• renal function
  • In contrast to other fluoroquinolones, renal clearance accounts for only 5% of the removal of difloxacin from the canine system, which makes it an attractive choice for dogs with compromised renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase risk of nephrotoxicity include: Increased age Reduced renal function Pregnancy Hypothyroidism Hepatic dysfunction Volume depletion Metabolic acidosis Sodium depletion Kidney dysfunction is monitored by measuring creatinine in the blood, electrolyte levels, low urine output, foamy urine, and concentrations of other chemicals in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half-life in patients with impaired renal function may exceed 10 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage must be employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • The kinetics of leptin-induced activation in whole blood were consistent with an indirect effect mediated by monocytes, and 71% of the leptin-stimulatory effect on PMN was blocked by a TNF-α inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that leptin stimulates IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist release from human monocytes ( 13 , 14 , 15 ), and restores the normal function of murine monocytes from leptin-deficient mice ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Other tests are performed depending on the suspected disorder: Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T lymphocytes (dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Differences in proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood among individuals under same conditions provide evidence of genetic control on these traits, but little is known about the genetic mechanism of them, especially in swine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood vary with health and disease status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these studies used whole cell extracts of P. falciparum schizont stage parasites and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), making it hard to decipher which malarial component(s) was responsible for the observed effects and what the target host cells were 4,5 . (jove.com)
  • When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood smears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Y. pseudotuberculosis is usually only able to colonize hosts by peripheral routes and cause serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, if this bacterium gains access to the blood stream, it has an LD50 comparable to Y. pestis at only 10 CFU. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Hypothiocyanite is one of the reactive intermediates produced by the activity of lactoperoxidase on thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide produced by dual oxidase 2 proteins, also known as Duox2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis infections can mimic appendicitis, especially in children and younger adults, and, in rare cases, the disease may cause skin complaints (erythema nodosum), joint stiffness and pain (reactive arthritis), or spread of bacteria to the blood (bacteremia). (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)), staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), streptococci, corynebacteria and stationary-phase Borrelia burgdorferi persisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Although substances present in serum may inhibit leucocyte migration, 5, 8 the exact nature of the mechanisms leading to impaired function of these cells is still largely unknown. (bmj.com)
  • liver
  • Methods: Tuftsin activity and splenic function were assessed in 31 patients with liver cirrhosis and 31 healthy subjects. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-2 has been implicated in causing vasculitis in other organs and chronic vasculitis in the liver may have consequences on liver function and injury. (nih.gov)
  • bacterial
  • Our aims were to determine whether tuftsin activity is deficient in cirrhosis and if so, whether this deficiency is related to splenic function, contributes to altered neutrophil granulocyte function, or influences the occurrence of bacterial infections and patient survival. (bmj.com)
  • Reduced tuftsin activity did not influence patient survival but was associated with a higher incidence of bacterial infections (p=0.029). (bmj.com)
  • Such an abnormality appears to be related to impaired splenic function and severity of cirrhosis, and probably favours the occurrence of bacterial infections. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the early bacterial activity (EBA) from day 0 to day 14 of Astra Zeneca Drug (AZD5847) at four different doses and schedules (500 mg once daily, 500 mg twice daily, 1200 mg once daily, and 800 mg twice daily) in subjects with newly-diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • To date, the majority of studies have focused on the effects of leptin on adaptive immunity, particularly T lymphocyte function. (jimmunol.org)
  • The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for the treatment of pyelonephritis, prostatitis and intra-abdominal abscess, because of extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrofurantoin has been shown to have good activity against: E. coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus Coagulase negative staphylococci Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Citrobacter species Klebsiella species Bacillus subtilis species It is used in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • counts
  • Adverse effects of gentamicin can range from less severe reactions such as nausea and vomiting to more severe reactions such as: Low blood counts Allergic responses Neuromuscular problems Nerve damage Kidney damage (nephrotoxicity) Ear disorders (ototoxicity) Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are thought to be dose related with higher doses causing greater chance of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stated normal range for human blood counts varies between laboratories, but a neutrophil count of 2.5-7.5 x 109/L is a standard normal range. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • These findings provide an additional link among the obesity-derived hormone leptin, innate immune function, and infectious disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are highly adaptive components of the innate immune system and can be specifically modified to whatever functions needed depending on their state of differentiation and micro-environmental factors encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral malaria (CM) are not fully understood and several hypotheses have been put forward, including mechanical obstruction of microvessels by P. falciparum -parasitized red blood cells (pRBC). (jove.com)
  • Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells 3-5 . (jove.com)
  • They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • they account for approximately 50-70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug should not be given to women in late pregnancy due to the potential risk of hemolytic anemia in the newborn, as the newborn has not yet developed the enzymatic pathways necessary for glutathione metabolism and the drug may cause oxidative damage to the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Gentamicin is used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, blood, bone and soft tissues infections of these susceptible bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Leptin up-regulated the expression of CD11b, an early marker of PMN activation, on PMN in whole blood, yet it had no effect on purified PMN, even those treated by submaximal doses of TNF-α or PMA. (jimmunol.org)
  • 9 While some diseases, such as hematologic neoplasms, cause neutropenia, it occurs most often as a result of the myelosuppression caused by antineoplastic chemotherapy, especially when such therapy is administered at doses designed to achieve maximum antitumor activity. (nih.gov)
  • whereas
  • If the bacteria are cultured after the exposure to lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on nutrient agar under aerobic conditions, they may not grow, whereas they grow readily on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • action
  • The primary mode of action of fluoroquinolones involves interaction with enzymes essential for major DNA functions such as replication, transcription and recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • humoral
  • In fact, impairments of the reticuloendothelial system, 4 neutrophil granulocyte functions, 5, 6 and non-specific humoral 7 and cell mediated immunity 8 have been described in cirrhotic patients. (bmj.com)
  • Anemia
  • Increased hepcidin activity is partially responsible for reduced iron availability seen in anemia of chronic inflammation, such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • While also known as type II interferon, interferon gamma has only modest direct antiviral activity and is unrelated in structure, genetic linkage and function to the type I interferons, such as interferon alpha, beta and lambda. (nih.gov)
  • increases
  • The release of C3a and C5a increases vascular permeability and blood flow, thereby promoting further transport of other snake venom components ( Vogel and Fritzinger, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • patients
  • Common adverse drug reactions associated with daptomycin therapy include: Cardiovascular: low blood pressure, high blood pressure, swelling Central nervous system: insomnia Dermatological: rash Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, abdominal pain Hematological: eosinophilia Respiratory: dyspnea Other: injection site reactions, fever, hypersensitivity Also, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients simultaneously taking statins, but whether this is due entirely to the statin or whether daptomycin potentiates this effect is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • stream
  • This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Tuftsin activity was correlated with pitted cell count (p=0.02) and the Child-Pugh score (p=0.002). (bmj.com)
  • individuals
  • We report the analyses of the transmission-blocking (TB) activity of sera collected from 105 Plasmodium vivax-infected and 44 non-infected individuals from a malaria endemic region of Colombia, using a membrane feeding assay in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes. (jove.com)