Loading...
  • insulin resistance
  • Thus, robust plasticity of β-cell function in the face of progressive insulin resistance is the hallmark of normal glucose regulation during pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leads to the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes development ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • protein
  • Upregulated interleukin (IL)-1β maturation, IL-18 secretion, and caspase-1 cleavage were observed in MDMs from type 2 diabetic patients after stimulation with various danger molecules (ATP, high-mobility group protein B1, free fatty acids, islet amyloid polypeptide, and monosodium uric acid crystals). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2014). It is of great importance to recognize that amyloid-like protein folding is subject to stringent quality control systems. (docme.ru)
  • Yet, protein folding in ER is inefficient due to a substantial polypeptides failing to reach its native state but bringing toxic effects to the cell (Smith et al. (docme.ru)
  • Staphylococcus aureus protein α-toxin and Streptococcus pyogenes protein streptolysin O both create pores that allow unsolicited molecular transfer across membranes that disrupts vital functions. (dovepress.com)
  • They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin is a polypeptide hormone formed by 51 amino acids [ 5 ] which once bound with its receptor, mainly expressed in the liver, muscular, and adipose tissue [ 6 ], and regulates a wide number of physiological processes that comprise gene mechanisms such as cellular growth and differentiation, expression of genes that code for enzymes that trigger glycogen, and lipid and protein synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • The CALC1 gene belongs to a superfamily of related protein hormone precursors including islet amyloid precursor protein, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the precursor of adrenomedullin. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These constitute 70-80% of the total mass of the islet [ 2 ] and are responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, a key hormone in the regulation of human metabolism [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • There are more than 30 human proteins whose aggregation appears to cause degenerative maladies referred to as amyloid diseases or amyloidoses. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study highlights that having a profound understanding in the underlying interactive mechanism between amyloid and the immune system provides research directions on the opportunities and difficulties when targeting key therapeutic points for the treatment of these devastating chronic diseases in clinical practice. (docme.ru)
  • In the human body, amyloids have been linked to the development of various diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently this definition has come into question as some classic, amyloid species have been observed in distinctly intracellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • A more recent, biophysical definition is broader, including any polypeptide that polymerizes to form a cross-beta structure, in vivo or in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Identifying the cell death signalling pathways by which non-immune factors such as islet amyloid formation mediate beta-cell death in human islets during pre-transplant culture and following transplantation. (ubc.ca)
  • secretion
  • Heparanase overexpression was associated with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hyperglucagonemia, in addition to changes in islet composition and structure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • toxicity
  • Identifying the molecular mechanisms by which islet amyloid formation mediates beta-cell death in type 2 diabetes and finding new ways to prevent amyloid toxicity. (ubc.ca)
  • Differences between amyloid toxicity in alpha and beta cells in human and mouse islets and the role of caspase-3. (ubc.ca)
  • Diabetes
  • Evidence of cosecretion of islet amyloid polypeptide and insulin by β -cells," Diabetes , vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 634-638, 1990. (hindawi.com)
  • High plasma levels of islet amyloid polypeptide in young with new-onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus," PLoS ONE , vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e93053, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the recent attention focused on the roles of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the ex vivo profile of inflammasome activation in type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Investigating the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to the better survival of islet alpha-cells in conditions associated with beta-cell death such as type 2 diabetes, islet culture, and transplantation. (ubc.ca)
  • The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide restores impaired pro-islet amyloid polypeptide processing in cultured human islets: Implications in type 2 Diabetes and islet transplantation. (ubc.ca)
  • contributes
  • Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. (docme.ru)
  • formation
  • Zhang Y, Jalili RB, Warnock GL, Ao Z, Marzban L , Ghahary A. Three-dimensional scaffolds reduce islet amyloid formation and enhance survival and function of cultured human islets. (ubc.ca)
  • Marzban L , Tomas A, Becker TC, Rosenberg L, Oberholzer J, Fraser PE, Halban PA, Verchere CB: siRNA-Mediated Suppression of Pro-Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Expression Inhibits Islet Amyloid Formation and Enhances Survival of Human Islets in Culture. (ubc.ca)
  • Marzban L , Rhodes CJ, Steiner DF, Haataja L, Halban PA, and Verchere CB: Impaired NH2-terminal processing of human pro-islet amyloid polypeptide by the prohormone convertase PC2 leads to amyloid formation and cell death. (ubc.ca)
  • species
  • ATTR amyloid deposits from transthyretin occur not only in Transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, but also in advanced cases of aging in many tissues, in many mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • deposits
  • Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. (docme.ru)
  • For a period, the scientific community debated whether or not amyloid deposits are fatty deposits or carbohydrate deposits until it was finally found (in 1859) that they are, in fact, deposits of albumoid proteinaceous material. (wikipedia.org)
  • These deposits often recruit various sugars and other components such as Serum Amyloid P component, resulting in complex, and sometimes inhomogeneous structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Restoration of wild-type p53 function has been shown to effectively suppress tumor growth in mice, but has proven difficult to achieve in patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • functional
  • In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. (docme.ru)
  • Notably, the present review will focus on the detailed functional roles of amyloid in immune response characterized as autoimmunity and anti-inflammatory response. (docme.ru)
  • human
  • 2016). However, improved outcomes have become to compromise the emerging regressive effect caused by immunotherapeutic targeting, implying amyloid is a multifaceted player in human health and disease (Johansson et al. (docme.ru)
  • mechanisms
  • Key mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced inflammation include nuclear factor-κB-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, increased oxidative stress, and inflammasome activation ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • specific
  • It is believed to be due to the decline of specific receptors on the surface of the liver and muscle cells which lose their ability to respond to insulin that circulates in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • To our knowledge, the investigated aliphatic tripeptides are the shortest ever reported naturally occurring amino acid sequence that can adopt α-helical structure and promote amyloid formation. (pnas.org)
  • humans
  • Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Recently this definition has come into question as some classic, amyloid species have been observed in distinctly intracellular locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATTR amyloid deposits from transthyretin occur not only in Transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, but also in advanced cases of aging in many tissues, in many mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • For a period, the scientific community debated whether or not amyloid deposits are fatty deposits or carbohydrate deposits until it was finally found (in 1859) that they are, in fact, deposits of albumoid proteinaceous material. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • it is likely that this ultraviolet sensitivity has a social function, since both their ventral (stomach) fur and their urine are highly UV reflective. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • iii) CX3CR1high regulatory myeloid cells In the murine colonic lamina propria, CX3CR1highCD11b+CD11c+ cells termed regulatory myeloid (Mreg) cells have a bad regulatory function (39). (molecularcircuit.com)
  • mice, which harbour a Stat3 mutation specifically in myeloid cells, spontaneously develop colitis and display defective Mreg cell function. (molecularcircuit.com)
  • They make up 65-80% of the cells in the islets. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • The name amyloid comes from the early mistaken identification by Rudolf Virchow of the substance as starch (amylum in Latin, from Greek ἄμυλον amylon), based on crude iodine-staining techniques. (wikipedia.org)