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  • residues
  • Typically, mature human glycoproteins only contain three mannose residues buried under sequential modification by GlcNAc, galactose and sialic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, it was as long ago as 1976 that Mescher and Strominger reported that the S-layer protein from an archaeal prokaryote, Halobacterium salinarum , contained glycans covalently linked to asparagine residues [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For the first activity, the enzyme adds galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues that are either monosaccharides or the nonreducing ends of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor recognises terminal mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose residues on glycans attached to proteins found on the surface of some microorganisms, playing a role in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is homologous to the ricin B chain and binds to sulphated sugar moieties, with particularly high affinity for N-Acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues sulphated at positions 3 and 4 of their pyranose rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • They each contain at least some of the amino acid residues necessary for Ca2+ and ligand binding, common to functional C-type CRDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only CRDs 4 and 5 contain all of the residues required for sugar binding, forming a protease-resistant ligand-binding core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common ligand is terminal mannose residues, but N-acetylglucosamine and fucose also bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike HSGAGs and CSGAGs, the third class of GAGs, those belonging to keratan sulfate types, are driven towards biosynthesis through particular protein sequence motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • This difference in recombinant proteins from those normally produced in mammalian organisms may influence the effectiveness of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • The MANY and MANZ subunits are hydrophobic integral membrane proteins with six and one transmembrane alpha helical spanner(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a quarter of the free energy of sugar-binding is associated with the hydrophobic stacking interactions formed between one face of the sugar ring and the side chain of a conserved tyrosine residue in the binding site, which is not seen in MBL. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Antibodies have an antibody-antigen complex which causes complementary antigens to bind to it. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligosaccharide
  • The head of the oligosaccharide serves as a binding partner in receptor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential feature of a glycolipid is the presence of a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide bound to a lipid moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, for three other keratan sulfated proteoglycans, lumican, keratocan, and mimecan (OGN), the consensus sequence NX(T/S) along with protein secondary structure was determined to be involved in N-linked oligosaccharide extension with keratan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-enriched glycosphingolipids that contain at least one monosaccharide residue associated with a ceramide chain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • substrate
  • Transport is mediated via a series of conformation changes, switching between a conformation where the substrate-binding cavity is accessible from the outside, and a another conformation where it is accessible from the cytoplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • Proteins have a specific 3D active site that is complementary to a substrate and morph to fit it. (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • molecules
  • RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of these saccharides varies depending on the structure of the molecules to which they bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Forskolin is a structural homologue of D-galactose (Figure 1a) (3) and therefore can bind with a similar affinity to the transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose transporter
  • This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter proteins at cellular and molecular level. (ijbs.com)
  • periplasmic
  • Among new methods developedare those based on fluorescence,3−5 fluorescence resonance energytransfer (FRET),3,5 and bioluminescence.6 These optical methods exploit the hinge-motionconformational change exhibited by the glucose/galactose binding protein(GBP) (Figure 1), a periplasmic binding proteinfound in many bacteria that undergoes a conformational change uponbinding glucose. (nih.gov)
  • During electron transport (a key step in ATP production in respiration), energy harnessed from electrons is used to pump protons into the periplasmic space to build a proton motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, which is waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • Often in lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • These modifications enabled the utilization of the protein for the detection of glucose within physiological concentrations (mM) and temperatures ranging from hypothermia to hyperthermia. (nih.gov)
  • thus
  • However, when GalP is not required (i.e. when glucose is available), GalR/GalS will bind the promoter operator site thus blocking transcription and preventing cAMP-CRP activation (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • There is great diversity in the binding mechanisms of glycolipids, which is what makes them such an important target for pathogens as a site for interaction and entrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • DNA can sometimes occur as single strands (often needing to be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins) or as A-form or Z-form helices, and occasionally in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Describe the enzymes required for the digestion of proteins and their location. (acemprimary.com)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Currently, BRENDA contains manually annotated data from over 140,000 different scientific articles, each enzyme entry is clearly linked to at least one literature reference, to its source organism, and, where available, to the protein sequence of the enzyme. (wikivisually.com)
  • living organisms
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • the lymphocytes of the immune system are the only cells in the body to make antibodies, while developing red blood cells are the only cells that make the oxygen-transport protein hemoglobin. (docplayer.net)
  • Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • uronic
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The commercially available, Tn 5 -derived transposome used in this protocol consists of a linear segment of DNA containing an R6K γ replication origin, a gene for kanamycin resistance and two mosaic sequence ends, which serve as transposase binding sites. (jove.com)
  • carbon
  • The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to produce fumaric acid in the presence of glycerol and/or various monosaccharides as carbon sources was examined for seventeen different strains of this fungi. (paperity.org)
  • The anomeric carbon of the sugar binds to a free hydroxyl group on the lipid backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • It is an inappropriate antibody reaction to normal proteins found on beta cells that are thought to be the main mechanism of beta cell destruction in Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the initial binding mechanism, which is followed by the expression of integrins which form stronger bonds and allow leukocytes to migrate toward the site of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they attach to their target substances, other parts of the immune system attack and destroy the tagged protein or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • E3 has an electron acceptor bound to it (FAD). (brainscape.com)
  • During electron transport (a key step in ATP production in respiration), energy harnessed from electrons is used to pump protons into the periplasmic space to build a proton motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • GalR and GalS have very similar primary structure sequences, and have the same binding sites on the operator (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugar
  • As stated before GalP shares similarities with GLUT1 and other members of the MFS and like GLUT1, GalP can be inhibited by the antibiotics cytochalasin B and forskolin (Figure 1a) (3), which competitively bind to the pore blocking sugar transport into the cell (2,3,4). (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • It is initiated by the en bloc transfer on Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 to nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum in a co-translational manner as the protein entered through the transport system. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Pathogenic Yersinia species possess a type III secretion system, which is required for the delivery of effector Yop proteins into target cells during infection. (jove.com)
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta The collagenous cardiac skeleton which includes the four heart valve rings, is histologically, elastically and uniquely bound to cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)