• pathogens
  • A new commentary on the nature of pathogens is raising startling new questions about the role that fundamental science research on evolution plays in the understanding of emerging disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The authors point out that certain life-history features of fungal plant pathogens make them prone to rapid ecological speciation by host shifts, including strong disruptive selection caused by hosts, a large number of spores produced by pathogens, mating within hosts, a small number of genes underlying the specificity of host-pathogen interactions, and frequent asexual reproduction with rare occurrences of sexual recombination. (redorbit.com)
  • Other fungal pathogens have been responsible for the epidemic leading to the Irish potato famine in the 1840s and, more currently, the stem rust disease of wheat, first identified in Uganda in 1998 and now threatening North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. (redorbit.com)
  • The conclusions could be applied to other pathogens, including nematodes, bacteria and viruses because they share many traits with fungal plant pathogens that could cause ecological speciation by host shifts. (redorbit.com)
  • If we are to fully understand emerging diseases, we recommend thinking differently about life-history traits to tailor models based on specificities of pathogens," the authors write. (redorbit.com)
  • Many insects that damage plants open the gates to infection, at the same time often introducing the pathogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stewart-Wade has also reviewed the scientific literature twice for the nursery and garden industry on plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water, and the efficacy of organic soil amendments such as compost. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • Our focus right now is to do what we can to protect the unique Raoul Island ecosystem from this disease, and to prevent the further spread of the fungus to mainland New Zealand. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • When such seeds are sown, the fungus become active and infects the whole plant. (botanystudies.com)
  • After the plant dies the fungus invades all tissues, sporulates, and continues to infect neighboring plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spruce broom rust or yellow witches' broom rust is a fungal plant disease caused by the basidiomycete fungus known as Chrysomyxa arctosphyli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochliobolus miyabeanus (formerly known as helminthosporium oryzae) is a fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of Exobasidium on the cowberry was carried on in the classic manner: developmental phases of the species were studied in detail, different sensitivities of flowers and leaves to the fungus was established and correlation between the age of plant and its receptivity was revealed. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • He spent considerable time working with cereal fungal diseases, and the genus Drechslera was named after him. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting in 1873, Plowright published a series of fasciculi (pamphlets intended to be collected into a book) titled Sphaeriacei Britannici describing members of the fungal genus Sphaeria (species modernly placed in Pseudovalsa, Macrospora, Homostegia, and others). (wikipedia.org)
  • His attention was attracted by Archimycetes, in particular representatives of the genus Synchytrium, parasites of vascular plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989
  • Because of this, he 'soon became known around Diamond, Missouri as the plant doctor, and neighbors called on him frequently to nurture their sickly flowers and plants back to health' (Adair 1989, p. 21). (apsnet.org)
  • wheat
  • Fungal effector-host sensitivity gene interactions play a key role in determining the outcome of septoria nodorum blotch disease (SNB) caused by Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat. (edu.au)
  • We tested a wheat mapping population that segregated for Snn1 and Snn3 with SN15, an aggressive P. nodorum isolate that produces SnToxA, SnTox1 and SnTox3, to study the inheritance of sensitivity to SnTox1 and SnTox3 and disease susceptibility. (edu.au)
  • The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins) that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. (edu.au)
  • Parastagonospora nodorum is a major fungal pathogen of wheat in Australia causing septoria nodorum blotch (SNB). (edu.au)
  • Affccted plants: Wheat. (botanystudies.com)
  • Grow the resistant varieties of wheat and other plants. (botanystudies.com)
  • susceptible
  • Tomato, tobacco, legumes, cucurbits, sweet potatoes and banana are a few of the most susceptible plants, but it will also infect other herbaceous plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In specific, in areas where silicon is present in high amount in the soil, the host becomes less susceptible to the disease because silicon not only alleviates physiological stresses of the host, but also generates disease resistance ability to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathologist
  • Dr. Sally Michelle Stewart-Wade is an Australian plant pathologist currently working as a Casual Professional at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) in Sydney, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • botany
  • His primary focus was in the areas of plant pathology and agricultural botany, being credited with furthering the development of grain farming in Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
  • seedlings
  • Interval quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping showed that the SnTox1-Snn1 interaction was paramount in SNB development on both seedlings and adult plants. (edu.au)
  • It causes damping-off in seedlings and causes chlorosis, stunting and wilting in old plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown spot of rice is a plant fungal disease that usually occurs on the host leaves and glume, as well as seedlings, sheaths, stems and grains of adult host plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • wilt
  • General affections include plant wilt. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fusarium wilt is a common vascular wilt fungal disease, exhibiting symptoms similar to Verticillium wilt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusarium wilt starts out looking like vein clearing on the younger leaves and drooping of the older lower leaves, followed by stunting of the plant, yellowing of the lower leaves, defoliation, marginal necrosis and death of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the end the plant transpires more than it can transport, the stomata close, the leaves wilt, and the plant dies. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • Mosquito-borne diseases are probably the greatest threat to humans as they include malaria, elephantiasis, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic
  • Under the influence of pathogenic fungi, pathological processes arise in plants that are accompanied by destruction of the structure and physiological functions of the plant or its parts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pathogenic fungi can penetrate plant tissue through stomata (as in grape mildew), through water pores, lenticles, epidermal cells, and the cuticle (as in cabbage clubroot and potato cancer), through wounds caused by hail (as in blister smut of corn), through sun scorch and frost cracks (as in apple-tree cancer), and through cracks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • spots
  • ptoms: The early symptom of the disease is the appearance of sma.I greenish yellow oily spots on the dorsal surface of tin leaves. (botanystudies.com)
  • Oval-shaped brown spots are the fungal growth sign, which have grey colored center developed on host leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The name for the disease comes from the distinctive "witches broom", commonly yellow in color, which forms on the spruce after young needles have been infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Ecological speciation, and specifically speciation that occurs when a subset of a population shifts onto a novel host, is one of the main routes for the emergence of new fungal diseases in plants, argue the authors of a new paper published online in Trends in Ecology & Evolution (TREE). (redorbit.com)
  • secondary
  • The goal of this book is to provide essential information on the use of different medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites for the treatment of various fungal diseases affecting human beings, animals and plants. (springer.com)
  • This disease alternates its life cycle between two hosts, with the spruce serving as the primary host and bearberry (also known as kinnickinnick) serving as the secondary or alternate host. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Linking emerging diseases with ecological speciation has important implications for understanding the biological mechanisms of disease and for designing more efficient and sustainable control programs, say Tatiana Giraud and Pierre Gladieux, both researchers at Universite Paris-Sud, and Sergey Gavrilets, associate director for scientific activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. (redorbit.com)
  • She has studied many aspects of weed control, as well as, fungal diseases on plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecology and Control of Introduced Plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • stems
  • General symptoms occurring on the hosts can be observed on many parts of the plant, including leaves, seeds, stems and inflorescences, along with the presence of brown spot. (wikipedia.org)
  • seeds
  • This pathogen spreads in two basic ways: it spreads short distances by water splash, and by planting equipment, and long distances by infected transplants and seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • soils
  • Though Fusarium oxysporum may be found in many places and environments, development of the disease is favored by high temperatures and warm moist soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • His first position was an assistant with the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • it is almost impossible to imagine how a specific application to disease organisms could have been used to drive research in this area. (redorbit.com)
  • After realizing that it was going to be difficult to find an occupation with her three-year degree, Wade stayed at RMIT for an Honours year and did a research project on fungal disease of grevilleas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Drechsler began his research in cereal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Drechsler was eventually moved from cereal disease research to vegetable disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The plant disease detection is limited by human visual capabilities due to microscopic symptoms of the disease and for that image processing techniques seems to be well adapted. (springer.com)
  • On older plants, symptoms are more distinct between the blossoming and fruit maturation stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • The plant is named for the red edible berries it produces, which are a favorite food of bears when they can get them. (wikipedia.org)