• residues
  • The binding of a NAb specific to a conserved epitope located within E2 residues 411-428 was significantly reduced by week 108 despite complete conservation of its epitope suggesting that E2 antigenicity is allosterically modulated. (jove.com)
  • This modification occurs through the formation of isopeptide bonds between the C‐terminus of ubiquitin and the ϵ‐amino groups of lysine residues on the target protein. (embopress.org)
  • The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. (mdpi.com)
  • We report here that poxvirus protein F12 that has been implicated in intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) morphogenesis, and in particular IEV movement along microtubules [ 11 - 13 ], is a derived DNA polymerase in which both the polymerase and the exonuclease activities apparently were abrogated as a result of mutational replacement of catalytic amino acid residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the actual mass of the full-length p53 protein (p53α) based on the sum of masses of the amino acid residues is only 43.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference is due to the high number of proline residues in the protein, which slow its migration on SDS-PAGE, thus making it appear heavier than it actually is. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Nrf2 is a critical transcription factor that regulates endogenous antioxidants, phase II detoxification enzymes, and other cellular defensive proteins through the antioxidant responsive elements (AREs) in the promoter regions of these genes ( 42 , 43 , 63 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The development of whole-transcriptome microarrays and next-generation sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity of cellular gene expression. (jove.com)
  • By increasing or decreasing the cellular abundance of UBPY or by overexpressing a catalytic site mutant, we detect substantial changes in the total pattern of protein ubiquitination, which correlate stringently with cell proliferation. (embopress.org)
  • The protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are involved in the regulation of Mcl-1 stability vary depending on the cellular context, highlighting the complexity and pivotal role of Mcl-1 regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). (wikipedia.org)

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  • antibodies
  • These studies reveal that during HCV infection, the exposure of the CD81 binding site on E2 becomes increasingly occluded, and the antigenicity of the E2 RBD towards both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies is modulated via allosteric mechanisms. (jove.com)
  • Antibodies, which are initially of the IgM then IgG isotype (predominantly IgG2a), recognise several of the B cell epitopes present on the S, preS2, or preS1 domains of the envelope proteins. (bmj.com)
  • Using a plasmid DNA encoding the small and the middle HBV envelope protein, we were able to generate anti-HBs antibodies in these transgenic mice, which in turn induce the clearance of circulating HBsAg. (bmj.com)
  • mRNA
  • Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Upf1 protein resulted in the restoration of mutant mRNA to levels comparable to that of the wild-type minigene, suggesting that hERG nonsense mutations are subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- These results indicate that LQT2 nonsense mutations cause a decrease in mutant mRNA levels by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rather than production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,12-18 However, it is now becoming clear that nonsense and frameshift mutations bearing PTCs can destabilize mRNA transcripts via a mechanism known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in many human diseases, resulting in decreased abundance of mutant mRNA transcripts rather than in production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that, for a non-model species, the sequencing of expressed mRNA can generate a protein database for mass spectrometry-based identification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • phosphorylation
  • Rb is a multifunctional protein with many binding and phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within each subunit, there are a variety of protein binding sites, as well as a total of 15 possible phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, phosphorylation causes interdomain locking, which changes Rb's conformation and prevents binding to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The Secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family consists of five secreted glycoproteins in humans (SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5) that act as extracellular signaling ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • SFRPs are able to bind Wnt proteins and Fz receptors in the extracellular compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The last four domains, KIX, TAZ1, TAZ2 and IBiD of p300, each bind tightly to a sequence spanning both transactivation domains 9aaTADs of transcription factor p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • p300
  • The p300 protein appears to be critical for normal development before and after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p300 protein carries out its function of activating transcription by binding to transcription factors, and the transcription machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations result in the loss of one copy of the gene in each cell, which reduces the amount of p300 protein by half. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some mutations lead to the production of a very short, nonfunctional version of the p300 protein, while others prevent one copy of the gene from making any protein at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although researchers do not know how a reduction in the amount of p300 protein leads to the specific features of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is clear that the loss of one copy of the EP300 gene disrupts normal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases are neurodegenerative disorders associated with unusual protein interactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which leads to the release of cytochrome c and other apoptogenic factors into the cytosol, is controlled by interactions between proteins of the Bcl-2 family [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • dysfunctional
  • 4-7 These PTC mutations generally are assumed to result in truncated dysfunctional channel proteins, and several nonsense and frameshift mutations have been studied at the protein level. (ahajournals.org)
  • viruses
  • Adenoviruses do not cause cancer in humans but as well as providing excellent tools for the study of host cell processes these viruses have been exploited as delivery vehicles in gene therapy for diseases such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. (caister.com)
  • plasmid
  • Systemic immunisation of mice by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing HBV envelope proteins and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) induces rapid, strong and sustained humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Such sequences present in the plasmid backbone promote a Th1 like pattern of cytokine production dominated by IL-12 and IFN-γ with little secretion of Th2 cytokines. (bmj.com)
  • apoptotic
  • Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • analysis
  • Analysis of cis -acting sequences required for increased transcription of the EPO gene in response to hypoxia led to the identification ( 70 ), biochemical purification ( 81 ), and molecular cloning ( 79 ) of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). (physiology.org)
  • 8-11 Most previous studies, however, have focused on the analysis of mutant proteins and channel function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further sequence analysis was performed using the HHPred method which compares Hidden Markov Model profiles derived from the multiple alignment of readily detectable homologs of the query protein to databases of profiles of structurally characterized protein families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that it is a 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Berkner, "Development of Adenovirus Vectors for the Expression of Heterologous Genes," BioTechniques 6(7): 616-629, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Such alkylations compromise the ability of Keap1 to efficiently ubiquitinate Nrf2, resulting in elevated Nrf2 protein levels and enhanced Nrf2-dependent gene expression ( 8 , 14 , 32 , 57 , 66 , 68 , 69 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bromodomain
  • It has four functional domains, including an N-terminal domain, a highly conserved catalytic (HAT) domain, an Ada2 interaction domain, and a C-terminal bromodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The evolution of CD81 binding function and antigenicity was examined with longitudinal E2 RBD sequences. (jove.com)
  • others try to find a correlation between the genetic and failure in protein function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite this historical classification of HATs, some HAT proteins function in multiple complexes or locations and would thus not easily fit into a particular class. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The coding sequence contains five regions showing a high degree of conservation in vertebrates, predominantly in exons 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, but the sequences found in invertebrates show only distant resemblance to mammalian TP53. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Here we report the unexpected finding that protein F12, which is conserved among the chordopoxviruses and is implicated in the morphogenesis of enveloped intracellular virions, is a derived DNA polymerase, possibly of bacteriophage origin, in which the polymerase domain and probably the exonuclease domain have been inactivated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • To facilitate communication, functional differences are usually required between interacting cells, which can be established either genetically or developmentally. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In cancer cells, EP300 mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why sufferers of sporadic retinoblastoma are not at increased risk of cancers later in life, as both alleles are functional in all their other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential
  • A cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus of the HAT domain of MYST proteins is involved in zinc binding, which is essential for HAT activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • These results suggest that oral administration of rE2-TRCs can induce E2-specific immune responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • findings
  • The ultimate goal of this study was to summarize recent findings on protein aggregation and its possible role as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and their role in biomaterial science. (biomedsearch.com)
  • virus
  • In this study, we examined the evolution of the E1 and E2 region in two patients infected with genotype 3a virus. (jove.com)
  • Thus, F12 appears to present a rare example of a drastic, exaptive functional change in virus evolution. (biomedcentral.com)