• effectors
  • Allosteric effectors can bind to regulatory proteins involved in RNA transcription in order to change its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion systems and each secretory pathway is specific to an effector family: apoplastic effectors : proteins which stay into the apoplast, they are translocated and accumulated into a distinct compartment enclosing the growing hypha named the EIHM (extra-invasive hyphal membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic effectors : proteins which enter the host cytoplasm, they are accumulated into a complex plant-derived structure named the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and they are later translocated across the EIHM inside the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ETI is typically activated by the presence of specific pathogen "effectors" and then triggers strong antimicrobial responses (see R gene section below). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • A number of bacterial and fungal pathogens capture human C4BP, which allows them to establish infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has warned about the risk of infection from two bacterial pathogens, Legionella and Listeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, while many medical advances have been made to safeguard against infection by pathogens, through the use of vaccination, antibiotics, and fungicide, pathogens continue to threaten human life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although obvious qualitative differences in disease resistance can be observed when multiple specimens are compared (allowing classification as "resistant" or "susceptible" after infection by the same pathogen strain at similar inoculum levels in similar environments), a gradation of quantitative differences in disease resistance is more typically observed between plant strains or genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients or vulnerable people with a weakened immune system, although fungi are common problems in the immunocompetent population as the causative agents of skin, nail, or yeast infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi, such as Coccidioides immitis, also possess degradative chitinases related to their role as detritivores and also to their potential as arthropod pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Integrin-like receptors (ILRs) are found in plants and carry unique functional properties similar to true integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrin-like receptors and integrin-linked kinases together have been implicated in surface adhesion, immune response, and ion accumulation in plant cells in a manner akin to the family of integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are around 55 to 110 kDa and some studies have found them to react with animal anti-β1 antibodies suggesting the structural similarity between animal integrins and these plant integrin-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • ILRs play a role in protein-protein interaction and are found in the plasma membrane of plant cells in the leaf, root and vasculature of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • These virtonectin-like and fibronectin-like protein provide further support that compounds in the cell membrane of plant cells have important regulatory functions in the immune response such as the activation of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the immune system or "good" microbiota are damaged in any way (such as by chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being taken to kill other pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other surface proteins to attach to host tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • many bacteria like Salmonella have two proteins to turn the GTPases on and off. (wikipedia.org)
  • chitin
  • These protein complexes are involved in cytokinesis, chitin deposition, cell polarity, spore formation, in the morphogenesis checkpoint, spindle alignment checkpoint and bud site selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mammals do not produce chitin, they have two functional chitinases, Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity but lack chitinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is currently assumed that chitin digestion by animals requires bacterial symbionts and lengthy fermentations, similar to cellulase digestion by ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium
  • The most common bacterial disease is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects about 2 million people mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • This polarity of the septin network allows concentration of some proteins primarily to the mother side of the neck, some to the center and others to the bud site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each possess only one domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • For instance, more than 2000 of the ~20,000 human proteins are "DNA-binding", including about 750 Zinc-finger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main form of C4BP in human blood is composed of 7 identical alpha-chains and one unique beta-chain, which in turn binds anticoagulant, vitamin K-dependent protein S. C4BP is a large glycoprotein (500 kDa) with an estimated plasma concentration of 200 micrograms/mL synthesized mainly in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research in human cells suggests that septins build cages around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing the harmful microbes and preventing them from invading other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rice plants have been modified to increase micronutrients such as vitamin A, accelerate photosynthesis, tolerate herbicides, resist pests, increase grain size, generate nutrients, flavours or produce human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventria Bioscience uses a proprietary system known as Express Tec for producing recombinant human proteins in rice grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two proteins are produced naturally in human breast milk and are used globally in infant formula and rehydration products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Takaiwa is conducting human clinical trials with this riceHuman blood protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human serum albumin (HSA) is a blood protein in human blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human pathogen is a pathogen (microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • although, individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, including airborne, direct or indirect contact, sexual contact, through blood, breast milk, or other body fluids, and through the fecal-oral route. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • PGs can be produced by pathogens to degrade the polygalacturonan component of plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • She expanded her research of plant transformation to include chickpeas and mung bean, two important sources of protein for India's predominantly vegetarian population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research at Bose has included Isolation, characterization and monitoring the functionality of insecticidal proteins from plant sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has worked on identification, characterisation and purification of few insecticidal lectins and other proteins from plant sources and isolation and cloning of effective insecticidal lectin and other protein coding gene(s) from respective plant genome(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant fungal plant pathogens include:[citation needed] Fusarium spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include some of the most destructive plant pathogens including the genus Phytophthora, which includes the causal agents of potato late blight and sudden oak death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant oomycete plant pathogens include: Pythium spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with these differences, research indicates that similar proteins involved in the interaction between the ECM and animals cells are also involved in the interaction of the cell wall and plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant protein with structural similarity to integrins contains the amino acid sequence Asn-Gly-Asp (NGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other plant chitinases may be required for creating fungal symbioses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in plant chitinases this may be related to pathogen resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant (and hence a reduction of disease), while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit little disease damage despite substantial pathogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease outcome is determined by the three-way interaction of the pathogen, the plant and the environmental conditions (an interaction known as the disease triangle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of plant WRKY proteins have been identified in Giardia lamblia and Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roles
  • These roles are governed by an ever increasingly complex network of interactions with other DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The interaction with apoptotic and necrotic cells is mediated by the Gla domain of protein S and does not affect the ability of C4BP to inhibit complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attacking and lysing these cells allows the pathogen to harm the host organism, and also provides it with a source of iron from the lysed hemoglobin, like the fungus Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • some of these are pathogenesis related (PR) proteins that are induced as part of systemic acquired resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both involved in resistance to fungal and insect attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including as a cytotoxic anticancer agent and antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Some ILRs mimic the α-subunit of integrin proteins containing the ligand binding region known as the I-domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • For example, proteins that regulate transcription by binding DNA are called transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMG-box domains are found in high mobility group proteins which are involved in a variety of DNA-dependent processes like replication and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WRKY transcription factor family (pronounced 'worky') is a class of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, two WRKY transcription factors, ABF1 and ABF2, established the role of WRKY proteins as a novel family of transcriptional regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • A DNA-binding domain (DBD) is an independently folded protein domain that contains at least one structural motif that recognizes double- or single-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federici L, Caprari C, Mattei B, Savino C, Di Matteo A, De Lorenzo G, Cervone F, Tsernoglou D. Structural requirements of endopolygalacturonase for the interaction with PGIP (polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • GCM1 and FLYWCH are proposed ancestral proteins base on their crystal structural similarity to the WRKY domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Evolutionary medicine has found that under horizontal transmission, the host population might never develop tolerance to the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)