• clonal
  • High CD8 expression precedes the dual expression of CD4 and CD8 but following clonal selection and expansion, avian T cells cease to express either CD4 or CD8. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrovirus
  • Later, the tumour‐inducing activity was purified from the milk ( Lyons and Moore, 1962 ), and the milk‐transmitted factor was shown to be a morphologically atypical retrovirus, called the Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus or MMTV. (embopress.org)
  • A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retroviral envelope serves three distinct functions: protection from the extracellular environment via the lipid bilayer, enabling the retrovirus to enter/exit host cells through endosomal membrane trafficking, and the ability to directly enter cells by fusing with their membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Although the majority of EV infections remain asymptomatic, these viruses, especially group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), are considered to be a common cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis cases as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, prevalence = 7 cases / 100,000, second leading cause of heart transplantation worldwide after ischemic heart disease). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An acute viral myocarditis may evolve into chronic myocarditis , leading to a dilated cardiomyopathy in an individual with the above defect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • peptide
  • The ASLV TM glycoprotein has been proposed to adopt a structure similar to that of the Ebola virus GP2 protein: each contains an internal fusion peptide flanked by cysteine residues predicted to be in a disulfide bond. (mendeley.com)
  • The fusion peptide inserts itself in the host cell membrane and brings the host cell membrane very close to the viral membrane to facilitate membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism by which unintegrated viral DNA persisted in osteopetrotic bone was investigated by examining the susceptibility of infected osteoblasts to superinfection. (umassmed.edu)
  • diseases
  • The well-known Koch's postulates, 19th-century constructs developed by Robert Koch to establish the likelihood that Bacillus anthracis will cause anthrax disease, are not applicable to viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • In majority of the cases where insult to myocardium is limited, the heart function recovers within a few months, but in cases with more extensive myocardial insult, chronic myocarditis may develop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cell
  • Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such a receptor, particularly the helper T-cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon: A New Eucaryotic Defective-Virus Cloning-Amplifying Vector," Cell 30: 295-304 (Aug. 1982). (patentgenius.com)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 2. The unique fragment flanking the region which contains the putative replication origin of MDV DNA was found in only MDV DNA from virus-nonproducing cell iine MDCC-RPI (RPI). (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, a third TCR, called TCR3, has been found in avian T cell populations that lack both TCR1 and TCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now clear that the bursa is the primary site of B cell lymphopoeisis and that avian B cell development has some unique properties compared to human or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced osteopetrosis is a proliferative disorder of the bone affecting the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • A significant level of mature Gag protein was present in the bone, suggesting the accumulation of mature virus particles in the diseased bone. (umassmed.edu)
  • genetically
  • However, viruses with both C9S and C45S (C9,45S) mutations retained both mutations and acquired a second-site mutation that significantly improved the infectivity of the genetically selected virus population. (mendeley.com)
  • transient
  • We also describe a population of small electron-dense SGL cells, which we call type D cells and are derived from the astrocytes and probably function as a transient precursor in the formation of new neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • In many cases, tumor viruses do not cause cancer in their native hosts but only in dead-end species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this latter case, it is controversial but at least theoretically possible that an indirect tumor virus could undergo "hit-and-run" and so the virus would be lost from the clinically diagnosed tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • However, most of these have acquired inactivating mutations during host DNA replication and are no longer capable of producing virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertional mutations can occur naturally, mediated by virus or transposon, or can be artificially created for research purposes in the lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • chicken
  • Most avian immunology research has been carried out on the domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Firstly, this is because viruses cannot truly be isolated in pure culture-even stringent isolation techniques cannot exclude undetected contaminating viruses with similar density characteristics, and viruses must be grown on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The arrangement of these heterodimers determines the 3D structure of the knobbed spike on the viral surface. (wikipedia.org)