utilization of the protein for the detection of glucose within physiological concentrations (mM) and temperatures ranging from hypothermia to hyperthermia. (nih.gov)
  • interaction
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • As stated before GalP shares similarities with GLUT1 and other members of the MFS and like GLUT1, GalP can be inhibited by the antibiotics cytochalasin B and forskolin (Figure 1a) (3), which competitively bind to the pore blocking sugar transport into the cell (2,3,4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The best understood prokaryotic glycoproteins are S-layers, pilins, and flagellins plus a selection of cell surface and secreted proteins which are known to be involved in adhesion and/or biofilm formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta The collagenous cardiac skeleton which includes the four heart valve rings, is histologically, elastically and uniquely bound to cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they attach to their target substances, other parts of the immune system attack and destroy the tagged protein or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an inappropriate antibody reaction to normal proteins found on beta cells that are thought to be the main mechanism of beta cell destruction in Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • The most common dietary sources of Galactose are dairy products and human breast milk, where it is bound to another very important monosaccharide, Glucose - the primary source of energy for all living things. (prohealth.com)
  • 5 (These people need to get Galactose from other sources such as the pectins of fruits and vegetables, legumes, tomatoes, persimmons, and pumpkins, 6,7 or via dietary supplements such as BioPure Healing Products' Galactose powder. (prohealth.com)
  • structures
  • DNA can sometimes occur as single strands (often needing to be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins) or as A-form or Z-form helices, and occasionally in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)