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  • vestibular
  • These were: the response occurred ipsilateral to the ear stimulated, the click threshold was high, the response did not depend upon hearing (cochlear function) per se, it scaled in direct proportion to the level of tonic neck contraction, the response was small (although large compared to many evoked potentials) and required averaging, and only the initial positive-negative response (p13-n23 by latency) was actually vestibular-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VsEP is commonly divided into two sections: angular vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPA) and linear vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPL). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the response in the SCM, similar reflexes can be shown for the masseter and for eye muscles (oVEMPs or OVEMPs = ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the vestibular sensory neurons detect small movements of the body, the vestibulospinal tract commands motor signals to specific muscles to counteract these movements and re-stabilize the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vestibulospinal tract is an upper motor neuron tract consisting of two sub-pathways: The medial vestibulospinal tract projects bilaterally from the medial vestibular nucleus within the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the ventral horns in the upper cervical cord (C6 vertebra). (wikipedia.org)
  • resection
  • Mean tumor resection rate was 95.4%, and eventual postoperative facial nerve function were all normal. (egms.de)
  • postsynaptic
  • After the depolarization of the motoneuron, sodium channels open for 1 to 2 ms. After closing the channels, the resulting excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) decreases in the next 10 to 15 ms. A second opening of the same channels within this period will result in an augmentation (temporal summation) of the EPSPs. (asahq.org)
  • The more rapid the rate of repetitive depolarization, the greater the postsynaptic potential that develops. (asahq.org)
  • This outputs as a trace with information on membrane resting potential, postsynaptic potentials and spikes through the soma (or axon). (wikipedia.org)
  • acoustic neuroma
  • Preservation of facial nerve function is one of the most important goals to accomplish in acoustic neuroma surgery. (egms.de)
  • In this study, we have applied facial motor evoked potentials (fMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function during acoustic neuroma surgery. (egms.de)
  • We investigated 10 patients with surgically treated acoustic neuroma to identify correlations between parameters in this monitoring and postoperative facial nerve function. (egms.de)
  • compound muscle action
  • Patients that suffer from critical illness myopathy, which is a frequent cause of weakness seen in patients in hospital intensive care units, have prolonged compound muscle action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Then, the nervous system transforms the sensory coordinates into the motor system's coordinates, and the motor system generates the necessary commands to move the muscles so that the target state is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The input of the optical flow is then converted into a motor command to the fly's neck muscles so that the fly will maintain a level gaze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests that are conducted are concerned with measuring the electrical functions of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves in the limbs and muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral vestibulospinal tract provides excitatory signals to interneurons, which relay the signal to the motor neurons in antigravity muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus has dorsal and ventral divisions that contain lower motor neurons supplying the muscles of the upper and lower face, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus contains ventral and dorsal areas that have lower motor neurons that supply the upper and lower face muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • Since then, single unit recordings have become an important method for understanding mechanisms and functions of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • An internal model is a theoretical model used by a nervous system to predict the environmental changes that result from a motor action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assumption is that the nervous system has an internal representation of how a motor apparatus, the part of the body that will be moved, behaves in an environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inverse models are used by nervous systems to estimate either the motor command that caused a change in sensory information or to determine the motor command that will reach the target state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system functions to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others and to receive feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper motor
  • The dorsal division receives bilateral upper motor neuron input (i.e. from both sides of the brain) while the ventral division receives only contralateral input (i.e. from the opposite side of the brain). (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Association study of dopamine receptor genes polymorphism with cognitive functions in bipolar I diso. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cognitive scientists have used single-unit recordings in the brains of animals and humans to study behaviors and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Event-related potentials (ERPs) offered a more sophisticated method of extracting more specific sensory, cognitive, and motor events by using simple averaging techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of MEG include basic research into perceptual and cognitive brain processes, localizing regions affected by pathology before surgical removal, determining the function of various parts of the brain, and neurofeedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • Event-related potentials can be classified as either: sensory, motor or cognitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Background and Purpose- Several clinical measures and biomarkers are associated with motor recovery after stroke, but none are used to guide rehabilitation for individual patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Patients with similar initial motor impairment may achieve widely disparate levels of motor function and independence. (ahajournals.org)
  • Demonstrating improved functioning at the level of functional activities or social participation in such a study can be difficult in patients undergoing rehabilitation, because the rehabilitation process seeks to minimize the impact of impairments on functioning . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We are interested in the potential of DC current to enhance function in patients with frontal lobe disorders and to reduce frontal overactivation in conditions such as drug craving. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • algorithm
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of upper limb predictions in stroke rehabilitation, by combining clinical measures and biomarkers using the Predict Recovery Potential (PREP) algorithm. (ahajournals.org)
  • functional
  • In addition to demonstrating an effect on neurological functioning, investigators in such clinical trials are encouraged to demonstrate that any improvement is clinically significant--that is, results in improvements in functional tasks and social participation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This article will use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (Figure 1) , which is the basic WHO framework, with an additional domain (Capability/Functional Limitation) inserted between the Body Functions and Structures and Activity domains. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • action
  • When a neuron generates an action potential, the signal propagates down the neuron as a current which flows in and out of the cell through excitable membrane regions in the soma and axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • they transmit information through the body using electrical signals called action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an action potential propagates through the cell, the electric current flows in and out of the soma and axons at excitable membrane regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular single-unit recordings occur within the neuron and measure the voltage change (with respect to time) across the membrane during action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMG measures action potentials, called Motor Unit Action Potentials (MUAPs), created during muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linking of a motor action to a heard sound is thought to be learned. (wikipedia.org)
  • We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the 1950s (Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and John Eccles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures
  • The ICF model distinguishes between the domains of (1) Body Functions and Structures, (2) Activities, and (3) Participation and includes two sets of contextual factors, Environmental and Personal (Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • neurons
  • With proper equipment it is possible to locate where in the brain neurons have been activated and measure their event related potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral vestibulospinal tract is a group of descending extrapyramidal motor neurons, or efferent nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, some neurons terminate directly on the dendrites of alpha motor neurons in the same laminae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medial vestibulospinal tract is a group of descending extrapyramidal motor neurons, or efferent fibers found in the anterior funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • It usually results from damage to upper motor neurons of the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition is often the result of damage of the upper motor neurons of the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • This study provides quantitative evidence that an increase in posttraumatic SCBF can significantly improve the function of injured spinal cord axons, and strongly implicates posttraumatic ischemia in the pathogenesis of acute SCI. (thejns.org)
  • A recent study showed that, depending on its direction, the current could make people perform a little better or perhaps slightly worse on a test of the function of the brain's frontal lobe. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study of the brain in this way provides a noninvasive means of evaluating brain functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Later, Cohen built a much better shielded room at MIT, and used one of the first SQUID detectors, just developed by James E. Zimmerman, a researcher at Ford Motor Company, to again measure MEG signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Evoked activity is brain activity that is the result of a task, sensory input or motor output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fronto-cerebellar dissociation is the disconnection and independent function of frontal and cerebellar regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. (wikipedia.org)