• behavior
  • Basic research in the behavioral and social sciences involves both human and animal studies and spans the full range of scientific inquiry, from processes "under the skin" to mechanisms "outside the skin" that explain individual, group, community, and population-level patterns of collective behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Their behavior in animal (salamander) cells was described by Walther Flemming, the discoverer of mitosis, in 1882. (wikipedia.org)
  • It argues that just as selection pressure led to animals evolving useful ways of interacting with the natural environment, so also it led to the genetic evolution of advantageous social behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior is therefore seen as an effort to preserve one's genes in the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • This behavior is adaptive because killing the cubs eliminates competition for their own offspring and causes the nursing females to come into heat faster, thus allowing more of his genes to enter into the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sociobiologists believe that human behavior, as well as nonhuman animal behavior, can be partly explained as the outcome of natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior). (wikipedia.org)
  • taxa
  • Here is how communal, quasisocial, and semisocial taxa differ: In a communal group, adults cohabit in a single nest site, but they each care for their own young. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Though, in the short run, mutation is the primary source of new genetic variation driving evolutionary change in microbial populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wilson's book pioneered and popularized the attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviors such as altruism, aggression, and nurturance, primarily in ants (Wilson's own research specialty) and other Hymenoptera, but also in other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • New research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, web.mit.edu) reveals that some unlikely subjects-bacteria-can have social structures similar to plants and animals. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • The research shows that a few individuals in groups of closely related bacteria have the ability to produce chemical compounds that kill or slow the growth of other populations of bacteria in the environment, but not harm their own. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Cordero and colleagues from MIT, along with researchers from the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, studied whether population-level organization exists for bacteria in the wild. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Centre
  • 36 hours after the accident Soviet officials enacted a 10-kilometre exclusion zone which resulted in the rapid evacuation of 49,000 people primarily from Pripyat, the nearest large population centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Scheduled Tribe groups who were identified as more isolated from the wider community and who maintain a distinctive cultural identity have been categorised as 'Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups' (PTGs) previously known as Primitive Tribal Groups) by the Government at the Centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • poses
  • Such a proposition, some experts say, poses a number of fundamental problems: There is some question as to whether today's forests can support a restored passenger pigeon population, and its nesting behaviors make the bird particularly susceptible to dying out again. (lowellsun.com)
  • Hence, cooperation poses a fundamental problem to the traditional theory of natural selection, which rests on the assumption that individuals compete to survive and maximize their reproductive successes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ecology
  • This second edition of Population Ecology is fully updated and expanded, with additional exercises in virtually every chapter, making it the most up-to-date and comprehensive textbook of its kind. (platekompaniet.no)
  • The development of population ecology owes much to demography and actuarial life tables. (wikipedia.org)
  • This principle in population ecology provides the basis for formulating predictive theories and tests that follow: Simplified population models usually start with four key variables (four demographic processes) including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formula can be read as follows: the rate of change in the population (dN/dT) is equal to growth (aN) that is limited by carrying capacity (1-N/K). From these basic mathematical principles the discipline of population ecology expands into a field of investigation that queries the demographics of real populations and tests these results against the statistical models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of population ecology often uses data on life history and matrix algebra to develop projection matrices on fecundity and survivorship. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Seed predation is commonly divided into two distinctive temporal categories, pre-dispersal and post-dispersal predation, which may involve different strategies and requirements and have different implications at the individual and population level. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Whereas predation on the seed rain occurs when animals prey on released seeds usually flush with the ground surface, predation on the seed bank takes place after seeds have been incorporated deeply into the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitat
  • And yet hunting and habitat destruction pushed the animal to extinction. (lowellsun.com)
  • Much of their breeding and wintering habitat is gone," says Scott C. Yaich of the conservation group Ducks Unlimited, and the animal's primary breeding-season food - beech mast, the nuts of a beech tree - is limited. (lowellsun.com)
  • Today, all three populations' ranges have shrunk in size due to habitat loss for agriculture and uncontrolled timber cutting, as well as hunting for meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The content of the course draws on material at all levels of complexity from the molecular, to the whole organism, to the population. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Research
  • The National Science Foundation (NSF), an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, funded the research. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • Demography is the statistical study of the age structure of a population, and it can be used in research to determine what is causing a decline or increase in population size over time. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to the common occurrence of these types of brain injuries in our veteran population, her research is highly relevant to the mission of VA healthcare. (ncire.org)
  • Meiosis research within mammal populations is restricted due to the fundamental nature of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longest-living person whose dates of birth and death were verified to the modern norms of Guinness World Records and the Gerontology Research Group was Jeanne Calment (1875-1997), a French woman who lived to 122. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edwards was following a direction in Lavoisier's research on "animal chemistry", and addressing questions raised in Magendie's journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • Hardin focused on human population growth, the use of the Earth's natural resources, and the welfare state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, in his article, Hardin lamented the following proposal from the United Nations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. (wikipedia.org)
  • decline
  • A population will grow (or decline) exponentially as long as the environment experienced by all individuals in the population remains constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western or lowland bongo, T. e. eurycerus, faces an ongoing population decline, and the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group considers it to be Near Threatened on the conservation status scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • principle
  • Chapman asked Herbert Spencer to write about this divisive matter for the first issue, and Spencer's "A Theory of Population, deduced from the General Law of Animal Fertility" actually appeared in the second issue, supporting the painful Malthusian principle as both true and self-correcting. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • Quasisocial animals, however, additionally share the responsibilities of brood care. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the remaining northeast states of Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, and Tripura, tribal peoples form between 20 and 30% of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • So far seventy-five tribal communities have been identified as 'particularly vulnerable tribal groups' in different States of India. (wikipedia.org)
  • members
  • U Thant, Statement on Population by the Secretary-General of the United Nations In addition, Hardin also pointed out the problem of individuals acting in rational self-interest by claiming that if all members in a group used common resources for their own gain and with no regard for others, all resources would still eventually be depleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals band together in three distinct kinds of groups: one or two females with young calves, three to six adult and yearling females with calves, and all-male groups with two to 18 members. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, when a ground squirrel sounds an alarm call to warn other group members of a nearby coyote, it draws attention to itself and increases its own odds of being eaten. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longevity refers only to the characteristics of the especially long lived members of a population, such as infirmities as they age or compression of morbidity, and not the specific life span of an individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnic
  • origins and structure of ethnic groups and nations, etc. (msu.ru)
  • The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse,[citation needed] with each of Ethiopia's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • loosely
  • Hindus revere the nilgai as sacred and associate it with the cow, the mother animal in Hinduism, through its name and loosely similar physical features. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • It will take further time and investigative funding to definitively determine the elevated relative risk of cancer amongst both the surviving employees and the population at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adivasi make up 8.6% of India's population, or 104 million people, according to the 2011 census, and a large percentage of the Nepalese population. (wikipedia.org)
  • tribe
  • Older concepts, which were also based at least partly on an assumption of common descent, such as nation and tribe refer to a much larger numbers of groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. (frontiersin.org)
  • human population
  • The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e., subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • In each generation there is an effective population size denoted as Ne which constitutes the number of individuals in the population that are able to reproduce and will reproduce in any reproductive generation in concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • One specific form of cooperation in animals is kin selection, which involves animals promoting the reproductive success of their kin, thereby promoting their own fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Dr. Liu's team was the first group to show that cerebral ischemia - interruption of blood flow - increases the formation of new brain cells in the dentate gyrus in an experimental model. (ncire.org)
  • mathematical
  • Complex variables such as distribution and territory for expanding groups come into play when mathematical models are applied. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Mathematical models used to calculate changes in population demographics and evolution hold the assumption (or null hypothesis) of no external influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • If adult animals associate with other adults, they are not called subsocial, but are ranked in some other classification according to their social behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • certain
  • This information is used for managing wildlife stocks and setting harvest quotas The population model below can be manipulated to mathematically infer certain properties of geometric populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • captivity
  • This bongo is classified by the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group as Critically Endangered, with more specimens in captivity than in the wild. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a social animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Projects proposed for these funds will need to address fundamental mechanisms and patterns of behavioral and social functioning relevant to the Nation's health and well being. (nih.gov)
  • In other words, antibiotics have a social effect, because they can benefit the population as a whole. (flowcontrolnetwork.com)
  • common
  • Subsociality is common in the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "race", interpreted to mean an identifiable group of people who share a common descent, was introduced into English in about 1580, from the Old French rasse (1512), from Italian razza[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • This late origin for the English and French terms is consistent with the thesis that the concept of "race", with reference to identifiable groups of human beings, such that separate groups are presumed to share a common lineage, dates from the time of Christopher Columbus[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)