• vestibular
  • These were: the response occurred ipsilateral to the ear stimulated, the click threshold was high, the response did not depend upon hearing (cochlear function) per se, it scaled in direct proportion to the level of tonic neck contraction, the response was small (although large compared to many evoked potentials) and required averaging, and only the initial positive-negative response (p13-n23 by latency) was actually vestibular-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VsEP is commonly divided into two sections: angular vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPA) and linear vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPL). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the response in the SCM, similar reflexes can be shown for the masseter and for eye muscles (oVEMPs or OVEMPs = ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the vestibular sensory neurons detect small movements of the body, the vestibulospinal tract commands motor signals to specific muscles to counteract these movements and re-stabilize the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vestibulospinal tract is an upper motor neuron tract consisting of two sub-pathways: The medial vestibulospinal tract projects bilaterally from the medial vestibular nucleus within the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the ventral horns in the upper cervical cord (C6 vertebra). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • However, clinical and experimental use of these techniques with a single pulse for stimulation has shown that the elicited potentials are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents, particularly volatile anesthetic agents. (asahq.org)
  • Relationship between clinical assessments of function and measurements from an upper-limb robotic rehabilitation device in cervical spinal cord injury. (uzh.ch)
  • Background and Purpose- Several clinical measures and biomarkers are associated with motor recovery after stroke, but none are used to guide rehabilitation for individual patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of upper limb predictions in stroke rehabilitation, by combining clinical measures and biomarkers using the Predict Recovery Potential (PREP) algorithm. (ahajournals.org)
  • Clinical outcomes (upper limb function, impairment and use, independence, and quality of life) were measured 3 and 6 months poststroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Domains of outcomes in spinal cord injury for clinical trials to improve neurological function. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This article provides a conceptual framework for assessing outcomes in spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical trials that aim to improve neurological function. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Clinical trials in SCI, particularly trials in the acute stage of injury that evaluate interventions for preserving or improving spinal cord function, are conducted against the backdrop of rehabilitation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition to demonstrating an effect on neurological functioning, investigators in such clinical trials are encouraged to demonstrate that any improvement is clinically significant--that is, results in improvements in functional tasks and social participation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • While researching mathematical logic, Sgro became interested in investigating the logic systems that the brain uses to process motor and sensory information, and returned to school, intending to study clinical neurophysiology, the branch of neurology and physiology that examines the functioning of the peripheral and central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory evoked potentials have been widely used in clinical diagnostic medicine since the 1970s, and also in intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring (IONM), also known as surgical neurophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas a clinical neurophysiologist is trained to perform all the following studies EEG, intraoperative monitoring, nerve conduction studies, EMG and evoked potentials, and electrodiagnostic physician focuses mainly on nerve conduction studies, needle EMG, and evoked potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplitude
  • Change in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle at the end of training. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To resolve these low-amplitude potentials against the background of ongoing EEG, ECG, EMG, and other biological signals and ambient noise, signal averaging is usually required. (wikipedia.org)
  • By analogy with the steady-state response of a resonant circuit that follows the initial transient response he defined an idealized steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a form of response to repetitive sensory stimulation in which the constituent frequency components of the response remain constant with time in both amplitude and phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • postsynaptic
  • After the depolarization of the motoneuron, sodium channels open for 1 to 2 ms. After closing the channels, the resulting excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) decreases in the next 10 to 15 ms. A second opening of the same channels within this period will result in an augmentation (temporal summation) of the EPSPs. (asahq.org)
  • The more rapid the rate of repetitive depolarization, the greater the postsynaptic potential that develops. (asahq.org)
  • This outputs as a trace with information on membrane resting potential, postsynaptic potentials and spikes through the soma (or axon). (wikipedia.org)
  • acoustic neuroma
  • Preservation of facial nerve function is one of the most important goals to accomplish in acoustic neuroma surgery. (egms.de)
  • In this study, we have applied facial motor evoked potentials (fMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function during acoustic neuroma surgery. (egms.de)
  • We investigated 10 patients with surgically treated acoustic neuroma to identify correlations between parameters in this monitoring and postoperative facial nerve function. (egms.de)
  • action
  • When a neuron generates an action potential, the signal propagates down the neuron as a current which flows in and out of the cell through excitable membrane regions in the soma and axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • they transmit information through the body using electrical signals called action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an action potential propagates through the cell, the electric current flows in and out of the soma and axons at excitable membrane regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular single-unit recordings occur within the neuron and measure the voltage change (with respect to time) across the membrane during action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CMAP idealizes the summation of a group of almost simultaneous action potentials from several muscle fibers in the same area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients that suffer from critical illness myopathy, which is a frequent cause of weakness seen in patients in hospital intensive care units, have prolonged compound muscle action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMG measures action potentials, called Motor Unit Action Potentials (MUAPs), created during muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • An internal model is a theoretical model used by a nervous system to predict the environmental changes that result from a motor action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linking of a motor action to a heard sound is thought to be learned. (wikipedia.org)
  • We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the 1950s (Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and John Eccles). (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Then, the nervous system transforms the sensory coordinates into the motor system's coordinates, and the motor system generates the necessary commands to move the muscles so that the target state is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The input of the optical flow is then converted into a motor command to the fly's neck muscles so that the fly will maintain a level gaze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests that are conducted are concerned with measuring the electrical functions of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves in the limbs and muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral vestibulospinal tract provides excitatory signals to interneurons, which relay the signal to the motor neurons in antigravity muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus has dorsal and ventral divisions that contain lower motor neurons supplying the muscles of the upper and lower face, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus contains ventral and dorsal areas that have lower motor neurons that supply the upper and lower face muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • Since then, single unit recordings have become an important method for understanding mechanisms and functions of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assumption is that the nervous system has an internal representation of how a motor apparatus, the part of the body that will be moved, behaves in an environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inverse models are used by nervous systems to estimate either the motor command that caused a change in sensory information or to determine the motor command that will reach the target state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system functions to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others and to receive feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper motor
  • The dorsal division receives bilateral upper motor neuron input (i.e. from both sides of the brain) while the ventral division receives only contralateral input (i.e. from the opposite side of the brain). (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Association study of dopamine receptor genes polymorphism with cognitive functions in bipolar I diso. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cognitive scientists have used single-unit recordings in the brains of animals and humans to study behaviors and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Event-related potentials (ERPs) offered a more sophisticated method of extracting more specific sensory, cognitive, and motor events by using simple averaging techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of MEG include basic research into perceptual and cognitive brain processes, localizing regions affected by pathology before surgical removal, determining the function of various parts of the brain, and neurofeedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • Event-related potentials can be classified as either: sensory, motor or cognitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures
  • This article will use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (Figure 1) , which is the basic WHO framework, with an additional domain (Capability/Functional Limitation) inserted between the Body Functions and Structures and Activity domains. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The ICF model distinguishes between the domains of (1) Body Functions and Structures, (2) Activities, and (3) Participation and includes two sets of contextual factors, Environmental and Personal (Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • resection
  • Mean tumor resection rate was 95.4%, and eventual postoperative facial nerve function were all normal. (egms.de)
  • patients
  • Demonstrating improved functioning at the level of functional activities or social participation in such a study can be difficult in patients undergoing rehabilitation, because the rehabilitation process seeks to minimize the impact of impairments on functioning . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We are interested in the potential of DC current to enhance function in patients with frontal lobe disorders and to reduce frontal overactivation in conditions such as drug craving. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and electro acupuncture (EAC) compared to sham treatment in reducing pain, improving functional capacity and functioning of the neuro-immune-endocrine system in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • signals
  • Later, Cohen built a much better shielded room at MIT, and used one of the first SQUID detectors, just developed by James E. Zimmerman, a researcher at Ford Motor Company, to again measure MEG signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The study of the brain in this way provides a noninvasive means of evaluating brain functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evoked activity is brain activity that is the result of a task, sensory input or motor output. (wikipedia.org)
  • With proper equipment it is possible to locate where in the brain neurons have been activated and measure their event related potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fronto-cerebellar dissociation is the disconnection and independent function of frontal and cerebellar regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • A recent study showed that, depending on its direction, the current could make people perform a little better or perhaps slightly worse on a test of the function of the brain's frontal lobe. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Classification
  • The ICF is a revision of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) and better reflects the complex relationship between illness or disease and functioning. (thefreelibrary.com)