• enzymes
  • Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the balance between phosphorylating and dephosphorylating enzymes is crucial and determines the net direction of transport of glucose in these organs. (medbio.info)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike HSGAGs and CSGAGs, the third class of GAGs, those belonging to keratan sulfate types, are driven towards biosynthesis through particular protein sequence motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • This difference in recombinant proteins from those normally produced in mammalian organisms may influence the effectiveness of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • The MANY and MANZ subunits are hydrophobic integral membrane proteins with six and one transmembrane alpha helical spanner(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a quarter of the free energy of sugar-binding is associated with the hydrophobic stacking interactions formed between one face of the sugar ring and the side chain of a conserved tyrosine residue in the binding site, which is not seen in MBL. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligosaccharide
  • The head of the oligosaccharide serves as a binding partner in receptor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential feature of a glycolipid is the presence of a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide bound to a lipid moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, for three other keratan sulfated proteoglycans, lumican, keratocan, and mimecan (OGN), the consensus sequence NX(T/S) along with protein secondary structure was determined to be involved in N-linked oligosaccharide extension with keratan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-enriched glycosphingolipids that contain at least one monosaccharide residue associated with a ceramide chain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • asparagine
  • Its 1 H-NMR spectrum showed that antrodan was a complex union of α- and β-glucans, which had (1→4)-linked α-Glc p and (1→3)-linked β-Glc p linkages to the carbohydrate chains via asparagine linked to protein site. (mdpi.com)
  • substrate
  • Transport is mediated via a series of conformation changes, switching between a conformation where the substrate-binding cavity is accessible from the outside, and a another conformation where it is accessible from the cytoplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • molecules
  • The structure of these saccharides varies depending on the structure of the molecules to which they bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • periplasmic
  • Among new methods developedare those based on fluorescence,3−5 fluorescence resonance energytransfer (FRET),3,5 and bioluminescence.6 These optical methods exploit the hinge-motionconformational change exhibited by the glucose/galactose binding protein(GBP) (Figure 1), a periplasmic binding proteinfound in many bacteria that undergoes a conformational change uponbinding glucose. (nih.gov)
  • During electron transport (a key step in ATP production in respiration), energy harnessed from electrons is used to pump protons into the periplasmic space to build a proton motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, which is waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • These modifications enabled the utilization of the protein for the detection of glucose within physiological concentrations (mM) and temperatures ranging from hypothermia to hyperthermia. (nih.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • There is great diversity in the binding mechanisms of glycolipids, which is what makes them such an important target for pathogens as a site for interaction and entrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • As stated before GalP shares similarities with GLUT1 and other members of the MFS and like GLUT1, GalP can be inhibited by the antibiotics cytochalasin B and forskolin (Figure 1a) (3), which competitively bind to the pore blocking sugar transport into the cell (2,3,4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, and are important for modulating the function of membrane proteins that act as receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best understood prokaryotic glycoproteins are S-layers, pilins, and flagellins plus a selection of cell surface and secreted proteins which are known to be involved in adhesion and/or biofilm formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta The collagenous cardiac skeleton which includes the four heart valve rings, is histologically, elastically and uniquely bound to cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they attach to their target substances, other parts of the immune system attack and destroy the tagged protein or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an inappropriate antibody reaction to normal proteins found on beta cells that are thought to be the main mechanism of beta cell destruction in Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • However, when GalP is not required (i.e. when glucose is available), GalR/GalS will bind the promoter operator site thus blocking transcription and preventing cAMP-CRP activation (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein content was 71.0%, apparently, higher than the carbohydrate content (14.1%), and thus antrodan was characterized as a glycoprotein. (mdpi.com)
  • structures
  • DNA can sometimes occur as single strands (often needing to be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins) or as A-form or Z-form helices, and occasionally in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage . (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. (wikipedia.org)