**constrict the pupil**- it drives the iris muscles that constrict the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In humans, it functions to constrict the pupil in bright light (pupillary light reflex) or during accommodation. (wikipedia.org)

**Fourier**- Such change in amplitude of the light wave is described by the factor A ( u , v ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {A} (u,v)} . The pupil function is also directly related to the point spread function by its Fourier transform. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the (incoherent) point spread function is also related to the optical transfer function via a Fourier transform, a direct relationship exists between the pupil function and the optical transfer function. (wikipedia.org)
- It is thus possible to deduce the point-spread function of the out of focus point source as the Fourier transform of the pupil function. (wikipedia.org)
- Fourier optics Point spread function Optical transfer function Kidger, Michael J. (2001). (wikipedia.org)
- Formally, the OTF is defined as the Fourier transform of the point spread function (PSF, that is, the impulse response of the optics, the image of a point source). (wikipedia.org)
- Since the optical transfer function (OTF) is defined as the Fourier transform of the point-spread function (PSF), it is generally speaking a complex valued function of spatial frequency. (wikipedia.org)
- By consequence, the three-dimensional optical transfer function can be defined as the three-dimensional Fourier transform of the impulse response. (wikipedia.org)
- Point spread function was derived by Fourier transform of the pupil functions. (arvojournals.org)
- Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy", Optics Express 22, 5 (2015) Horstmeyer et al. (wikipedia.org)
- Using Fraunhofer diffraction theory, one computes the wave amplitude using the Fourier transform of the aberrated pupil function evaluated at 0,0 (center of the image plane) where the phase factors of the Fourier transform formula are reduced to unity. (wikipedia.org)

**Expenditure Per Pupil**- The national average expenditure per pupil in the 2011-12 school year was $10,834. (wikipedia.org)
- The expenditure per pupil in 2012 was $10,400 a -0.84% decrease from 2011's expenditure per pupil of $10,488. (wikipedia.org)

**pupillary reflex**- Pupillary reflex should have been named iris reflex, because iris is the actual muscular structure that responds to light and pupil is merely the passive opening formed by the active iris. (wikipedia.org)
- Pupillary reflex is conceptually linked to the side (left or right) of the reacting pupil, and not to the side from which light stimulation originates. (wikipedia.org)
- Left pupillary reflex refers to the response of the left pupil to light, regardless of which eye is exposed to a light source. (wikipedia.org)
- Right pupillary reflex means reaction of the right pupil, whether light is shone into the left eye, right eye, or both eyes. (wikipedia.org)
- A consensual pupillary reflex is response of a pupil to light that enters the contralateral (opposite) eye. (wikipedia.org)

**aperture stop**- A lens that is focused onto the point source will have optics that change the spherical wave front into a planar wave before it passes through the pupil or aperture stop. (wikipedia.org)
- The modulating elements must be placed at or near the plane of the aperture stop or pupil so that the same modulation is introduced for all field angles across the field-of-view. (wikipedia.org)

**circular**- The former corresponds to the ideal, diffraction-limited, imaging system with a circular pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- In the usual case of a uniform circular aperture, the point spread function (PSF) which describes the image formed from an object with no spatial extent (a "point source"), is given by the Airy disk as illustrated here. (wikipedia.org)
- Pupil is the dark circular opening in the center of the iris and is where light enters the eye. (wikipedia.org)

**displaystyle**- The light may also be attenuated differently at different positions ( u , v ) {\displaystyle (u,v)} in the pupil, sometimes deliberately for the purpose of apodization. (wikipedia.org)
- R , {\displaystyle \mathrm {P} (u,v)=0,\forall u,v:{\sqrt {u^{2}+v^{2}}}>R,} where R {\displaystyle R} is the pupil radius. (wikipedia.org)
- displaystyle \mathrm {MTF} (\nu )=\left\vert \mathrm {OTF} (\nu )\right\vert ,} P h T F ( ν ) = a r g ( O T F ( ν ) ) , {\displaystyle \mathrm {PhTF} (\nu )=\mathrm {arg} (\mathrm {OTF} (\nu )),} and a r g ( ⋅ ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {arg} (\cdot )} represents the complex argument function, while ν {\displaystyle \nu } is the spatial frequency of the periodic pattern. (wikipedia.org)
- True to the definition of transfer function, O T F ( 0 ) = M T F ( 0 ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {OTF} (0)=\mathrm {MTF} (0)} should indicate the fraction of light that was detected from the point source object. (wikipedia.org)
- 2}} and an intensity autocorrelation function defined by A ( τ ) = ∫ − ∞ + ∞ I ( t ) I ( t − τ ) d t {\displaystyle A(\tau )=\int _{-\infty }^{+\infty }I(t)I(t-\tau )dt} The optical implementation of the intensity autocorrelation is not as straightforward as for the field autocorrelation. (wikipedia.org)

**iris**- More specifically, it is a complex function of the position in the pupil or aperture (often an iris) that indicates the relative change in amplitude and phase of the light wave. (wikipedia.org)
- Based on analogy with a camera, pupil is equivalent to aperture, whereas iris is equivalent to the shutter. (wikipedia.org)
- It encircles the pupil of the iris, appropriate to its function as a constrictor of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)

**diameter**- N1-P2: 27.9±2.5 µV at 47.3±3.2 ms. The baseline pupil diameter (Max/mm) was 2.3±0.04. (arvojournals.org)
- Play media The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. (wikipedia.org)

**examination**- Ideally, the eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- A minimal eye examination consists of tests for visual acuity, pupil function, and extraocular muscle motility, as well as direct ophthalmoscopy through an undilated pupil. (wikipedia.org)

**modulation**- A variant, the modulation transfer function (MTF), neglects phase effects, but is equivalent to the OTF in many situations. (wikipedia.org)
- The relative contrast is given by the absolute value of the optical transfer function, a function commonly referred to as the modulation transfer function (MTF). (wikipedia.org)
- This modulation corresponds to a change in complex argument of the pupil function of such an imaging device, and it can be engineered with different goals in mind: e.g. extending the depth of focus. (wikipedia.org)

**describes**- The pupil function or aperture function describes how a light wave is affected upon transmission through an optical imaging system such as a camera, microscope, or the human eye. (wikipedia.org)

**light**- Sometimes this function is referred to as the generalized pupil function, in which case pupil function only indicates whether light is transmitted or not. (wikipedia.org)
- e.g. 1 pupil becomes dilated and progressively nonreactive to light as a result of transtentorial herniation or a focal lesion an oval or ovoid pupil is usually an early sign of transtentorial herniation. (scribd.com)
- To analyze flash visual evoked potentials (fVEP), pupil light reflex (PLR) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in healthy rat eyes. (arvojournals.org)
- To perform a retinoscopy, the doctor projects a streak of light into a pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- By looking through the retinoscope, the doctor can study the light reflex of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- It is particularly noticeable when pupil function is tested with a light, but is independent of eye movements or changes in illumination. (wikipedia.org)
- Light shone into one eye will cause both pupils to constrict. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, the terms direct and consensual refers to the side where the light source comes from, relative to the side of the reacting pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- The ipsilateral efferent limb transmits nerve signals for direct light reflex of the ipsilateral pupil. (wikipedia.org)
- The contralateral efferent limb causes consensual light reflex of the contralateral pupil. (wikipedia.org)

**optics**- Imperfections in the optics typically have a direct effect on the pupil function, it is therefore an important tool to study optical imaging systems and their performance. (wikipedia.org)
- ISBN 0-387-25921-X. "Optics Course Notes on the calculation of the OTF from the Pupil function" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- In optics, various autocorrelation functions can be experimentally realized. (wikipedia.org)

**amplitude**- Techniques for retrieving the phase of an optical field typically depend on assumptions about the amplitude of the field in a desired plane, usually a pupil plane. (osapublishing.org)

**school**- Thus, this study was conducted to increase the utility of the ICF-CY for a holistic assessment in Korean special education services by asking national experts to identify essential categories of functioning of pupils with physical disabilities in different school age groups. (uio.no)
- Delphi method, as a formal consensus procedure, was used to derive three code sets for pupils with physical disabilities corresponding to three age groups: 3-5 years (preschool age), 6-12 years (elementary school age), and 13-18 years (secondary school age). (uio.no)
- The cost of public education in Montana ranks 24th in the United States in the 2011-2012 school year on cost per pupil (K-12). (wikipedia.org)
- It then became Glan Afan comprehensive school in the early 1960s, taking pupils up to the age of 18. (wikipedia.org)
- At Key Stage 4, the school actively monitors and targets pupils to identify underachievement and provides Learning Coach support and mentoring to help pupils with their GCSE studies. (wikipedia.org)
- The creative arts departments also put on a full school musical every year, which pupils are encouraged to take part in, and a drama club. (wikipedia.org)
- Now the school functions as a part of the activities spearheaded by the Sisters of the St:Mary's Convent under the banner of St.Mary's Charitable Trust. (wikipedia.org)
- When the school started functioning, there were only 84 pupils on the rolls. (wikipedia.org)
- Different clubs such as Science club, I.T. club, Mathematics club, Social Science club, Health club and Nature club are also functioning in the school. (wikipedia.org)
- Vidhya-Rangam Kala-Sahithyia Vedi is also functioning in the school. (wikipedia.org)

**full**- Gregory R. Brady and James R. Fienup, "Nonlinear optimization algorithm for retrieving the full complex pupil function," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
- This discrepancy between diagnostic evaluations (medical model) and special education services (interactive model) has hindered effective inclusive education to encourage the full participation of pupils with disabilities in South Korea. (uio.no)
- The facility is now completed and in full function with all pupils from the 4 merging schools transferring to the new site. (wikipedia.org)

**lens**- Either transfer function specifies the response to a periodic sine-wave pattern passing through the lens system, as a function of its spatial frequency or period, and its orientation. (wikipedia.org)

**study**- All pupils have the opportunity to study Welsh culture within individual subjects. (wikipedia.org)
- At Key Stage 3, pupils study English, mathematics and science (the core subjects). (wikipedia.org)

**optical imagin**- In the case of an incoherent optical imaging system, the optical transfer function is the auto correlation of the pupil function. (wikipedia.org)

**direct**- The pupil diameters, the percentage of pupil constriction (CH) and the latencies of the constriction (CLAT) were evaluated in direct and consensual PLR (N=5). (arvojournals.org)

**different**- The optical transfer function (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera, microscope, human eye, or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are handled by the system. (wikipedia.org)
- The image on the right shows the optical transfer functions for two different optical systems in panels (a) and (d). (wikipedia.org)

**Year**- As of the 2014-2015 academic year, the district per pupil spending is $13,156.23. (wikipedia.org)
- All Year 10 and 11 pupils follow a Personal and Social Education Course, and a programme of Careers Guidance. (wikipedia.org)

**support**- To achieve this goal, South Korea recently established a new law offering holistic support for pupils with disabilities-that is, on both the individual and environmental levels. (uio.no)
- The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) has been recommended as a valuable framework and tool for comprehensive assessment and support in special education services, from both the individual and social perspectives. (uio.no)

**ideal**- The pupil function of such an ideal system is equal to one at every point within the pupil, and zero out with it. (wikipedia.org)
- Characterizing the form of the point-spread function by a single number, as the Strehl Ratio does, will be meaningful and sensible only if the point-spread function is little distorted from its ideal (aberration-free) form, which will be true for a well-corrected system that operates close to the diffraction limit. (wikipedia.org)

**help**- The ICF-CY can help record a profile of individual children's functioning and development in a holistic way, ranging from the characteristics of each individual child to the environment surrounding them. (uio.no)

**Point**- As such, the effect of aberrations on the point spread function can be described mathematically using the concept of the pupil function. (wikipedia.org)
- In industry, the Strehl ratio has become a popular way to summarize the performance of an optical design because it gives the performance of a real system, of finite cost and complexity, relative to a theoretically perfect system, which would be infinitely expensive and complex to build and would still have a finite point spread function. (wikipedia.org)

**equal**- To facilitate the equal participation of pupils with disabilities in inclusive education, assessments and supports for them should be conducted based on an interactive approach between the medical and social models of disability. (uio.no)

**health**- The ICF-CY was developed to offer a universal classification system available for documenting childhood functioning and health by the World Health Organization in 2007. (uio.no)

**additional**- The curriculum is organised in order to give a broad and balanced experience meeting the needs of all pupils including those with additional learning needs. (wikipedia.org)

**system**- Variants of these algorithms allow for simultaneous reconstruction of the pupil function of an optical system, allowing for the correction of the aberrations of the microscope objective, and diffraction tomography which permits the 3D reconstruction of thin sample objects without requiring the angular sample scanning needed for CT scans. (wikipedia.org)

**case**- Its transfer function decreases approximately gradually with spatial frequency until it reaches the diffraction-limit, in this case at 500 cycles per millimeter or a period of 2 μm. (wikipedia.org)

**focus**- Wavefront Coding with cubic phase masks works to blur the image uniformly using a cubic shaped waveplate so that the intermediate image, the optical transfer function, is out of focus by a constant amount. (wikipedia.org)

**various**- The final code sets will contribute to resolving the discrepancy between diagnostic evaluation and holistic special education services, by serving as profiles for the functioning and development of pupils with physical disabilities, which can be used in various disciplines related to special education services in South Korea. (uio.no)

**important**- On the other hand, when also the pattern translation is important, the complex argument of the optical transfer function can be depicted as a second real-valued function, commonly referred to as the phase transfer function (PhTF). (wikipedia.org)

**phase**- Wavefront coding with linear phase masks works by creating an optical transfer function that encodes distance information. (wikipedia.org)
- The mask was developed by using the ambiguity function and the stationary phase method The technique was pioneered by radar engineer Edward Dowski and his thesis adviser Thomas Cathey at the University of Colorado in the United States in the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)