• terreus
  • Although thought to be strictly asexual until recently, A. terreus is now known to be capable of sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus also produces aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conidia of A. terreus are small, about 2 µm in diameter, globose-shaped, smooth-walled, and can vary from light yellow to hyaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Broad Fungal Genome Initiative funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease carried out the sequencing A. terreus in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This group is of particular relevance to humans as sources for medicinally important compounds, such as antibiotics and for making bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese, but also as pathogens of humans and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the health implications in humans and animals, A. flavus colonization in crops causes considerable economic losses because of reduced utilization and lower price of aflatoxin-contaminated grains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • invasive
  • Sinus aspergilloma occurs occasionally in RA patients and can progress to invasive Aspergillus disease. (springer.com)
  • A recent warning issued by the Food and Drugs Administration and supported by the American College of Rheumatology Drug Safety Committee draws attention to histoplasmosis and other invasive fungal infections, including fatal cases, reported in RA patients taking TNFα antagonists (FDA Alert 9/4/2008). (springer.com)
  • Candida
  • Candida and Cryptococcus are the important ocular pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus , producer of aflatoxin, the fungal contaminant of nuts and stored grain that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen, Candida albicans , cause of thrush, diaper rash and vaginitis, and Cryphonectria parasitica , responsible for the demise of 4 billion chestnut trees in the eastern USA (Alexopoulos et al. (tolweb.org)
  • sclerotia
  • Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo , but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Under adverse conditions such as lack of adequated nutrients or water, the fungal mycelium will transform to resistant structures called sclerotia, which can survive in extremely harsh environmental conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • A. flavus is complex in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. flavus overwinters in the soil and appears as propagules on decaying matter, either as mycelia or sclerotia. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelial
  • however, conidia producing thick mycelial mats are often seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, stuA , fluG , flbC , and others genes involved in mycelial and conidial development were down-regulated, which disrupted the cell's orderly differentiation and blocked conidia formation and mycelia development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, resveratrol affected mycelial morphologic characteristics and inhibited conidia formation of A. flavus in medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ascomycota
  • The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • vegetative
  • Isozyme analysis, vegetative compatability group (VCG) analysis and electrophoretic mobility of cell wall proteins have been shown to be useful for the detection of strains of some fungal pathogens. (springer.com)
  • ascomycetes
  • Asexual reproduction of ascomycetes is very diverse from both structural and functional points of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Budding: Asexual reproduction process in ascomycetes also involves the budding which we clearly observe in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • ascospores
  • The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • endophthalmitis
  • Fungal endophthalmitis can be divided into the less common endogenous infections and the more common exogenous infections. (medscape.com)
  • Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare complication after cataract surgery. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] There have been recent outbreaks of fungal endophthalmitis associated with contaminated compounded brilliant blue G and triamcinolone. (medscape.com)
  • hypersensitivity
  • 2) The conidia and fungal spores associated with immediate-type hypersensitivity are usually larger than 5 µm, while those associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity are considerably smaller, and can penetrate the smaller airways. (phadia.com)
  • isolates
  • In addition, it is important to recognise that many fungal isolates recovered from clinical samples do not represent significant disease. (bmj.com)
  • antifungal
  • In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • diseases
  • A. flavus is unique in that it is a thermotolerant disease, so can survive at temperatures that other diseases cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • soil
  • The propagules in the soil, which are now conidia, are dispersed by wind and insects (such as stink bugs or lygus bugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • A. flavus infections can occur while hosts are still in the field (preharvest), but often show no symptoms (dormancy) until postharvest storage and/or transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques depending on the variations in the nucleotide sequences of the pathogen DNA have become the preferred ones, because of their greater speed, specificity, sensitivity, reliability, and reproducibility of the results obtained, following the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (springer.com)
  • Mechanism
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • phenotypic
  • For the future, there is an emerging consensus that a combined (phenotypic and molecular) approach is more powerful for fungal identification, especially for moulds. (bmj.com)