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  • genes
  • This is a technique used to study the function of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pdp1 may function as part of a larger protein/DNA complex that interacts with Mef2 to regulate transcription of Drosophila muscle genes (S. C. Lin, 1997). (sdbonline.org)
  • DNA fragments (seeds) having the characteristics of amplicons, which are useful for amplifying genes of interest, have been isolated from Marek's disease viruses of poultry. (patentgenius.com)
  • Concatmers of the seeds and the associated genes have potential as vaccines or delivery vectors when cotransfected and replicated in the presence of helper viruses. (patentgenius.com)
  • The amplicons are also useful for inserting associated genes into the helper viruses, which in turn could be used as expression vectors. (patentgenius.com)
  • This invention relates to the construction of a genetically engineered vector which would be useful as a vaccine against poultry diseases or for ferrying desirable genes into the avian system. (patentgenius.com)
  • clonal
  • High CD8 expression precedes the dual expression of CD4 and CD8 but following clonal selection and expansion, avian T cells cease to express either CD4 or CD8. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give rise to an ERV, which can later become fixed in the gene pool of the host population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few cases, the LTR functions as the major promoter for the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these advances, gene therapy with integrating vectors is now considered safe and is the preferred method of gene transfer due to the permanent nature of the integration compared to the transient persistence of non-integrating viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, if the viral DNA is inserted into a repressor, the gene corresponding to that promoter may be over expressed - leading to an overabundance of its product and altered cellular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus insertional mutagenesis is possible with both replication competent virus and the self-inactivating vectors that are commonly used in gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus inserts a gene (known as a viral onocogene) normally near the cellular myc (c-myc)gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • however when it is turned on it is able to push the cell into the G1 phase of the cell cycle and cause the cell to begin replication, causing unchecked cell proliferation while allowing the viral gene to be replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • After many replications where the viral gene stays latent tumours begin to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • This viral gene insertion is also known as a promoter insertion as it drives the expression of the c-myc gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficient Expression of a Chimeric Chicken Ovalbumin Gene Amplified Within Defective Virus Genomes," Virology 142: 421-425 (1985). (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. The DNA of claim 5 wherein said foreign DNA sequence is an avian gene capable of being amplified concurrent with formation of concatemers by said amplicon. (patentgenius.com)
  • thymus
  • Newly hatched chicks infected with Avian leukosis virus will begin to form tumours that will begin to appear in their bursa of fabricus (like the human thymus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Various bird organs function to differentiate avian immune cells: the thymus, Bursa of Fabricius and bone marrow are primary avian lymphoid organs whereas the spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), germinal centers, and diffuse lymphoid tissues are secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Although the majority of EV infections remain asymptomatic, these viruses, especially group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), are considered to be a common cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis cases as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, prevalence = 7 cases / 100,000, second leading cause of heart transplantation worldwide after ischemic heart disease). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • infection
  • To better understand virus-host interactions in the induction of osteopetrosis by ALVs, infected chick osteoblast cultures and osteopetrotic bone were examined for aspects of the virus life cycle and effects of infection on osteoblast function. (umassmed.edu)
  • Levels of infection and virus expression were compared in cultured osteoblasts and osteopetrotic bone. (umassmed.edu)
  • It is possible that the accumulation of virus could facilitate the high levels of infection observed in the diseased bone. (umassmed.edu)
  • The effect of virus infection on osteoblast function was examined in the diseased bone and in osteoblast cultures. (umassmed.edu)
  • In culture, virus infection had no apparent effect on either the proliferation or differentiation of osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • This indicates that infection was itself not sufficient to perturb osteoblast function. (umassmed.edu)
  • Of primary concern are those symptoms attendant to suppression of normal bone marrow function, particularly susceptibility to infection due to the predominance of immature and abnormally functioning white blood cells, bleeding tendency owing to decreased platelet count, and anemia due to decreased erythrocyte count. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of human cancers, with 11.9% caused by one of seven viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect viral oncogenicity involves chronic nonspecific inflammation occurring over decades of infection, as is the case for HCV-induced liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Firstly, this is because viruses cannot truly be isolated in pure culture-even stringent isolation techniques cannot exclude undetected contaminating viruses with similar density characteristics, and viruses must be grown on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • An acute viral myocarditis may evolve into chronic myocarditis , leading to a dilated cardiomyopathy in an individual with the above defect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sequence
  • Viruses with single cysteine-to-serine mutations reverted to the wild-type sequence. (mendeley.com)
  • In order to identify regulatory factors that bind to the mut6, mut1 and mut2 regions and regulate MA function, radioactive oligonucleotides containing the sequence spanning this region were used to screen a lambda gt11 embryonic cDNA expression library (Singh, 1989). (sdbonline.org)
  • 5. Recombinant DNA comprising a substantially biologically pure amplicon derived from a Marek's disease virus and a foreign DNA sequence derived from a source other than said Marek's disease virus, wherein said amplicon contains all cis-actingfunctions required for DNA replication, and in the presence of helper virus, said amplicon infects host cells and replicates, thereby forming high molecular weight concatemers of DNA. (patentgenius.com)
  • copies
  • Osteopetrosis is a polyclonal disease in which cells of the bone contain, on average, multiple viral DNA copies. (umassmed.edu)
  • He postulated that RNA tumour viruses made DNA copies which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA, analogous to integration of prophage in bacteria. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • wherein
  • 1. A substantially biologically pure amplicon derived from a Marek's disease virus as a DNA fragment thereof, wherein said amplicon contains all cis-acting functions required for DNAreplication, and in the presence of helper virus, said amplicon infects host cells and replicates, thereby forming high molecular weight concatemers of DNA. (patentgenius.com)
  • peptide
  • The fusion peptide inserts itself in the host cell membrane and brings the host cell membrane very close to the viral membrane to facilitate membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism by which unintegrated viral DNA persisted in osteopetrotic bone was investigated by examining the susceptibility of infected osteoblasts to superinfection. (umassmed.edu)
  • diseases
  • The well-known Koch's postulates, 19th-century constructs developed by Robert Koch to establish the likelihood that Bacillus anthracis will cause anthrax disease, are not applicable to viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • In majority of the cases where insult to myocardium is limited, the heart function recovers within a few months, but in cases with more extensive myocardial insult, chronic myocarditis may develop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic
  • Researchers have categorized the HIV-1 virus into groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes that classification is based on the genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis . (omicsonline.org)
  • tumors
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon: A New Eucaryotic Defective-Virus Cloning-Amplifying Vector," Cell 30: 295-304 (Aug. 1982). (patentgenius.com)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is now clear that the bursa is the primary site of B cell lymphopoeisis and that avian B cell development has some unique properties compared to human or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • We also describe a population of small electron-dense SGL cells, which we call type D cells and are derived from the astrocytes and probably function as a transient precursor in the formation of new neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • cellular
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the host restriction for human viruses makes it unethical to experimentally transmit a suspected cancer virus. (wikipedia.org)