• Hydrogels
  • 2. Mesallati, T., Buckley, C.T., Kelly, D.J. Engineering cartilaginous grafts using chondrocyte-laden hydrogels supported by a superficial layer of stem cells. (tcd.ie)
  • To circumvent the issues associated with IO, the UConn Health team set out to develop an engineered extracellular matrix that uses hydrogels to guide and support the formation of bone through EO. (eurekalert.org)
  • Inspired by flexible biological tissues, researchers incorporate carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic and/or metallic nanomaterials to give these hydrogels superior characteristics like optical properties and stimulus-sensitivity which can potentially be very helpful to medical (especially drug delivery and stem cell engineering) and mechanical fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The platelets act as cross-links to modify molecular functions to enable the hydrogels to have superior elasticity and toughness that resembles closely that of biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogels that are enforced with carbon-based nanomaterials are mechanically tough and electrically conducive, which make them suitable for use in biomedicine, tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensing, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical conducting property of these hydrogels allow them to mimic the characteristic of nerve, muscle, and cardiac tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even though these nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrate some functions of human tissue in lab environments, more research is needed to ensure their utility as tissue replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogels incorporated with polymeric nanoparticles are tailored for drug delivery and tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogels also possess a degree of flexibility very similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common uses for hydrogels include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained-release drug delivery systems Providing absorption, desloughing and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ways of forming artificial superstructure include the use of thermo-responsive hydrogels, longitudinally oriented channels, longitudinally oriented fibers, stretch-grown axons, and nanofibrous scaffolds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to get around these difficulties, thermo-responsive hydrogels have been engineered to undergo solution-gelation (sol-gel) transitions, which are caused by differences in room and physiological temperatures, to facilitate implantation through in situ gelation and conformation to cavity shape caused, allowing them to be injected in a minimally invasively manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • By controlling the interactions between nanoparticles and polymer chains, a range of physical, chemical, and biological properties can be engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • After refining the techniques and building on the work of Robert Langer at MIT, in 1997 Vacanti and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts controversially and with much media attention grew a cartilage structure resembling a human ear on the back of a nude mouse - dubbed the Earmouse, Auriculosaurus or Vacanti mouse - using a polymer scaffold and cow knee chondrocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Rice University, Stony Brook University, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre and University of California, Riverside have shown that carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites are suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanofibrous
  • The work is described in the paper "Highly Aligned Nanofibrous Scaffold Derived from Decellularized Human Fibroblasts," coauthored by Zhao, postdoctoral researcher Qi Xing and undergraduate Caleb Vogt of MTU and Kam W. Leong of Duke University and published Jan. 29 in Advanced Funcational Materials . (kurzweilai.net)
  • Native tissues are endowed with a highly organized nanofibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) that directs cellular distribution and function. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The aligned nanofibrous ECM scaffold holds great potential in engineering organized tissues. (kurzweilai.net)
  • synthetic
  • Whether the conduit is in the form of a biologic tube, synthetic tube or tissue-engineered conduit, it should facilitate neurotropic and neurotrophic communication between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap, block external inhibitory factors, and provide a physical guidance for axonal regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic tissue for ACL reconstruction has also been developed, but little data exists on its strength and reliability. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The idea for what would later be called STAP cells ("stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency") came from Vacanti, who with his brother Martin, known as Marty, believed that adult mammalian tissues contained tiny pluripotent cells that were released when the tissue was injured or stressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decellularized extracellular matrix based bioinks can be derived from nearly any mammalian tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fabrication
  • Our program utilizes various mechanical and biological testing modalities, scaffold fabrication techniques, and bioreactor culture conditions to explore these issues in both animal and human model systems. (upenn.edu)
  • Methacrylation of gelatin is a common approach for the fabrication of gelatin scaffolds that can be printed and maintain shape fidelity at physiological temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • These 3D all-carbon scaffolds/architectures may be used for the fabrication of the next generation of energy storage, supercapacitors, field emission transistors, high-performance catalysis, photovoltaics, and biomedical devices and implants. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Transplanting regionally specific lung tissue (proximal or distal) from mice and humans generates TELu with typical location-specific tissue markers such as particular alveolar or air sac cells in the distal TELu or tracheal epithelial cells organized with cartilage and ciliated appendages for proximal lung. (eurekalert.org)
  • cells
  • The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. (jove.com)
  • Feng Zhao of Michigan Technological University (MTU) has persuaded fibroblasts - cells that make up the extracellular matrix in the body - to make a well-organized nanopatterned scaffold (support structure). (kurzweilai.net)
  • And, since her scaffold is made by cells, it is composed of the same intricate mix of all-natural proteins and sugars found in the body. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The trick was to orient the cells on a nano-grate (130 nm in depth) that guided their growth and the creation of the scaffold. (kurzweilai.net)
  • David Green, the president of Harvard Bioscience, the Massachusetts company that made the bioreactor, said that once the cells were inside the scaffold, they began to grow and divide and produce cartilage. (nytimes.com)
  • In addition to tissue-level work, Athanasiou has established a highly innovative program to understand how single cartilage cells behave under direct and controlled biomechanical loads, not only in terms of deformation but also in terms of changes in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial bone marrow Artificial bone Laboratory-grown penis Oral mucosa tissue engineering Foreskin Tissue engineering utilizes living cells as engineering materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells became available as engineering materials when scientists at Geron Corp. discovered how to extend telomeres in 1998, producing immortalized cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known for the Vacanti mouse, a mouse created with Linda Griffith and Joseph Upton with cartilage shaped like a human ear on its back, and for being the senior author on the first of two retracted articles on STAP cells, a concept proposed by his brother and himself, and co-authored with Haruko Obokata. (wikipedia.org)
  • They published work in 2001 describing these "spore-like cells", and reported that these cells could survive anoxic conditions for days and that they were able to grow a variety of tissues including pancreas and lung from isolated spore-like cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, dECM-derived bioinks are particularly tailored to provide tissue-specific cues to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, on the one hand the system provides a highly adaptable basis for the culture of adherent cells and the generation of specialized tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases a Minusheet tissue carrier prevents damage but supports development of contained cells or tissues during experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A standard culture protocol with a tissue carrier can be initiated by seeding cells onto the upper side. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a tissue carrier is turned, cells can also be seeded on the other side so that co-culture experiments with two different cell types become possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only single cells but also a thin slice of tissue can be mounted between two pieces of a woven net within a Minusheet tissue carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, emerging innovations span from bioprinting of cells or extracellular matrix deposited into a 3D gel layer by layer to produce the desired tissue or organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aggregation of cells does not require a scaffold, and are required for placing in the tubular-like tissue fusion for processes such as extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that every tissue in the body is naturally composed of different cell types, many technologies for printing these cells vary in their ability to ensure stability and viability of the cells during the manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stimulations send signals to the cells to control the remodeling and growth of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • However, the availability of donor tissues and organs is constantly limited, which presents a serious bottleneck for widespread transplantation surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, bioprinting can be used to print tissues and organs to help research drugs and pills. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main goal of this approach is to create fabricated structures that are identical to the natural structure that are found in the tissues and organs in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomimicry requires duplication of the shape, framework, and the microenvironment of the organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Age-related carbonylation of fibrocartilage structural proteins drives tissue degenerative modification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These materials consist of a complex mixture of ECM structural and decorating proteins specific to their tissue origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELPs can be engineered to recognize specific proteins in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although engineered and modified in a laboratory setting, ELPs share structural characteristics with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) naturally found in the body, such as tropoelastin, from which ELPs were given their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made from amino acids, which contain various functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • There are treatments for cartilage damage and arthritis, but typically these treatments are focused either on relieving symptoms by smoothing down the damaged cartilage, or replacing the joint surface with an artificial implant, such as with knee replacement or hip replacement surgery. (verywell.com)
  • But in the lab, scientists attempting to grow tissue must provide an artificial scaffold. (kurzweilai.net)
  • defects
  • This means that IO isn't capable of regenerating enough bone tissue to be applied to large bone defects that result from trauma or degenerative diseases like osteoporosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Due to the limited availability of donor tissue and functional recovery in autologous nerve grafting, neural tissue engineering research has focused on the development of bioartificial nerve guidance conduits as an alternative treatment, especially for large defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Three sources of replacement material for ACL reconstruction are commonly used: Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body) Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, either a cadaver or a live donor). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] An accessory hamstring or part of the patellar ligament are the most common donor tissues used in autografts. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • Athanasiou received his bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from New York Institute of Technology at Old Westbury in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, the tissues involved require certain mechanical and structural properties for proper functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The aligned ECM scaffold induces a significantly lower immune response compared to its unaligned counterpart, as detected by the pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from macrophages. (kurzweilai.net)
  • human
  • She is also a faculty in the Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center and in the Center for Human Development at Columbia University, an honorary professor at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy at the University of Belgrade, honorary professor at the University of Novi Sad, and an adjunct professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tufts University. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ways not achieved by any other research team, Prof. Vunjak-Novakovic's group has succeeded to control cell growth, metabolism and function of engineered human tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • In 2009 he received a Fulbright Award to take a position as a Visiting Research Scholar at the Department of Biomedical Engineering in Columbia University, New York. (tcd.ie)
  • She was a Fulbright Fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology from 1986 to 1987 and held joint appointments as research scientist at the Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology at MIT (1993-1998) and as adjunct professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tufts University (1994-2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, she accepted a position as full professor with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Columbia University. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Vunjak-Novakovic is the current Chair of Fellows of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, a fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society, a fellow of AAAS, and a founding fellow of TERMIS. (wikipedia.org)
  • He joined UCI from the University of California, Davis where he also served as the Chair of the Biomedical Engineering department. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Summer of 2002, Professor Athanasiou was elected President of the Biomedical Engineering Society. (wikipedia.org)