• organisms
  • Bacteria typically have been considered purely selfish organisms and bacterial populations as groups of clones," said Otto Cordero, a theoretical biologist and lead researcher on the paper, in a prepared statement. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Our current ideas about basic cardiac physiology, muscle contraction, glucose metabolism, hormones, neurotransmitters, oxidative metabolism, lipid metabolism, and many other processes are all based on model organisms, not only animals but also microbes and plants. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans , one of the simplest multicellular eukaryotic model organisms, have led to numerous fundamental discoveries that have clear relevance to human diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • No reasonable person would argue against the value of the model organisms in providing fundamental insights into biological processes that are generalizable to human biology ( Table 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The control of the meiocyte through the meiotic cell cycle varies between different groups of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, the way in which the meiocyte is controlled through the meiotic cell cycle is best understood in this group of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the establishment of the Central Dogma and the cracking of the genetic code, biology was largely split between organismal biology-the fields that deal with whole organisms and groups of organisms-and the fields related to cellular and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the late 20th century, new fields like genomics and proteomics were reversing this trend, with organismal biologists using molecular techniques, and molecular and cell biologists investigating the interplay between genes and the environment, as well as the genetics of natural populations of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural philosophy and natural theology encompassed the conceptual and metaphysical basis of plant and animal life, dealing with problems of why organisms exist and behave the way they do, though these subjects also included what is now geology, physics, chemistry, and astronomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • A remarkable fact about Tamaliaaphids is that they sometimes initiate galls in groups (rather than singly, as do all other known galling aphids), raising questions about what factors favor this social behavior. (csuchico.edu)
  • Other current and recent projects include sex allocation of galling aphids, sociobiology of honey bees and yellowjackets, pollination ecology of solitary bees, shoaling behavior of cyprinid fish, migration in Black-tailed deer, and population biology of Spotted Owls. (csuchico.edu)
  • Basic research in the behavioral and social sciences involves both human and animal studies and spans the full range of scientific inquiry, from processes "under the skin" to mechanisms "outside the skin" that explain individual, group, community, and population-level patterns of collective behavior. (nih.gov)
  • It argues that just as selection pressure led to animals evolving useful ways of interacting with the natural environment, so also it led to the genetic evolution of advantageous social behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior is therefore seen as an effort to preserve one's genes in the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • This behavior is adaptive because killing the cubs eliminates competition for their own offspring and causes the nursing females to come into heat faster, thus allowing more of his genes to enter into the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sociobiologists believe that human behavior, as well as nonhuman animal behavior, can be partly explained as the outcome of natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though animals may not possess what humans may perceive as moral behavior, all social animals have had to modify or restrain their behaviors for group living to be worthwhile. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Social order is maintained by certain rules of expected behavior and dominant group members enforce order through punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Comprising 28 departments, the Faculty of Biology has 3 problem-dedicated laboratories (the laboratories of space biology and of fermentation chemistry, the laboratory for fisheries and aquatic ecosystems assessment and management), over 50 research laboratories at the departments, 4 faculty laboratories (the laboratories of electronic microscopy, experimental animals, sediment analysis, isotope analysis). (msu.ru)
  • Our curricula include fundamental science courses and biological disciplines in various fields of biology. (msu.ru)
  • There is a balance between molecular and organismal biology, and broader issues such as human population history. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Before biology, there were several terms used for the study of animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is derived from the science of ecology primarily based on population ecology, which over the past three decades has been displacing the ecosystems biology of Odum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emerging fields of evolutionary biology and in particular sociobiology have argued that, though human social behaviors are complex, the precursors of human morality can be traced to the behaviors of many other social animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Explicitly acknowledging this individual variation found in both humans and non-human animals provides a novel opportunity to understand the mechanisms, development and evolution of cognition. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Vandermeer and Goldberg build these models from the ground up, from first principles, using a broad range of empirical examples, from animals and viruses to plants and humans. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooperation exists not only in humans but in other animals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • who refer to agroecology as the study of the interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment within agricultural systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxa
  • Here is how communal, quasisocial, and semisocial taxa differ: In a communal group, adults cohabit in a single nest site, but they each care for their own young. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • Because of their relatively small size, ease of observation, abundance and diversity of life history types, the insects lend themselves especially well towards addressing these fundamental questions in behavioral ecology. (csuchico.edu)
  • Projects proposed for these funds will need to address fundamental mechanisms and patterns of behavioral and social functioning relevant to the Nation's health and well being. (nih.gov)
  • bacteria
  • Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • New research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, web.mit.edu) reveals that some unlikely subjects-bacteria-can have social structures similar to plants and animals. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • The research shows that a few individuals in groups of closely related bacteria have the ability to produce chemical compounds that kill or slow the growth of other populations of bacteria in the environment, but not harm their own. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Cordero and colleagues from MIT, along with researchers from the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, studied whether population-level organization exists for bacteria in the wild. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • ecology
  • This second edition of Population Ecology is fully updated and expanded, with additional exercises in virtually every chapter, making it the most up-to-date and comprehensive textbook of its kind. (platekompaniet.no)
  • The development of population ecology owes much to demography and actuarial life tables. (wikipedia.org)
  • This principle in population ecology provides the basis for formulating predictive theories and tests that follow: Simplified population models usually start with four key variables (four demographic processes) including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formula can be read as follows: the rate of change in the population (dN/dT) is equal to growth (aN) that is limited by carrying capacity (1-N/K). From these basic mathematical principles the discipline of population ecology expands into a field of investigation that queries the demographics of real populations and tests these results against the statistical models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of population ecology often uses data on life history and matrix algebra to develop projection matrices on fecundity and survivorship. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • One reason for this uncertainty is that research in animal cognition has frequently ignored individual differences and this precludes our understanding of how natural selection sifts individual differences leading to evolutionary changes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Hardin focused on human population growth, the use of the Earth's natural resources, and the welfare state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, in his article, Hardin lamented the following proposal from the United Nations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, cooperation poses a fundamental problem to the traditional theory of natural selection, which rests on the assumption that individuals compete to survive and maximize their reproductive successes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centre
  • 36 hours after the accident Soviet officials enacted a 10-kilometre exclusion zone which resulted in the rapid evacuation of 49,000 people primarily from Pripyat, the nearest large population centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Scheduled Tribe groups who were identified as more isolated from the wider community and who maintain a distinctive cultural identity have been categorised as 'Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups' (PTGs) previously known as Primitive Tribal Groups) by the Government at the Centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • While individual differences have been central to human psychology since the early 20th century [ 1 ], research on non-human animals has, until recently, tended to ignore the variation amongst individuals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The National Science Foundation (NSF), an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, funded the research. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Demography is the statistical study of the age structure of a population, and it can be used in research to determine what is causing a decline or increase in population size over time. (wikibooks.org)
  • Meiosis research within mammal populations is restricted due to the fundamental nature of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilson's book pioneered and popularized the attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviors such as altruism, aggression, and nurturance, primarily in ants (Wilson's own research specialty) and other Hymenoptera, but also in other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longest-living person whose dates of birth and death were verified to the modern norms of Guinness World Records and the Gerontology Research Group was Jeanne Calment (1875-1997), a French woman who lived to 122. (wikipedia.org)
  • poses
  • Such a proposition, some experts say, poses a number of fundamental problems: There is some question as to whether today's forests can support a restored passenger pigeon population, and its nesting behaviors make the bird particularly susceptible to dying out again. (lowellsun.com)
  • whereas
  • Whereas predation on the seed rain occurs when animals prey on released seeds usually flush with the ground surface, predation on the seed bank takes place after seeds have been incorporated deeply into the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • Therefore, animals with shorter life span, like insects, are more common pre-dispersal predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nt+1 = (1 + R)Nt 1 + R = λ Nt+1 = λNt Therefore: Nt+1 = λtNt The doubling time of a population is the time required for the population to grow to twice its size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definitions of agroecology, therefore, may be first grouped according to the specific contexts within which they situate agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programmes
  • These hunting, food-gathering, and some agricultural communities, have been identified as less acculturated tribes among the tribal population groups and in need of special programmes for their sustainable development. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Instead, the study of cognition in animals has traditionally taken one of three (non-exclusive) forms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recognizing that these properties are found on varying spatial scales, agroecologists do not limit themselves to the study of agroecosystems at any one scale: gene-organism-population-community-ecosystem-landscape-biome, field-farm-community-region-state-country-continent-global. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitat
  • And yet hunting and habitat destruction pushed the animal to extinction. (lowellsun.com)
  • Much of their breeding and wintering habitat is gone," says Scott C. Yaich of the conservation group Ducks Unlimited, and the animal's primary breeding-season food - beech mast, the nuts of a beech tree - is limited. (lowellsun.com)
  • Today, all three populations' ranges have shrunk in size due to habitat loss for agriculture and uncontrolled timber cutting, as well as hunting for meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Over the last decade, there has been a growing focus on intraspecific variation in non-human animals [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Likewise, the primary reason to develop an animal model of a human disease is to gain insights into the pathogenesis of the phenotype with the ultimate goal of identifying therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. (ahajournals.org)
  • where the state provides for children and supports overbreeding as a fundamental human right, Malthusian catastrophe is inevitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies suggest that further lengthening of human lifespan could be achieved through "calorie restriction mimetic" drugs or by directly reducing food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • Quasisocial animals, however, additionally share the responsibilities of brood care. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the remaining northeast states of Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, and Tripura, tribal peoples form between 20 and 30% of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as part of a group, colonies can thrive for decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • members
  • The animals band together in three distinct kinds of groups: one or two females with young calves, three to six adult and yearling females with calves, and all-male groups with two to 18 members. (wikipedia.org)
  • U Thant, Statement on Population by the Secretary-General of the United Nations In addition, Hardin also pointed out the problem of individuals acting in rational self-interest by claiming that if all members in a group used common resources for their own gain and with no regard for others, all resources would still eventually be depleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longevity refers only to the characteristics of the especially long lived members of a population, such as infirmities as they age or compression of morbidity, and not the specific life span of an individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, when a ground squirrel sounds an alarm call to warn other group members of a nearby coyote, it draws attention to itself and increases its own odds of being eaten. (wikipedia.org)
  • decline
  • A population will grow (or decline) exponentially as long as the environment experienced by all individuals in the population remains constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western or lowland bongo, T. e. eurycerus, faces an ongoing population decline, and the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group considers it to be Near Threatened on the conservation status scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • cooperative
  • Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups and form cooperative societies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shermer argues that these premoral sentiments evolved in primate societies as a method of restraining individual selfishness and building more cooperative groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • principle
  • Chapman asked Herbert Spencer to write about this divisive matter for the first issue, and Spencer's "A Theory of Population, deduced from the General Law of Animal Fertility" actually appeared in the second issue, supporting the painful Malthusian principle as both true and self-correcting. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole
  • In other words, antibiotics have a social effect, because they can benefit the population as a whole. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • The content of the course draws on material at all levels of complexity from the molecular, to the whole organism, to the population. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • For each additional animal, a herder could receive additional benefits, but the whole group shared damage to the commons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular rearrangement is the process by which individual cells of a tissue rearrange to reshape the tissue as a whole, while cellular migration is the directed movement of a singular cell or small group of cells across a substrate such as a membrane or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Predator specialization requires that these animals utilize specific cues like plant chemistry (volatile compounds), color and size to attack seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • It will take further time and investigative funding to definitively determine the elevated relative risk of cancer amongst both the surviving employees and the population at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adivasi make up 8.6% of India's population, or 104 million people, according to the 2011 census, and a large percentage of the Nepalese population. (wikipedia.org)
  • loosely
  • Hindus revere the nilgai as sacred and associate it with the cow, the mother animal in Hinduism, through its name and loosely similar physical features. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Solitary-but-social animals forage separately, but some individuals sleep in the same location or share nests. (wikipedia.org)
  • This result contrasts with what we know about animal and plant populations, in which individuals can divide labors, perform different complementary roles and act synergistically. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • It appears to be a group effort where individuals assume the role of antibiotic producers and hence defenders," said Polz. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • John Vandermeer and Deborah Goldberg show that populations are more than simply collections of individuals. (platekompaniet.no)
  • In each generation there is an effective population size denoted as Ne which constitutes the number of individuals in the population that are able to reproduce and will reproduce in any reproductive generation in concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, lack of group cohesion could make individuals more vulnerable to attack from outsiders. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Factors influencing population growth and ways to measure and predict population growth will also be subjects of specific focus. (wikibooks.org)
  • behaviors
  • Animals such as Capuchin monkeys and dogs also display an understanding of fairness, refusing to co-operate when presented unequal rewards for the same behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • In animal studies, maximum span is often taken to be the mean life span of the most long-lived 10% of a given cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrix algebra is often used to investigate the evolution of age-structured or stage-structured populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a social animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • If adult animals associate with other adults, they are not called subsocial, but are ranked in some other classification according to their social behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic reason that social animals live in groups is that opportunities for survival and reproduction are much better in groups than living alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many social animals such as primates, dolphins and whales have shown to exhibit what Michael Shermer refers to as premoral sentiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • All social animals have hierarchical societies in which each member knows its own place. (wikipedia.org)