• residues
  • The binding of a NAb specific to a conserved epitope located within E2 residues 411-428 was significantly reduced by week 108 despite complete conservation of its epitope suggesting that E2 antigenicity is allosterically modulated. (jove.com)
  • Ubiquitination is a type of protein modification that consists of the attachment of ubiquitin to specific lysine residues of the target substrate. (hindawi.com)
  • This modification occurs through the formation of isopeptide bonds between the C‐terminus of ubiquitin and the ϵ‐amino groups of lysine residues on the target protein. (embopress.org)
  • However, the actual mass of the full-length p53 protein (p53α) based on the sum of masses of the amino acid residues is only 43.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference is due to the high number of proline residues in the protein, which slow its migration on SDS-PAGE, thus making it appear heavier than it actually is. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Conclusions- These results indicate that LQT2 nonsense mutations cause a decrease in mutant mRNA levels by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rather than production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,12-18 However, it is now becoming clear that nonsense and frameshift mutations bearing PTCs can destabilize mRNA transcripts via a mechanism known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in many human diseases, resulting in decreased abundance of mutant mRNA transcripts rather than in production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that, for a non-model species, the sequencing of expressed mRNA can generate a protein database for mass spectrometry-based identification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oncogene
  • Within the nucleus, Nrf2 is believed to exert its transcriptional function by forming heterodimers with small Maf (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family) proteins, binding to ARE-containing promoters, and recruiting transcription coactivators to help remodel chromatin structures and facilitate the formation of basal transcription machinery ( 22 , 29 , 30 , 41 , 50 , 74 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sas3 found in yeast is a homolog of MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein), which is an oncogene found in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • These studies reveal that during HCV infection, the exposure of the CD81 binding site on E2 becomes increasingly occluded, and the antigenicity of the E2 RBD towards both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies is modulated via allosteric mechanisms. (jove.com)
  • Antibodies, which are initially of the IgM then IgG isotype (predominantly IgG2a), recognise several of the B cell epitopes present on the S, preS2, or preS1 domains of the envelope proteins. (bmj.com)
  • Using a plasmid DNA encoding the small and the middle HBV envelope protein, we were able to generate anti-HBs antibodies in these transgenic mice, which in turn induce the clearance of circulating HBsAg. (bmj.com)
  • extracellular
  • The Secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family consists of five secreted glycoproteins in humans (SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5) that act as extracellular signaling ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • SFRPs are able to bind Wnt proteins and Fz receptors in the extracellular compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The last four domains, KIX, TAZ1, TAZ2 and IBiD of p300, each bind tightly to a sequence spanning both transactivation domains 9aaTADs of transcription factor p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • p300
  • The p300 protein appears to be critical for normal development before and after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p300 protein carries out its function of activating transcription by binding to transcription factors, and the transcription machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations result in the loss of one copy of the gene in each cell, which reduces the amount of p300 protein by half. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some mutations lead to the production of a very short, nonfunctional version of the p300 protein, while others prevent one copy of the gene from making any protein at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although researchers do not know how a reduction in the amount of p300 protein leads to the specific features of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is clear that the loss of one copy of the EP300 gene disrupts normal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Despite this historical classification of HATs, some HAT proteins function in multiple complexes or locations and would thus not easily fit into a particular class. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunctional
  • 4-7 These PTC mutations generally are assumed to result in truncated dysfunctional channel proteins, and several nonsense and frameshift mutations have been studied at the protein level. (ahajournals.org)
  • targets
  • Hundreds of proteins have been identified as targets of ISGylation, and protein modification by ISGylation has been widely shown to be involved in the regulation of different biological processes included in cancer development and therapy [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • pathway
  • It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. (jove.com)
  • The ubiquitin pathway has been implicated in the regulation of the abundance of proteins that control cell growth and proliferation. (embopress.org)
  • In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The interaction between SFRPs and Wnt proteins prevents the latter from binding the Fz receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has emerged, since, to show that lysine acetylation and other posttranslational modifications of histones generate binding sites for specific protein-protein interaction domains, such as the acetyllysine-binding bromodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has four functional domains, including an N-terminal domain, a highly conserved catalytic (HAT) domain, an Ada2 interaction domain, and a C-terminal bromodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Berkner, "Development of Adenovirus Vectors for the Expression of Heterologous Genes," BioTechniques 6(7): 616-629, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Such alkylations compromise the ability of Keap1 to efficiently ubiquitinate Nrf2, resulting in elevated Nrf2 protein levels and enhanced Nrf2-dependent gene expression ( 8 , 14 , 32 , 57 , 66 , 68 , 69 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The discovery of the transcription factor HIF-1 has led to the identification of protein hydroxylation as a mechanism by which changes in P o 2 are transduced to effect changes in gene expression. (physiology.org)
  • ISG15 overexpression increased overall protein ubiquitination, which was not observed in cells with IFN- α -induced ISG15 expression, suggesting that IFN- α treatment not only induced the expression of ISG15 but also inhibited ISG15-mediated ubiquitination. (hindawi.com)
  • ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein whose expression is induced by IFN- α treatment [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • phosphorylation
  • Rb is a multifunctional protein with many binding and phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within each subunit, there are a variety of protein binding sites, as well as a total of 15 possible phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, phosphorylation causes interdomain locking, which changes Rb's conformation and prevents binding to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Analysis of cis -acting sequences required for increased transcription of the EPO gene in response to hypoxia led to the identification ( 70 ), biochemical purification ( 81 ), and molecular cloning ( 79 ) of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). (physiology.org)
  • 8-11 Most previous studies, however, have focused on the analysis of mutant proteins and channel function. (ahajournals.org)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that it is a 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevents
  • This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • By contrast, the exposure of non-neutralizing epitopes was reduced in the patient that cleared his/her infection and could in part be attributed to sequence changes in the igVR. (jove.com)
  • antigen
  • Systemic immunisation of mice by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing HBV envelope proteins and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) induces rapid, strong and sustained humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • 1980
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • cells
  • To facilitate communication, functional differences are usually required between interacting cells, which can be established either genetically or developmentally. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In cancer cells, EP300 mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why sufferers of sporadic retinoblastoma are not at increased risk of cancers later in life, as both alleles are functional in all their other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The coding sequence contains five regions showing a high degree of conservation in vertebrates, predominantly in exons 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, but the sequences found in invertebrates show only distant resemblance to mammalian TP53. (wikipedia.org)