• spore
  • The fungal spore counts in outdoor and indoor air vary considerably, depending on various environmental and other factors. (phadia.com)
  • Verticillium morphology includes a characteristic verticilliate arrangement of the three to five asexual spore producing cells (phialides) forming branches at each node of the conidiophores (Kim et al. (springer.com)
  • humans
  • This group is of particular relevance to humans as sources for medicinally important compounds, such as antibiotics and for making bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese, but also as pathogens of humans and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the health implications in humans and animals, A. flavus colonization in crops causes considerable economic losses because of reduced utilization and lower price of aflatoxin-contaminated grains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sclerotia
  • Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo , but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Under adverse conditions such as lack of adequated nutrients or water, the fungal mycelium will transform to resistant structures called sclerotia, which can survive in extremely harsh environmental conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • A. flavus is complex in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. flavus overwinters in the soil and appears as propagules on decaying matter, either as mycelia or sclerotia. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • A. flavus is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and causes disease on many important agriculture crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • ascospores
  • The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • In addition, it is important to recognise that many fungal isolates recovered from clinical samples do not represent significant disease. (bmj.com)
  • antifungal
  • It is crucial to the development of knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and evolution of fungal diseases, for prediction of intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents and for the detection of clusters of nosocomial infection among hospitalised patients. (bmj.com)
  • In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • genes
  • Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • incidence
  • The incidence of A. flavus infection increases in the presence of insects and any type of stress on the host in the field as a result of damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of fungal infection in the immunocompromised has continued to increase over the last two or three decades. (bmj.com)
  • ascomycetes
  • Asexual reproduction of ascomycetes is very diverse from both structural and functional points of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Budding: Asexual reproduction process in ascomycetes also involves the budding which we clearly observe in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • The propagules in the soil, which are now conidia, are dispersed by wind and insects (such as stink bugs or lygus bugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Candida
  • Aspergillus flavus , producer of aflatoxin, the fungal contaminant of nuts and stored grain that is both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen, Candida albicans , cause of thrush, diaper rash and vaginitis, and Cryphonectria parasitica , responsible for the demise of 4 billion chestnut trees in the eastern USA (Alexopoulos et al. (tolweb.org)
  • molecular
  • For the future, there is an emerging consensus that a combined (phenotypic and molecular) approach is more powerful for fungal identification, especially for moulds. (bmj.com)
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • sequences
  • Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques depending on the variations in the nucleotide sequences of the pathogen DNA have become the preferred ones, because of their greater speed, specificity, sensitivity, reliability, and reproducibility of the results obtained, following the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (springer.com)
  • diseases
  • In the literature, we found 20 reports of Aspergillus infection in patients with chronic inflammatory joint diseases (including 10 with RA). (springer.com)
  • A. flavus is unique in that it is a thermotolerant disease, so can survive at temperatures that other diseases cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • seeds
  • A. flavus has the potential to infect seedlings by sporulation on injured seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In grains, the pathogen can invade seed embryos and cause infection, which decreases germination and can lead to infected seeds planted in the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • In summary, two global transcriptional regulators for fungal development, mycotoxin production, and seed pathogenicity of the A. flavus system have been established. (frontiersin.org)
  • Generally, excessive moisture conditions and high temperatures of storage grains and legumes increase the occurrence of A. flavus aflatoxin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important and general is production of conidia, but chlamydospores are also frequently produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcripts of laeA and veA were slightly inhibited by resveratrol, which may partly decrease aflatoxin production and depress conidia formation. (biomedcentral.com)