• fungi
  • Nonhost resistance protects plants against attack by the vast majority of potential pathogens, including phytopathogenic fungi. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To date, a few oomycete genomes have been sequenced, and this enables a comprehensive comparison of genomic features present in oomycetes, fungi, and other eukaryotic species such as gene families and protein domains. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi, such as Coccidioides immitis, also possess degradative chitinases related to their role as detritivores and also to their potential as arthropod pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients or vulnerable people with a weakened immune system, although fungi are common problems in the immunocompetent population as the causative agents of skin, nail, or yeast infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In the case of Botrytis cinerea , small RNAs silence the expression of host defense genes, resulting in the host plant cells being less able to resist the fungal attack. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonhost resistance against each of these pathogens was associated with changes in transcript abundance of distinct sets of nonhost-specific genes, although general (not nonhost-associated) transcriptional responses to the different pathogens overlapped considerably. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The results suggest that nonhost resistance and basal host defense of barley are functionally related and that nonhost resistance to different fungal pathogens is associated with more robust regulation of complex but largely nonoverlapping sets of pathogen-responsive genes involved in similar metabolic or signaling pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW-RESISTANT5 ( PMR5 ) and PMR6 genes. (plantcell.org)
  • A large fraction of genes in each genome encodes DNA-binding proteins (see Table). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, expression data (both microarray and RNA-seq data) can be used to infer co-expression of genes that are possibly co-regulated and protein-DNA interaction studies (such as ChIP-seq) can be used to identify specific binding of a transcription factor at the promoter regions of its target genes. (umass.edu)
  • In the potato-Phytophthora system, the host-pathogen response has evolved in a highly specific way: resistance (R) genes from wild species, which are introduced into cultivated potato by breeding, are matched by avirulence (Avr) genes in Phytophthora. (cshlpress.com)
  • But in our case, the gene appears to produce a large regulatory protein that exerts its effect by regulating the expression of other genes, possibly effector genes. (cshlpress.com)
  • The efforts of plant breeders to obtain resistant varieties by introducing R genes, either by classical breeding or by genetic modification, may be a waste of time and resources when the genome dynamics of the pathogen population is not understood," says Govers. (cshlpress.com)
  • Monitoring field populations of plant pathogens at the genome level will be instrumental for predicting the durability of R genes in crop plants. (cshlpress.com)
  • potato late b
  • The potato late blight pathogen, known to scientists as Phytophthora infestans, is a fungus-like organism that was responsible for the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s and continues to cause devastating agricultural losses worldwide today. (cshlpress.com)
  • They include some of the most destructive plant pathogens including the genus Phytophthora, which includes the causal agents of potato late blight and sudden oak death. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptor proteins
  • Verschiedene SNARE-Proteine (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors) und die entsprechenden Faktoren sind verantwortlich für die einzelnen Fusionen von Vesikeln mit den entsprechenden Membranen. (rero.ch)
  • Unlike animal PRRs, which associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an extracellular domain, transmembrane domain, juxtamembrane domain and intracellular kinase domain as part of a single protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Integrin-like receptors (ILRs) are found in plants and carry unique functional properties similar to true integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrin-like receptors and integrin-linked kinases together have been implicated in surface adhesion, immune response, and ion accumulation in plant cells in a manner akin to the family of integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are around 55 to 110 kDa and some studies have found them to react with animal anti-β1 antibodies suggesting the structural similarity between animal integrins and these plant integrin-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum , another fungal wilt pathogen. (umass.edu)
  • WAGENINGEN, The Netherlands, Mon., July 3, 2006 - A team of researchers from Wageningen University report in this month's issue of Genome Research that they have identified a unique genetic fingerprint in the pathogen responsible for potato blight. (cshlpress.com)
  • She has worked on identification, characterisation and purification of few insecticidal lectins and other proteins from plant sources and isolation and cloning of effective insecticidal lectin and other protein coding gene(s) from respective plant genome(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • F. oxysporum is a eukaryotic pathogen that causes infections in both humans and plants, representing a multi-host model for the genetic dissection of fungal pathogenicity and to study host immunity. (umass.edu)
  • Dissecting host immunity against fungal infections has the potential to develop more effective anti-fungal drugs for the protection of both human and agricultural important crops. (umass.edu)
  • The specificity of the PGIPs for certain pathogenic PGs may significantly contribute to different crops being susceptible or resistant to different bacterial and fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface proteins
  • Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other surface proteins to attach to host tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- A research team led by a molecular plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside has discovered the mechanism by which an aggressive fungal pathogen infects almost all fruits and vegetables. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we present an overview of our existing knowledge on the function of RIN4 as a regulator of plant defense and as a guardee of multiple plant R-proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first report of gene amplification in a non-bacterial organism that is associated with pathogenicity, and it provides insight into how plant pathogens tailor their genomes to adapt to their environments. (cshlpress.com)
  • The analyses enabled us to link domain content to biological processes such as host-pathogen interaction, nutrient uptake, or suppression and elicitation of plant immune responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • PGs can be produced by pathogens to degrade the polygalacturonan component of plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that most plant PGIPs have similar amino acids sequences, there exists a great deal of specificity between different plant and pathogen pairings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Das has worked with national and international individuals on the study of mechanisms of plant defense responses against pests and pathogens, with an aim to combat the stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • She expanded her research of plant transformation to include chickpeas and mung bean, two important sources of protein for India's predominantly vegetarian population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research at Bose has included Isolation, characterization and monitoring the functionality of insecticidal proteins from plant sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant fungal plant pathogens include:[citation needed] Fusarium spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant pathologists commonly group them with fungal pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with these differences, research indicates that similar proteins involved in the interaction between the ECM and animals cells are also involved in the interaction of the cell wall and plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant protein with structural similarity to integrins contains the amino acid sequence Asn-Gly-Asp (NGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • ILRs play a role in protein-protein interaction and are found in the plasma membrane of plant cells in the leaf, root and vasculature of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • These virtonectin-like and fibronectin-like protein provide further support that compounds in the cell membrane of plant cells have important regulatory functions in the immune response such as the activation of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other plant chitinases may be required for creating fungal symbioses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease outcome is determined by the three-way interaction of the pathogen, the plant and the environmental conditions (an interaction known as the disease triangle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of plant WRKY proteins have been identified in Giardia lamblia and Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Bacterial diseases are much more prevalent in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prions are abnormal proteins whose presence causes some diseases such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • The transfer of the LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum was demonstrated experimentally and resulted in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. (umass.edu)
  • However, if the immune system or "good" microbiota are damaged in any way (such as by chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being taken to kill other pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • P. infestans is related to approximately 65 other pathogens that cause similar damage to commercial crops as well as natural vegetation. (cshlpress.com)
  • strains
  • Some strains of the pathogen possess multiple copies of a specific gene, while other strains possess only a single copy. (cshlpress.com)
  • responses
  • Through the use of homology modeling and structure threading, NDR1 was predicted to have a high degree of structural similarity to Arabidopsis LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT14, a protein implicated in abiotic stress responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Microbes
  • Oomycetes are a diverse group of organisms that live as saprophytes or as pathogens of plants, insects, fish, vertebrates, and microbes ( Govers and Gijzen, 2006 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recent research in human cells suggests that septins build cages around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing the harmful microbes and preventing them from invading other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • vulgare 'Ingrid') to three different pairs of adapted (host) and nonadapted (nonhost) isolates of fungal pathogens, which belong to the genera Blumeria (powdery mildew), Puccinia (rust), and Magnaporthe (blast). (plantphysiol.org)
  • plants
  • In planta studies showed that Actinovate®, applied as a spray and Mycostop®, applied as drench, consistently and significantly reduce bacterial spot on greenhouse seedlings with neither adversely affecting the weight and size of the plants. (gc.ca)
  • Our results show a substantial alteration in induced (i.e. pathogen-inoculated) electrolyte leakage and a compromised pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune response in ndr1-1 mutant plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Rice plants have been modified to increase micronutrients such as vitamin A, accelerate photosynthesis, tolerate herbicides, resist pests, increase grain size, generate nutrients, flavours or produce human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Kim H, Park JH, Cho I-H, Kim S-K, Park SH, Lee H (2009) Selective immobilization of proteins on gold dot arrays and characterization using chemical force microscopy. (springer.com)
  • mammalian
  • Although mammals do not produce chitin, they have two functional chitinases, Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity but lack chitinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulates
  • In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including the cell-cycle, vesicle trafficking, antigen presentation, and signal transduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • flagellin
  • Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and it has been shown that it recognizes flagellin and profilin-like proteins in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The new study found that the lysine amino acid resides in a completely different location on the protein and is responsible for the H1N1 virus' ability to adapt to and co-opt human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • WRKY transcription factors are denoted by a 60-70 amino acid WRKY protein domain composed of a conserved WRKYGQK motif and a zinc-finger region. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including as a cytotoxic anticancer agent and antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. (umass.edu)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • many bacteria like Salmonella have two proteins to turn the GTPases on and off. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • YopT (Yersinia outer protein T) from Yersinia is an example of modification of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. (plantcell.org)
  • Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to aid their survival/replication inside host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will summarize recent developments in understanding the biochemical and structural mechanisms utilized by bacterial pathogens to interact with the host ubiquitination pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, while there appears to be conservation in terms of specificity, function, and activation of signaling through both EDS1 and NDR1 in terms of R protein structure, the full mechanism(s) associated with these pathways is unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • host
  • Typically, the presence of two amino acids - lysine and asparagines - in specific sites on a key avian protein are required for a flu virus to make the jump from an animal host and replicate efficiently in human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • With either process, pathogens can attack the host cell's structure and function, as well as its nucleic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attacking and lysing these cells allows the pathogen to harm the host organism, and also provides it with a source of iron from the lysed hemoglobin, like the fungus Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence (the tendency of a pathogen to cause damage to a host's fitness) evolves when that pathogen can spread from a diseased host, despite that host being very debilitated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary medicine has found that under horizontal transmission, the host population might never develop tolerance to the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)