Loading...
  • fungi
  • Nonhost resistance protects plants against attack by the vast majority of potential pathogens, including phytopathogenic fungi. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To generate a vaccine to protect against a variety of human pathogenic fungi, we conjugated laminarin (Lam), a well-characterized but poorly immunogenic beta-glucan preparation from the brown alga Laminaria digitata, with the diphtheria toxoid CRM197, a carrier protein used in some glyco-conjugate bacterial vaccines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi, such as Coccidioides immitis, also possess degradative chitinases related to their role as detritivores and also to their potential as arthropod pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients or vulnerable people with a weakened immune system, although fungi are common problems in the immunocompetent population as the causative agents of skin, nail, or yeast infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • In the case of Botrytis cinerea , small RNAs silence the expression of host defense genes, resulting in the host plant cells being less able to resist the fungal attack. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results suggest that nonhost resistance and basal host defense of barley are functionally related and that nonhost resistance to different fungal pathogens is associated with more robust regulation of complex but largely nonoverlapping sets of pathogen-responsive genes involved in similar metabolic or signaling pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Upon breaching of this first defense layer, pathogen growth is stopped by a hypersensitive reaction of attacked cells, which is associated with autofluorescence and a hydrogen peroxide burst and which leads to cell death ( Schweizer, 2007 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. (plantcell.org)
  • Of the two primary signaling components required for the activation of R protein-mediated resistance, the role of EDS1 in defense signaling is best understood. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Das has worked with national and international individuals on the study of mechanisms of plant defense responses against pests and pathogens, with an aim to combat the stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Das has worked on developing understanding of the mechanism of defense response in plants when challenged by various fungal and bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some parts of chitinase molecules, almost identical in structure to hevein or other proteins in rubber latex due to their similar function in plant defense, may trigger an allergic cross-reaction known as latex-fruit syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human physiological defense against common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) is mainly the responsibility of the immune system with help by some of the body's normal flora and fauna. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Nonhost resistance against each of these pathogens was associated with changes in transcript abundance of distinct sets of nonhost-specific genes, although general (not nonhost-associated) transcriptional responses to the different pathogens overlapped considerably. (plantphysiol.org)
  • By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW-RESISTANT5 ( PMR5 ) and PMR6 genes. (plantcell.org)
  • A large fraction of genes in each genome encodes DNA-binding proteins (see Table). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, expression data (both microarray and RNA-seq data) can be used to infer co-expression of genes that are possibly co-regulated and protein-DNA interaction studies (such as ChIP-seq) can be used to identify specific binding of a transcription factor at the promoter regions of its target genes. (umass.edu)
  • resistance
  • This highly effective nonhost resistance contrasts sharply with the susceptibility of many barley genotypes (such as cv Ingrid selected for this study) to the corresponding appropriate host pathogens of the same genera, such as Bgh , Puccinia hordei ( Phor ), and Magnaporthe oryzae ( TH ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina . (plantcell.org)
  • These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants ( abi1-1 , abi2-1 , and aba1-6 ) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. (plantcell.org)
  • Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (NDR1), a plasma membrane-localized protein, plays an essential role in resistance mediated by the coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance (R) proteins, which includes RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 2 (RPS2), RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV MACULICOLA 1, and RPS5. (plantphysiol.org)
  • While R proteins play a central role in the activation of resistance following pathogen perception, R proteins alone are not sufficient for the initiation of resistance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of these are pathogenesis related (PR) proteins that are induced as part of systemic acquired resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both involved in resistance to fungal and insect attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in plant chitinases this may be related to pathogen resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant (and hence a reduction of disease), while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit little disease damage despite substantial pathogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- A research team led by a molecular plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside has discovered the mechanism by which an aggressive fungal pathogen infects almost all fruits and vegetables. (eurekalert.org)
  • The DBD interacts with the nucleotides of DNA in a DNA sequence-specific or non-sequence-specific manner, but even non-sequence-specific recognition involves some sort of molecular complementarity between protein and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show a substantial alteration in induced (i.e. pathogen-inoculated) electrolyte leakage and a compromised pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune response in ndr1-1 mutant plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • She has studied the molecular interaction between receptor proteins identified from target insects and insecticidal lectins as well as different Bt proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first tier is primarily governed by pattern recognition receptors that are activated by recognition of evolutionarily conserved pathogen or microbial-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Verschiedene SNARE-Proteine (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors) und die entsprechenden Faktoren sind verantwortlich für die einzelnen Fusionen von Vesikeln mit den entsprechenden Membranen. (rero.ch)
  • Integrin-like receptors (ILRs) are found in plants and carry unique functional properties similar to true integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrin-like receptors and integrin-linked kinases together have been implicated in surface adhesion, immune response, and ion accumulation in plant cells in a manner akin to the family of integrin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are around 55 to 110 kDa and some studies have found them to react with animal anti-β1 antibodies suggesting the structural similarity between animal integrins and these plant integrin-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • This review will summarize recent developments in understanding the biochemical and structural mechanisms utilized by bacterial pathogens to interact with the host ubiquitination pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, this novel conjugate vaccine can efficiently immunize and protect against two major fungal pathogens by mechanisms that may include direct antifungal properties of anti-beta-glucan antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum , another fungal wilt pathogen. (umass.edu)
  • These immunoglobulins play a major role in destruction of the pathogen through mechanisms such as opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial diseases are much more prevalent in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prions are abnormal proteins whose presence causes some diseases such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • vulgare 'Ingrid') to three different pairs of adapted (host) and nonadapted (nonhost) isolates of fungal pathogens, which belong to the genera Blumeria (powdery mildew), Puccinia (rust), and Magnaporthe (blast). (plantphysiol.org)
  • human proteins
  • For instance, more than 2000 of the ~20,000 human proteins are "DNA-binding", including about 750 Zinc-finger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rice plants have been modified to increase micronutrients such as vitamin A, accelerate photosynthesis, tolerate herbicides, resist pests, increase grain size, generate nutrients, flavours or produce human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventria Bioscience uses a proprietary system known as Express Tec for producing recombinant human proteins in rice grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • These virtonectin-like and fibronectin-like protein provide further support that compounds in the cell membrane of plant cells have important regulatory functions in the immune response such as the activation of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Kim H, Park JH, Cho I-H, Kim S-K, Park SH, Lee H (2009) Selective immobilization of proteins on gold dot arrays and characterization using chemical force microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Her research at Bose has included Isolation, characterization and monitoring the functionality of insecticidal proteins from plant sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Although mammals do not produce chitin, they have two functional chitinases, Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), as well as chitinase-like proteins (such as YKL-40) that have high sequence similarity but lack chitinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The new study found that the lysine amino acid resides in a completely different location on the protein and is responsible for the H1N1 virus' ability to adapt to and co-opt human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • A plant protein with structural similarity to integrins contains the amino acid sequence Asn-Gly-Asp (NGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • WRKY transcription factors are denoted by a 60-70 amino acid WRKY protein domain composed of a conserved WRKYGQK motif and a zinc-finger region. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. (umass.edu)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the immune system or "good" microbiota are damaged in any way (such as by chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being taken to kill other pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • many bacteria like Salmonella have two proteins to turn the GTPases on and off. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • YopT (Yersinia outer protein T) from Yersinia is an example of modification of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • In wild-type plants, inappropriate pathogens to which Arabidopsis is a nonhost are usually stopped at the preinvasive stage of penetration. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In planta studies showed that Actinovate®, applied as a spray and Mycostop®, applied as drench, consistently and significantly reduce bacterial spot on greenhouse seedlings with neither adversely affecting the weight and size of the plants. (gc.ca)
  • NLP-induced cell death does not require an intact plant cell wall, and ectopic expression of NLP in dicot plants resulted in cell death only when the protein was delivered to the apoplast. (plantcell.org)
  • ILRs play a role in protein-protein interaction and are found in the plasma membrane of plant cells in the leaf, root and vasculature of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to aid their survival/replication inside host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, while there appears to be conservation in terms of specificity, function, and activation of signaling through both EDS1 and NDR1 in terms of R protein structure, the full mechanism(s) associated with these pathways is unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • responses
  • Through the use of homology modeling and structure threading, NDR1 was predicted to have a high degree of structural similarity to Arabidopsis LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT14, a protein implicated in abiotic stress responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • resistant
  • Breeding for disease resistant varieties remains very effective and economical in controlling the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice. (springer.com)
  • pathogenic
  • The transfer of the LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum was demonstrated experimentally and resulted in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. (umass.edu)
  • primarily
  • This polarity of the septin network allows concentration of some proteins primarily to the mother side of the neck, some to the center and others to the bud site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each possess only one domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • A DNA-binding domain (DBD) is an independently folded protein domain that contains at least one structural motif that recognizes double- or single-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federici L, Caprari C, Mattei B, Savino C, Di Matteo A, De Lorenzo G, Cervone F, Tsernoglou D. Structural requirements of endopolygalacturonase for the interaction with PGIP (polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • GCM1 and FLYWCH are proposed ancestral proteins base on their crystal structural similarity to the WRKY domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Now, in a report in the current (Aug. 5, 2010) Public Library of Science Pathogens, an international team of scientists shows that the recent pandemic-causing H1N1 flu virus used a new biochemical trick to spread efficiently in humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • Xanthomonas
  • Khan JA, Siddiq R, Arshad HMA, Anwar HS, Saleem K, Jamil FF (2012) Chemical control of bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae . (springer.com)
  • genome
  • She has worked on identification, characterisation and purification of few insecticidal lectins and other proteins from plant sources and isolation and cloning of effective insecticidal lectin and other protein coding gene(s) from respective plant genome(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia
  • Some pathogens (such as the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which may have caused the Black Plague, the Variola virus, and the malaria protozoa) have been responsible for massive numbers of casualties and have had numerous effects on afflicted groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Typically, the presence of two amino acids - lysine and asparagines - in specific sites on a key avian protein are required for a flu virus to make the jump from an animal host and replicate efficiently in human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein (WASp) is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells. (rupress.org)
  • WAS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the WAS protein (WASp), a key regulator of actin-dependent processes in hematopoietic cells ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research in human cells suggests that septins build cages around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing the harmful microbes and preventing them from invading other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attacking and lysing these cells allows the pathogen to harm the host organism, and also provides it with a source of iron from the lysed hemoglobin, like the fungus Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with these differences, research indicates that similar proteins involved in the interaction between the ECM and animals cells are also involved in the interaction of the cell wall and plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium
  • The most common bacterial disease is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects about 2 million people mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including as a cytotoxic anticancer agent and antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • protozoan
  • although, individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • We expect our work will help in the development of new means to control aggressive pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2) Efficacy trials have shown that both streptomyces have the potential to control bacterial spot of tomato, the amount of control appearing to be dependent on seasonal conditions. (gc.ca)
  • Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. (wikipedia.org)