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  • renal function
  • Urinary excretion of vitamin C depends on vitamin C status and renal function. (dsm.com)
  • In contrast to other fluoroquinolones, renal clearance accounts for only 5% of the removal of difloxacin from the canine system, which makes it an attractive choice for dogs with compromised renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase risk of nephrotoxicity include: Increased age Reduced renal function Pregnancy Hypothyroidism Hepatic dysfunction Volume depletion Metabolic acidosis Sodium depletion Kidney dysfunction is monitored by measuring creatinine in the blood, electrolyte levels, low urine output, foamy urine, and concentrations of other chemicals in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half-life in patients with impaired renal function may exceed 10 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage must be employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Effects of KCL on pancreatic lipase activity and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation were investigated in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, KCL significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro , and also significantly inhibited fat accumulation and mRNA expression of fatty acid binding protein 2 (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)), staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), streptococci, corynebacteria and stationary-phase Borrelia burgdorferi persisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In the previous study, we have proved that extracts of A. blazei inhibit human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). (hindawi.com)
  • Differences in proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood among individuals under same conditions provide evidence of genetic control on these traits, but little is known about the genetic mechanism of them, especially in swine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood vary with health and disease status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood smears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Y. pseudotuberculosis is usually only able to colonize hosts by peripheral routes and cause serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, if this bacterium gains access to the blood stream, it has an LD50 comparable to Y. pestis at only 10 CFU. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Hypothiocyanite is one of the reactive intermediates produced by the activity of lactoperoxidase on thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide produced by dual oxidase 2 proteins, also known as Duox2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis infections can mimic appendicitis, especially in children and younger adults, and, in rare cases, the disease may cause skin complaints (erythema nodosum), joint stiffness and pain (reactive arthritis), or spread of bacteria to the blood (bacteremia). (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Methods: Tuftsin activity and splenic function were assessed in 31 patients with liver cirrhosis and 31 healthy subjects. (bmj.com)
  • The highest concentrations are found in the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, pancreas, spleen and white blood cells, quantitatively the largest pools of vitamin C are found in skeletal muscle, the lungs, brain and liver (Sauberlich, 1990). (dsm.com)
  • Interleukin-2 has been implicated in causing vasculitis in other organs and chronic vasculitis in the liver may have consequences on liver function and injury. (nih.gov)
  • antioxidant
  • Lycopene is an important carotenoid for its antioxidant function but does not possess the beta-ionone ring structure (required for vitamin A activity) and, therefore, is not a precursor of vitamin A. In humans, beta-carotene and lycopene are the predominant carotenoids in tissue (Ribaya-Mercado et al. (dsm.com)
  • Recycling between dehydroascorbate and ascorbate is a prominent feature of vitamin C metabolism in erythrocytes and white blood cells, and appears to aid in maintaining antioxidant reserves (Mendiratta et al. (dsm.com)
  • The other major role of vitamin C is that of water-soluble antioxidant, where its function is linked to that of the antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, and to vitamin E. (dsm.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Chromolaena odorata and Annona squamosa collected from Ooty hills and Ealagiri hills respectively. (rroij.com)
  • The leaf extracts and seed extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging assay. (rroij.com)
  • Among three accessions with different solvents used, maximum antioxidant activity found ethanolic leaf extract from Chromolaena odorata and seed extract of Annona squamosa followed by others. (rroij.com)
  • lymphocyte
  • To date, the majority of studies have focused on the effects of leptin on adaptive immunity, particularly T lymphocyte function. (jimmunol.org)
  • The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM). (wikipedia.org)
  • counts
  • Adverse effects of gentamicin can range from less severe reactions such as nausea and vomiting to more severe reactions such as: Low blood counts Allergic responses Neuromuscular problems Nerve damage Kidney damage (nephrotoxicity) Ear disorders (ototoxicity) Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are thought to be dose related with higher doses causing greater chance of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stated normal range for human blood counts varies between laboratories, but a neutrophil count of 2.5-7.5 x 109/L is a standard normal range. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • The kinetics of leptin-induced activation in whole blood were consistent with an indirect effect mediated by monocytes, and 71% of the leptin-stimulatory effect on PMN was blocked by a TNF-α inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that leptin stimulates IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist release from human monocytes ( 13 , 14 , 15 ), and restores the normal function of murine monocytes from leptin-deficient mice ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cells
  • On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • they account for approximately 50-70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug should not be given to women in late pregnancy due to the potential risk of hemolytic anemia in the newborn, as the newborn has not yet developed the enzymatic pathways necessary for glutathione metabolism and the drug may cause oxidative damage to the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutrophil
  • Our aims were to determine whether tuftsin activity is deficient in cirrhosis and if so, whether this deficiency is related to splenic function, contributes to altered neutrophil granulocyte function, or influences the occurrence of bacterial infections and patient survival. (bmj.com)
  • In fact, impairments of the reticuloendothelial system, 4 neutrophil granulocyte functions, 5, 6 and non-specific humoral 7 and cell mediated immunity 8 have been described in cirrhotic patients. (bmj.com)
  • coli
  • Nitrofurantoin has been shown to have good activity against: E. coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus Coagulase negative staphylococci Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Citrobacter species Klebsiella species Bacillus subtilis species It is used in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Gentamicin is used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, blood, bone and soft tissues infections of these susceptible bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • Vitamin A activity of beta-carotene is substantially greater than that of other carotenoids. (dsm.com)
  • Like other species the hydrocarbon carotenoids which provide vitamin A activity are converted in the chick intestine and absorbed as vitamin A. (dsm.com)
  • Optimal function of hepcidin may be predicated upon the adequate presence of vitamin D in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • action
  • The primary mode of action of fluoroquinolones involves interaction with enzymes essential for major DNA functions such as replication, transcription and recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Azlocillin, cimetidine and probenecid increase blood levels of difloxacin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for the treatment of pyelonephritis, prostatitis and intra-abdominal abscess, because of extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • If the bacteria are cultured after the exposure to lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on nutrient agar under aerobic conditions, they may not grow, whereas they grow readily on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Leptin up-regulated the expression of CD11b, an early marker of PMN activation, on PMN in whole blood, yet it had no effect on purified PMN, even those treated by submaximal doses of TNF-α or PMA. (jimmunol.org)
  • genetic
  • While also known as type II interferon, interferon gamma has only modest direct antiviral activity and is unrelated in structure, genetic linkage and function to the type I interferons, such as interferon alpha, beta and lambda. (nih.gov)
  • high
  • The present study reveals that these plants are of therapeutic potential due to their high free radical scavenging activity. (rroij.com)
  • Common adverse drug reactions associated with daptomycin therapy include: Cardiovascular: low blood pressure, high blood pressure, swelling Central nervous system: insomnia Dermatological: rash Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, abdominal pain Hematological: eosinophilia Respiratory: dyspnea Other: injection site reactions, fever, hypersensitivity Also, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients simultaneously taking statins, but whether this is due entirely to the statin or whether daptomycin potentiates this effect is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Reduced tuftsin activity did not influence patient survival but was associated with a higher incidence of bacterial infections (p=0.029). (bmj.com)
  • Such an abnormality appears to be related to impaired splenic function and severity of cirrhosis, and probably favours the occurrence of bacterial infections. (bmj.com)
  • include
  • Its putative active functions include (a) treatment of ailments, (b) relief atopic dermatitis, and (c) reduction of glycosuria [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cell
  • Tuftsin activity was correlated with pitted cell count (p=0.02) and the Child-Pugh score (p=0.002). (bmj.com)
  • The most anticipated pharmacological effect of A. blazei is that a proteoglucan (FIII-2-b) isolated from it has antitumor activity through modulation of the natural killer cell activity and macrophage activation [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The functions of CD4 are to initiate or augment the early phase of T-cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • days
  • Blood samples were collected when the piglets were 20 and 35 days of age, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon activation, they marginate (position themselves adjacent to the blood vessel endothelium) and undergo selectin-dependent capture followed by integrin-dependent adhesion in most cases, after which they migrate into tissues, where they survive for 1-2 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • stream
  • This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • When the HIV virus is detected early in blood or other bodily fluids, continuous therapy can delay the time at which this fall happens. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions, as indicated by the fact that inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) block these effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will either interfere with the chemical interaction between host and foreign cells, or they may form bridges between their antigenic sites hindering their proper functioning, or their presence will attract macrophages or killer cells to phagocytose them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daptomycin
  • Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common adverse drug reactions associated with daptomycin therapy include: Cardiovascular: low blood pressure, high blood pressure, swelling Central nervous system: insomnia Dermatological: rash Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, abdominal pain Hematological: eosinophilia Respiratory: dyspnea Other: injection site reactions, fever, hypersensitivity Also, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients simultaneously taking statins, but whether this is due entirely to the statin or whether daptomycin potentiates this effect is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Long-term antibiotics, when clinically indicated, should be as narrow spectrum as possible to limit the potential for superinfection (suggested by a new fever, a change in the white blood cell [WBC] count, or clinical deterioration). (medscape.com)
  • Purpose: Our objective was to explore this hypothesis and propose a new therapeutic approach focusing on anti-biofilm activity of Myrtacine[R] New Generation (Mediterranean Myrtle extract-Botanical Expertise P. Fabre) alone or combined with antibiotics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cinoxacin was an older synthetic antimicrobial related to the quinolone class of antibiotics with activity similar to oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • Other tests are performed depending on the suspected disorder: Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T lymphocytes (dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • GM-CSF haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic functions have pro-inflammatory and immune regulatory potential to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases and tumours. (springer.com)
  • This age-associated immune deficiency is ubiquitous and found in both long- and short-living species as a function of their age relative to life expectancy rather than chronological time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the molecular and cellular components that form the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins, were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize the activity of the toxin and could transfer immunity to non-immune animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Nitrofurantoin has been shown to have good activity against: E. coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus Coagulase negative staphylococci Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Citrobacter species Klebsiella species Bacillus subtilis species It is used in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Harvesting and enrichment of hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilized into the peripheral blood of normal donors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or G-CSF: potential role in allogeneic marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood smears. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative damage
  • This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and the shortening of telomeric terminals of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug should not be given to women in late pregnancy due to the potential risk of hemolytic anemia in the newborn, as the newborn has not yet developed the enzymatic pathways necessary for glutathione metabolism and the drug may cause oxidative damage to the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM). (wikipedia.org)
  • It also refers to the effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • vessels
  • They migrate through the blood vessels, then through interstitial tissue, following chemical signals such as Interleukin-8 (IL-8), C5a, fMLP, Leukotriene B4 and H2O2 in a process called chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • These agents exhibit a post-antibiotic effect in which there is no or very little drug level detectable in blood, but there still seems to be inhibition of bacterial re-growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mode of act
  • These activities are attributed to a primary mode of action as protein synthesis inhibitors, though additional mechanisms are implicated for some specific agents, and/or thorough mechanistic descriptions are as yet unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • rash
  • However, 3% to 6% of people given intravenous acetylcysteine show a severe, anaphylaxis-like allergic reaction, which may include extreme breathing difficulty (due to bronchospasm), a decrease in blood pressure, rash, angioedema, and sometimes also nausea and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The use of aminoglycosides other than gentamicin and streptomycin is discouraged, since it is difficult to predict their synergistic activity against clinical isolates of E. faecalis or E. faecium . (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • presence
  • Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • After birth, the decline of T-cell function begins with the progressive involution of the thymus, which is the organ essential for T-cell maturation following the migration of precursor cells from the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • they account for approximately 50-70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary tissue factor, associated with microvesicles shed from cells in the mouth, promotes wound healing through the extrinsic blood coagulation cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactoferrin is one of the transferrin proteins that transfer iron to the cells and control the level of free iron in the blood and external secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for the treatment of pyelonephritis, prostatitis and intra-abdominal abscess, because of extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • This increased blood flow will also carry away the unwanted products of inflammation as in carbuncles or a septic finger, and will help to prevent adhesions in ruptured muscles such as those connected with the movement of arthritic joints. (generalhealthtopics.com)
  • high-level
  • Timoprazole is a pyridylmethylsulfinyl benzimidazole and appealed due to its simple chemical structure and its surprisingly high level of anti-secretory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • There is a significant variability in the relationship between the dose administered and the resultant plasma level in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is derived from many small blood plasma proteins that work together to disrupt the target cell's plasma membrane leading to cytolysis of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Upon activation, they marginate (position themselves adjacent to the blood vessel endothelium) and undergo selectin-dependent capture followed by integrin-dependent adhesion in most cases, after which they migrate into tissues, where they survive for 1-2 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • NO is a chemical messenger[disambiguation needed] with diverse functions throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with Coleman's and Leibel's hypothesis, several subsequent studies from Leibel's and Friedman's labs and other groups confirmed that the ob gene encoded a novel hormone that circulated in blood and that could suppress food intake and body weight in ob and wild type mice, but not in db mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • Increased hepcidin activity is partially responsible for reduced iron availability seen in anemia of chronic inflammation, such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • MODS is a state of physiologic derangements in which organ function is not capable of maintaining homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • In 1890 he described alexins, or "protective substances", which exist in the blood serum and other bodily fluid and are capable of killing microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Other haematopoietins may increase the number of circulating leucocytes with higher efficiency, but GM-CSF has additional effects that may be far more relevant than its haematopoietic activity. (springer.com)
  • Inhalation sends scent molecules directly to the brain's olfactory nerve, entirely bypassing the brain-blood barrier causing the effects to be almost immediate for some. (rosewoodmassage.com)
  • patients
  • There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. (tiba.info)