• porous
  • The scaffold consists of multiple layers of resorbable fiber bundles that have been woven into a porous structure. (livescience.com)
  • Results in this study provide proof-of-principle that Raman microspectroscopy is a promising non-invasive tool to monitor ECM production and remodelling in three-dimensional porous cartilage tissue-engineered constructs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • An important concept in tissue engineering is the scaffold, a three-dimensional (3D), highly porous substrate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Similarly, within a tissue scaffold, all cells must be supplied with the means to maintain life, and this is achieved initially by providing a highly porous open structure to allow the uninterrupted flow and access of culture media in a bioreactor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Traditionally, porous scaffolds have been made by a number of routes that result in a foam-like internal structure with a random architecture and a limited control of scale. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the development of rapid prototyping techniques since the 1980s has enabled fabrication of fine-scale internal porous structures with the desired complexity, allowing a true engineering of the scaffold ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • have reported a novel radical initiated thermal crosslinking method to fabricated macroscopic, free-standing, porous, all-carbon scaffolds using single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as building blocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogels
  • Increasing mesh size of the hydrogels resulted in an increase in cellular proliferation exhibiting the strong correlation between mesh size and cell growth, while mesh size had a differential effect on ECM accumulation and expression of cartilage specific markers. (springer.com)
  • Hydrogels are considered as a preferred scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering due to their structural similarities and enhanced mass transport abilities. (springer.com)
  • 2. Mesallati, T., Buckley, C.T., Kelly, D.J. Engineering cartilaginous grafts using chondrocyte-laden hydrogels supported by a superficial layer of stem cells. (tcd.ie)
  • Inspired by flexible biological tissues, researchers incorporate carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic and/or metallic nanomaterials to give these hydrogels superior characteristics like optical properties and stimulus-sensitivity which can potentially be very helpful to medical (especially drug delivery and stem cell engineering) and mechanical fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The platelets act as cross-links to modify molecular functions to enable the hydrogels to have superior elasticity and toughness that resembles closely that of biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogels that are enforced with carbon-based nanomaterials are mechanically tough and electrically conducive, which make them suitable for use in biomedicine, tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensing, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical conducting property of these hydrogels allow them to mimic the characteristic of nerve, muscle, and cardiac tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even though these nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrate some functions of human tissue in lab environments, more research is needed to ensure their utility as tissue replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogels incorporated with polymeric nanoparticles are tailored for drug delivery and tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogels also possess a degree of flexibility very similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common uses for hydrogels include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained-release drug delivery systems Providing absorption, desloughing and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ways of forming artificial superstructure include the use of thermo-responsive hydrogels, longitudinally oriented channels, longitudinally oriented fibers, stretch-grown axons, and nanofibrous scaffolds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to get around these difficulties, thermo-responsive hydrogels have been engineered to undergo solution-gelation (sol-gel) transitions, which are caused by differences in room and physiological temperatures, to facilitate implantation through in situ gelation and conformation to cavity shape caused, allowing them to be injected in a minimally invasively manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • By controlling the interactions between nanoparticles and polymer chains, a range of physical, chemical, and biological properties can be engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • After refining the techniques and building on the work of Robert Langer at MIT, in 1997 Vacanti and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts controversially and with much media attention grew a cartilage structure resembling a human ear on the back of a nude mouse - dubbed the Earmouse, Auriculosaurus or Vacanti mouse - using a polymer scaffold and cow knee chondrocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Rice University, Stony Brook University, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre and University of California, Riverside have shown that carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites are suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Age-related carbonylation of fibrocartilage structural proteins drives tissue degenerative modification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After 4 weeks, WJ-MSC, embedded in a three-dimensional environment, were able to adapt to their environment and express specific cartilage-related genes and matrix proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And, since her scaffold is made by cells, it is composed of the same intricate mix of all-natural proteins and sugars found in the body. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The scaffold provides a surface on which cells adhere, thrive, multiply, and generate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of structural and functional proteins and saccharides that make up living tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • These materials consist of a complex mixture of ECM structural and decorating proteins specific to their tissue origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELPs can be engineered to recognize specific proteins in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although engineered and modified in a laboratory setting, ELPs share structural characteristics with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) naturally found in the body, such as tropoelastin, from which ELPs were given their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made from amino acids, which contain various functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Typically, researchers construct scaffolds from synthetic materials or natural animal or human substances grown in a Petri dish. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Other Duke University researchers took a different approach, combining a synthetic scaffolding material with gene delivery techniques to direct stem cells into becoming new cartilage, as KurzweilAI reported on Feb. 21. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Whether the conduit is in the form of a biologic tube, synthetic tube or tissue-engineered conduit, it should facilitate neurotropic and neurotrophic communication between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap, block external inhibitory factors, and provide a physical guidance for axonal regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic tissue for ACL reconstruction has also been developed, but little data exists on its strength and reliability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fabrication
  • Our program utilizes various mechanical and biological testing modalities, scaffold fabrication techniques, and bioreactor culture conditions to explore these issues in both animal and human model systems. (upenn.edu)
  • New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Methacrylation of gelatin is a common approach for the fabrication of gelatin scaffolds that can be printed and maintain shape fidelity at physiological temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • These 3D all-carbon scaffolds/architectures may be used for the fabrication of the next generation of energy storage, supercapacitors, field emission transistors, high-performance catalysis, photovoltaics, and biomedical devices and implants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. (jove.com)
  • The scaffold is then seeded with cells that grow to become new tissue as the fibers are resorbed. (livescience.com)
  • Both scaffolds and cells have been shown to play a crucial role in regenerating tissues that emulate structural and functional characteristics of native tissues. (springer.com)
  • How Can Stem Cells Help Cure Damaged Cartilage? (verywell.com)
  • Stem cells are special cells that have the ability to multiply and develop into different types of tissue. (verywell.com)
  • There are not normally stem cells found in cartilage tissue, and therefore there is little capacity to heal or regrow new cartilage. (verywell.com)
  • Once stem cells have been obtained, they need to be delivered to the area of cartilage damage. (verywell.com)
  • How much of this improvement is the result of new cartilage growth versus other effects of stem cells (the healing properties listed above, including the anti-inflammatory effects) is unknown. (verywell.com)
  • The problem with just injecting stem cells is that cartilage is a complex tissue that is comprised of more than just cells. (verywell.com)
  • Injecting just the stem cells is thought to be ineffective in stimulating the formation of the entire cartilage structure. (verywell.com)
  • The stem cells can then be injected into the scaffold, in hopes of better restoring a normal type of cartilage. (verywell.com)
  • Although mesenchymal stromal/stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSC) have long been the most used stem cell source in cartilage tissue engineering, they have certain limits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Today, WJ-MSC represent a real alternative source of stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds must be able to mimic the physiological environment and ensure attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are an attractive source of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We use auricular cartilage as an exemplar to illustrate how the use of tissue-specific adult stem cells, assembly through additive manufacturing and improved understanding of postnatal tissue maturation will allow us to more accurately replicate native tissue anisotropy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current trends in tracheal transplantation include the use of autologous cells, development of bioactive cell-free scaffolds capable of supporting activation and differentiation of host stem cells on the site of injury, with a future perspective of using human native sites as micro-niche for potentiation of the human body's site-specific response by sequential adding, boosting, permissive, and recruitment impulses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • i.e. mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilage-like cells and epithelial respiratory cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cells placed on the scaffold thrived, and it had the added advantage of provoking a very low immune response. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Feng Zhao of Michigan Technological University (MTU) has persuaded fibroblasts - cells that make up the extracellular matrix in the body - to make a well-organized nanopatterned scaffold (support structure). (kurzweilai.net)
  • The trick was to orient the cells on a nano-grate (130 nm in depth) that guided their growth and the creation of the scaffold. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Stem cells placed on her scaffold thrived, and it had the added advantage of provoking a very low immune response. (kurzweilai.net)
  • They are currently extending this strategy to tissue engineer whole joints using adult stem cells and 3D bioprinting. (tcd.ie)
  • In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cells donated by the patient are expanded in culture and are then transferred to the scaffold. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both the scaffold material composition and its internal architecture (dimensions of the struts, walls, pores, or channels) control the behavior and well-being of the cells seeded inside. (sciencemag.org)
  • She is University Professor and The Mikati Foundation Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Sciences at Columbia University, where she directs the Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to tissue-level work, Athanasiou has established a highly innovative program to understand how single cartilage cells behave under direct and controlled biomechanical loads, not only in terms of deformation but also in terms of changes in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial bone marrow Artificial bone Laboratory-grown penis Oral mucosa tissue engineering Foreskin Tissue engineering utilizes living cells as engineering materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells became available as engineering materials when scientists at Geron Corp. discovered how to extend telomeres in 1998, producing immortalized cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles Alfred Vacanti (born 1949/50, also known as Chuck) is an American researcher in tissue engineering and stem cells and the Vandam/Covino Professor of Anesthesiology, Emeritus, at Harvard Medical School. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known for the Vacanti mouse, a mouse created with Linda Griffith and Joseph Upton with cartilage shaped like a human ear on its back, and for being the senior author on the first of two retracted articles on STAP cells, a concept proposed by his brother and himself, and co-authored with Haruko Obokata. (wikipedia.org)
  • He co-founded the Tissue Engineering Society, and holds a number of patents related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea for what would later be called STAP cells ("stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency") came from Vacanti, who with his brother Martin, known as Marty, believed that adult mammalian tissues contained tiny pluripotent cells that were released when the tissue was injured or stressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marty first identified what they believed were tiny stem cells in rat brain tissue that he had sliced and forced through small tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They published work in 2001 describing these "spore-like cells", and reported that these cells could survive anoxic conditions for days and that they were able to grow a variety of tissues including pancreas and lung from isolated spore-like cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, dECM-derived bioinks are particularly tailored to provide tissue-specific cues to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, on the one hand the system provides a highly adaptable basis for the culture of adherent cells and the generation of specialized tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases a Minusheet tissue carrier prevents damage but supports development of contained cells or tissues during experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A standard culture protocol with a tissue carrier can be initiated by seeding cells onto the upper side. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a tissue carrier is turned, cells can also be seeded on the other side so that co-culture experiments with two different cell types become possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only single cells but also a thin slice of tissue can be mounted between two pieces of a woven net within a Minusheet tissue carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, emerging innovations span from bioprinting of cells or extracellular matrix deposited into a 3D gel layer by layer to produce the desired tissue or organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aggregation of cells does not require a scaffold, and are required for placing in the tubular-like tissue fusion for processes such as extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that every tissue in the body is naturally composed of different cell types, many technologies for printing these cells vary in their ability to ensure stability and viability of the cells during the manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stimulations send signals to the cells to control the remodeling and growth of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • mimic
  • But such scaffolds have not been able to mimic the highly organized structure of the matrix made by living things - at least until now. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Vacanti
  • Vacanti and his brother Joseph successfully used the same technique to grow a chest plate for a 12-year-old boy, Sean McCormack, who had been born without cartilage or bone over his heart and left lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the team at Massachusetts led by Vacanti grew a replacement thumb bone using a scaffold of coral for a man, Raul Murcia, whose thumb had been crushed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vacanti says that he coined the term tissue engineering in 1991 in the context of organ replacement, though it had been used earlier for other uses and his coining is disputed (for example, the term was used in 1984 in the same context by an ophthalmic surgeon). (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Creating functional and durable tissue has the potential to shift the paradigm in reconstructive surgery by obviating the need for donor sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three sources of replacement material for ACL reconstruction are commonly used: Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body) Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, either a cadaver or a live donor). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] An accessory hamstring or part of the patellar ligament are the most common donor tissues used in autografts. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • In addition, in recent development, bioreactor technologies have allowed the rapid maturation of tissues, vascularization of tissues and the ability to survive transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • Hutmacher ( 1 ) gave an early analysis of the topological requirements of a suitable scaffold material and reviewed the manufacturing routes that could be used to achieve the desired structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • artificial
  • There are treatments for cartilage damage and arthritis, but typically these treatments are focused either on relieving symptoms by smoothing down the damaged cartilage, or replacing the joint surface with an artificial implant, such as with knee replacement or hip replacement surgery. (verywell.com)
  • But in the lab, scientists attempting to grow tissue must provide an artificial scaffold. (kurzweilai.net)
  • biomedical
  • In 2009 he received a Fulbright Award to take a position as a Visiting Research Scholar at the Department of Biomedical Engineering in Columbia University, New York. (tcd.ie)
  • Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic is a Serbian American biomedical engineer. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is also a faculty in the Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center and in the Center for Human Development at Columbia University, an honorary professor at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy at the University of Belgrade, honorary professor at the University of Novi Sad, and an adjunct professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tufts University. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was a Fulbright Fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology from 1986 to 1987 and held joint appointments as research scientist at the Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology at MIT (1993-1998) and as adjunct professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tufts University (1994-2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 she became a full-time principal research scientist with the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology at MIT, where she collaborated, among others, with renowned biomedical engineer Robert S. Langer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, she accepted a position as full professor with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Columbia University. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vunjak-Novakovic's numerous scholarly accomplishments have substantially impacted the field of tissue engineering in specific and the field of biomedical engineering in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Vunjak-Novakovic is the current Chair of Fellows of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, a fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society, a fellow of AAAS, and a founding fellow of TERMIS. (wikipedia.org)
  • He joined UCI from the University of California, Davis where he also served as the Chair of the Biomedical Engineering department. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Summer of 2002, Professor Athanasiou was elected President of the Biomedical Engineering Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • matrix
  • The continued success of tissue engineering, and the eventual development of true human replacement parts, will grow from the convergence of engineering and basic research advances in tissue, matrix, growth factor, stem cell, and developmental biology, as well as materials science and bio informatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular matrix, which is mainly responsible for directing tissue growth and formation, has a complex superstructure created by many interwoven fibrous molecules. (wikipedia.org)