• genes
  • Bose S, Deininger M, Gora-Tybor J, Goldman JM, Melo JV (1998) The presence of typical and atypical BCR-ABL fusion genes in leukocytes of normal individuals: biologic significance and implications for the assessment of minimal residual disease. (springer.com)
  • However, other fusion proteins, especially those that occur naturally, combine only portions of coding sequences and therefore do not maintain the original functions of the parental genes that formed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond these effects, some gene fusions may cause regulatory changes that alter when and where these genes act. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR is one of the two genes in the BCR-ABL complex, which is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five functional human genes encoding Hsp90 protein isoforms are listed below: There are 12 human pseudogenes (non-functional genes) that encode additional Hsp90 isoforms that are not expressed as proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • A 22-nucleotide fragment of a transfer RNA regulates translation by binding to the mRNA of a ribosomal protein and increasing its expression, and downregulation of the fragment in patient-derived live. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This hybrid BCR-ABL gene in CML is transcribed into a novel 8.5 kb mRNA with a b3a2 and/or b2a2 junction. (springeropen.com)
  • This mechanism is thought to be more efficient, resulting in an approximately 80% to 95% decrease in the protein and mRNA expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Biernaux C, Loos M, Sels A, Huez G, Stryckmans P (1995) Detection of major BCR-ABL gene expression at a very low level in blood cells of some healthy individuals. (springer.com)
  • Growth arrest of BCR-ABL positive cells with a sequence-specific polyamide-chlorambucil conjugate. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first demonstration that altering the location of plasmid expressed Bcr-Abl can kill leukemia cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The cells are non-adherent and rounded, are positive for the bcr:abl fusion gene, and bear some proteomic resemblance to both undifferentiated granulocytes and erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like in HIV's replication cycle, these proteins are needed for viral budding from the host cell's plasma membrane, where the fully formed virions leave the cell to infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As their name implies, heat shock proteins protect cells when stressed by elevated temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • They account for 1-2% of total protein in unstressed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when cells are heated, the fraction of heat shock proteins increases to 4-6% of cellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was first isolated by extracting proteins from cells stressed by heating, dehydrating or by other means, all of which caused the cell's proteins to begin to denature. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • This typically involves removing the stop codon from a cDNA sequence coding for the first protein, then appending the cDNA sequence of the second protein in frame through ligation or overlap extension PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • That DNA sequence will then be expressed by a cell as a single protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein can be engineered to include the full sequence of both original proteins, or only a portion of either. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsp90 is highly conserved and expressed in a variety of different organisms from bacteria to mammals - including the prokaryotic analogue HtpG (high-temperature protein G) with 40% sequence identity and 55% similarity to the human protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Being a cytoplasmic protein requires that the protein be globular in structure, that is largely non-polar on the inside and polar on the outside, so as to be dissolved by water. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • It has also been shown to bind (in a different conformation from the VEGF binding) to the BCR-ABL fusion protein, specifically inhibiting the drug-resistant T315I mutant isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHLPP1α, which was the first PHLPP isoform to be characterized, lacks the N-terminal portion of the protein, including the Ras association domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • They used Gleevec to stimulate Bcr-Abl to go to the nucleus (by unknown mechanism), followed by nuclear entrapment by leptomycin B (LMB), a general inhibitor of nuclear export. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • murine
  • In the case of the murine leukemia viruses, a species of viruses capable of causing cancer in murines (mice), the viral life cycle can also be responsible for oncogenesis through a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein called "Mo-MuLV(src)", which is a Gag-v-Src protein capable of inducing oncogenesis in living mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • We analyzed 350 follow-up samples from 16 children (aged 4-17 years) with BCR/ABL-positive ALL by Ig/TCR-based real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and by reverse-transcriptase (RT) RQ-PCR for BCR/ABL transcripts. (linkos.cz)
  • In our hands, the quantification of BCR/ABL transcripts appears to be a more reliable method than the generally accepted Ig/TCR-based MRD monitoring as the number of false-negative samples by BCR/ABL quantification is significantly lower. (linkos.cz)
  • serine
  • Although the BCR region also expresses serine/threonine kinases, the tyrosine kinase function is very relevant for drug therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes are members of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family (EC 2.7.11.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein has serine/threonine kinase activity and is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases including RhoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • On the other hand, the controlled activation of Abl kinases is required for a large number of normal cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which multiple cellular proteins transiently activate Abl kinases to perform cellular functions. (springer.com)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a specific case, a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the Rous sarcoma virus is useful in illustrating the dual role that the fusion protein plays in both the viral and host cellular life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock proteins, as a class, are among the most highly expressed cellular proteins across all species. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • With the same sensitivity of both methods we found significantly more false-negative samples by Ig/TCR approach (70 samples) compared to BCR/ABL quantification (20 samples). (linkos.cz)
  • isoforms
  • Most isoforms share a common C-terminal domain, which contains two zinc finger motifs that are required for hetero- or homo-dimerization, and for interactions with other proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • decrease
  • Other mechanisms for resistance include Bcr-Abl amplification or overexpression, clonal evolution, a decrease in Gleevec bioavailability or cell exposure, and upregulation of drug efflux pumps[ 6 , 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • positive
  • In 38 samples from those patients, M-BCR/ABL expression was generally higher than m-BCR/ABL expression, being negative by m-BCR/ABL and positive by M-BCR/ABL in 13 samples. (linkos.cz)
  • The quantitative levels differed by more than 1 log in 46 (36%) double-positive samples, being underestimated by Ig/TCR method in 25 cases and by m-BCR/ABL quantification in 21 cases. (linkos.cz)
  • Our data suggest that BCR/ABL-positive childhood ALL is a biologically heterogeneous group. (linkos.cz)
  • Although Gleevec is currently the "gold standard" drug of choice for Bcr-Abl-positive CML[ 3 - 5 ], resistance to treatment with Gleevec occurs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ABL1
  • Evidence that has accumulated over the last years points to c-Abl and Arg (ABL1 and ABL2) as being particular forms of the Src family of kinases. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • Altering the subcellular localization of signal transducing proteins is a novel approach for therapeutic intervention. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For partial gene fusions, the shuffling of different active sites and binding domains have potential to result in new proteins with novel functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, PHLPP dephosphorylates conventional and novel members of the protein kinase C family at their hydrophobic motifs, corresponding to Ser-660 in PKCβII. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHLPP1 and 2 also dephosphorylate the hydrophobic motifs of two classes of the protein kinase C (PKC) family: the conventional PKCs and the novel PKCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • A biomolecular target (most commonly a protein or nucleic acid) is a key molecule involved in a particular metabolic or signaling pathway that is associated with a specific disease condition or pathology or to the infectivity or survival of a microbial pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • We present the entire set of mechanisms that lead to Abl activation, grouping the numerous studies on physiological stimuli acting on Abl into distinct activation categories. (springer.com)
  • The recently obtained insights into the structure of autoinhibited Abl is integrated and is used as guide to explain the different molecular mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Pendergast AM. The Abl family kinases: Mechanisms of regulation and signaling. (springer.com)
  • Other in vitro research indicates ITCs may affect levels of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, the oncoprotein affecting mechanisms of leukemia. (wikipedia.org)