• retroviral
  • In addition, the retroviral proteins themselves have been co-opted to serve novel host functions, particularly in reproduction and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retroviral envelope serves three distinct functions: protection from the extracellular environment via the lipid bilayer, enabling the retrovirus to enter/exit host cells through endosomal membrane trafficking, and the ability to directly enter cells by fusing with their membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • High CD8 expression precedes the dual expression of CD4 and CD8 but following clonal selection and expansion, avian T cells cease to express either CD4 or CD8. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The ASLV TM glycoprotein has been proposed to adopt a structure similar to that of the Ebola virus GP2 protein: each contains an internal fusion peptide flanked by cysteine residues predicted to be in a disulfide bond. (mendeley.com)
  • Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such a receptor, particularly the helper T-cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover we found that the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) antagonized the antiviral effect of human and murine Tetherin and facilitated viral budding. (upenn.edu)
  • retrovirus
  • Later, the tumourā€inducing activity was purified from the milk ( Lyons and Moore, 1962 ), and the milkā€transmitted factor was shown to be a morphologically atypical retrovirus, called the Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus or MMTV. (embopress.org)
  • A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism by which unintegrated viral DNA persisted in osteopetrotic bone was investigated by examining the susceptibility of infected osteoblasts to superinfection. (umassmed.edu)
  • However, the mechanism by which ebolavirus impedes Tetherin function is unknown and is one of the areas under active investigation in our lab. (upenn.edu)
  • murine
  • Our lab demonstrated that Tetherin functions as a broadly acting antiviral factor by showing that both human and murine Tetherin potently inhibit the release of the filovirus, ebolavirus, from the surface of cells. (upenn.edu)
  • persistence
  • Because of these advances, gene therapy with integrating vectors is now considered safe and is the preferred method of gene transfer due to the permanent nature of the integration compared to the transient persistence of non-integrating viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • atypical
  • Osteopetrotic bone is also characterized by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA, suggesting an atypical life cycle of the virus in the infected osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • genetic
  • Researchers have categorized the HIV-1 virus into groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes that classification is based on the genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis . (omicsonline.org)
  • sequence
  • 9. The DNA of claim 5 wherein said foreign DNA sequence is an avian gene capable of being amplified concurrent with formation of concatemers by said amplicon. (patentgenius.com)
  • copies
  • Osteopetrosis is a polyclonal disease in which cells of the bone contain, on average, multiple viral DNA copies. (umassmed.edu)
  • He postulated that RNA tumour viruses made DNA copies which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA, analogous to integration of prophage in bacteria. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • cellular
  • For instance, if the viral DNA is inserted into a repressor, the gene corresponding to that promoter may be over expressed - leading to an overabundance of its product and altered cellular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus inserts a gene (known as a viral onocogene) normally near the cellular myc (c-myc)gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, how does ebolavirus GP antagonize the function of the cellular antiviral factor Tetherin? (upenn.edu)
  • cell
  • The fusion peptide inserts itself in the host cell membrane and brings the host cell membrane very close to the viral membrane to facilitate membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • however when it is turned on it is able to push the cell into the G1 phase of the cell cycle and cause the cell to begin replication, causing unchecked cell proliferation while allowing the viral gene to be replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon: A New Eucaryotic Defective-Virus Cloning-Amplifying Vector," Cell 30: 295-304 (Aug. 1982). (patentgenius.com)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 2. The unique fragment flanking the region which contains the putative replication origin of MDV DNA was found in only MDV DNA from virus-nonproducing cell iine MDCC-RPI (RPI). (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, a third TCR, called TCR3, has been found in avian T cell populations that lack both TCR1 and TCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now clear that the bursa is the primary site of B cell lymphopoeisis and that avian B cell development has some unique properties compared to human or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Both cancer-causing viruses are known to infect the same poultry flock, the same chicken, and, even the same anatomic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • Even though there is no particular treatment or therapy for HIV, very effective treatment called antiviral therapy, combination therapy, or HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) can retain the virus under control and permit someone with HIV to have an active, health life. (omicsonline.org)
  • diseases
  • This invention relates to the construction of a genetically engineered vector which would be useful as a vaccine against poultry diseases or for ferrying desirable genes into the avian system. (patentgenius.com)
  • The well-known Koch's postulates, 19th-century constructs developed by Robert Koch to establish the likelihood that Bacillus anthracis will cause anthrax disease, are not applicable to viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced osteopetrosis is a proliferative disorder of the bone affecting the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • A significant level of mature Gag protein was present in the bone, suggesting the accumulation of mature virus particles in the diseased bone. (umassmed.edu)
  • invasion
  • Influenza virus alters the lungs in ways that increase the adherence, invasion and induction of disease by pneumococcus, alters the immune response with weakened ability to clear pneumococcus or, alternately amplifying the inflammatory cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain because it is responsible for the receptor-binding function of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Env protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also has a trimeric structure of heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without proper folding, protein transport and function can be severely compromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, protein function and fate may depend upon the full and precise history of its encoding mRNA. (embopress.org)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • We also describe a population of small electron-dense SGL cells, which we call type D cells and are derived from the astrocytes and probably function as a transient precursor in the formation of new neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give rise to an ERV, which can later become fixed in the gene pool of the host population. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the host restriction for human viruses makes it unethical to experimentally transmit a suspected cancer virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • bursa
  • The function of the bursa was discovered when it was surgically removed from neonatal chicks and this led to an impaired antibody response to Salmonella typhimurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Although we work with a number of different viral systems, current projects concentrate on several pathogenic viruses including filoviruses (ebolavirus and Marburgvirus) and bunyaviruses (Hantaan, Andes, Sin Nombre, La Crosse). (upenn.edu)
  • vectors
  • Concatmers of the seeds and the associated genes have potential as vaccines or delivery vectors when cotransfected and replicated in the presence of helper viruses. (patentgenius.com)
  • The amplicons are also useful for inserting associated genes into the helper viruses, which in turn could be used as expression vectors. (patentgenius.com)
  • tumor
  • In many cases, tumor viruses do not cause cancer in their native hosts but only in dead-end species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this latter case, it is controversial but at least theoretically possible that an indirect tumor virus could undergo "hit-and-run" and so the virus would be lost from the clinically diagnosed tumor. (wikipedia.org)