• neutrophils
  • Egression from the bone marrow and blood stream, adhesion, migration, activation, phagocytosis and killing of pathogens describe the basic mechanisms associated with neutrophils. (els.net)
  • While neutrophils attach to the inflamed venules under low blood shear, platelets adhere to activated ECs and sub-endothelial matrix proteins such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF) under high blood shear and then support neutrophil rolling and adhesion as well as platelet accumulation following arterial injury [ 13 - 15 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By comparing the activity of neutrophils purified from whole blood by the classical 2-step method of dextran sedimentation followed by low-density Ficoll-Hypaque (1.077 g/mL) medium, and the 1-step high-density Ficoll-Hypaque (1.114 g/mL) gradient centrifugation, we found that neutrophils from the 2-step method had a significant increase in cell surface CD11b expression and CD62L shedding and a marked increase in adhesion. (hindawi.com)
  • Some form of blood manipulation is required to achieve isolation of neutrophils from other blood constituents, and the challenge remains to minimise artefactual neutrophil activation. (hindawi.com)
  • This is important as it may alter the responsiveness of neutrophils to agonists and hence undermine the experimental findings or testing for neutrophil function in diagnostic and research laboratories. (hindawi.com)
  • In the method originally devised by Boyum [ 3 ], centrifugation on a density gradient, a concoction of a polysucrose (Ficoll) to aggregate erythrocytes and sodium diatrizoate (Hypaque) to adjust density, acts as the first step to separate out the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), followed by dextran sedimentation to purify the neutrophils from the erythrocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Because infections are known to impair the clinical course of stroke, therapeutic interventions that target neutrophils should preserve or even restore their function outside the central nervous system (CNS). (hindawi.com)
  • Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a neutral pink. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is noted on a manual review of the blood smear, and is positive when most or all of the neutrophils have 5 or more segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined function of these effector Yops permits the bacteria to resist internalization by immune and intestinal cells and to evade the bactericidal actions of neutrophils and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • New N-substituted sophoridinic acid/ester and sophoridinol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in human HepG2 hepatoma cells from the lead sophoridine (1). (jove.com)
  • renal function
  • In contrast to other fluoroquinolones, renal clearance accounts for only 5% of the removal of difloxacin from the canine system, which makes it an attractive choice for dogs with compromised renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase risk of nephrotoxicity include: Increased age Reduced renal function Pregnancy Hypothyroidism Hepatic dysfunction Volume depletion Metabolic acidosis Sodium depletion Kidney dysfunction is monitored by measuring creatinine in the blood, electrolyte levels, low urine output, foamy urine, and concentrations of other chemicals in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half-life in patients with impaired renal function may exceed 10 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage must be employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Differences in proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood among individuals under same conditions provide evidence of genetic control on these traits, but little is known about the genetic mechanism of them, especially in swine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proportions of T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood vary with health and disease status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood smears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Y. pseudotuberculosis is usually only able to colonize hosts by peripheral routes and cause serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, if this bacterium gains access to the blood stream, it has an LD50 comparable to Y. pestis at only 10 CFU. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • In infected donors we found that TB activity was antibody dose dependent (35%), lasted for 2-4 months after infection, and in 70% of the cases different P. vivax wild isolates displayed differential susceptibility to blocking antibodies. (jove.com)
  • Upon activation, they marginate (position themselves adjacent to the blood vessel endothelium) and undergo selectin-dependent capture followed by integrin-dependent adhesion in most cases, after which they migrate into tissues, where they survive for 1-2 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)), staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), streptococci, corynebacteria and stationary-phase Borrelia burgdorferi persisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • To date, the majority of studies have focused on the effects of leptin on adaptive immunity, particularly T lymphocyte function. (jimmunol.org)
  • The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The risk of infection does not begin to increase until the neutrophil count decreases to levels below 1,000/mL of blood ( Fig. 157.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Azlocillin, cimetidine and probenecid increase blood levels of difloxacin. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, blood levels are slightly higher when the drug is given on an empty stomach. (nih.gov)
  • Average blood levels are two to five times higher than the levels following the same dose of oral penicillin G and also show much less individual variation. (nih.gov)
  • Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for the treatment of pyelonephritis, prostatitis and intra-abdominal abscess, because of extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • anaerobic
  • If the bacteria are cultured after the exposure to lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on nutrient agar under aerobic conditions, they may not grow, whereas they grow readily on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • The kinetics of leptin-induced activation in whole blood were consistent with an indirect effect mediated by monocytes, and 71% of the leptin-stimulatory effect on PMN was blocked by a TNF-α inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that leptin stimulates IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1 receptor antagonist release from human monocytes ( 13 , 14 , 15 ), and restores the normal function of murine monocytes from leptin-deficient mice ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • oxidative
  • The drug should not be given to women in late pregnancy due to the potential risk of hemolytic anemia in the newborn, as the newborn has not yet developed the enzymatic pathways necessary for glutathione metabolism and the drug may cause oxidative damage to the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Interleukin-2 has been implicated in causing vasculitis in other organs and chronic vasculitis in the liver may have consequences on liver function and injury. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral malaria (CM) are not fully understood and several hypotheses have been put forward, including mechanical obstruction of microvessels by P. falciparum -parasitized red blood cells (pRBC). (jove.com)
  • Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells 3-5 . (jove.com)
  • It is this diversity in function and their role in influencing other cells that gives T helper cells their name. (medicalxpress.com)
  • On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • they account for approximately 50-70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Among the newly synthesized compounds, sophoridinol 7i displayed a potential antiproliferative activity with an IC50 of 3.1 ?M. Importantly, it exerted an almost equipotent effect against both wild MCF-7 and adriamycin (AMD)-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/AMD) breast carcinoma cell lines. (jove.com)
  • counts
  • Adverse effects of gentamicin can range from less severe reactions such as nausea and vomiting to more severe reactions such as: Low blood counts Allergic responses Neuromuscular problems Nerve damage Kidney damage (nephrotoxicity) Ear disorders (ototoxicity) Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are thought to be dose related with higher doses causing greater chance of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stated normal range for human blood counts varies between laboratories, but a neutrophil count of 2.5-7.5 x 109/L is a standard normal range. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Nitrofurantoin has been shown to have good activity against: E. coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus Coagulase negative staphylococci Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Citrobacter species Klebsiella species Bacillus subtilis species It is used in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Gentamicin is used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, blood, bone and soft tissues infections of these susceptible bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Leptin up-regulated the expression of CD11b, an early marker of PMN activation, on PMN in whole blood, yet it had no effect on purified PMN, even those treated by submaximal doses of TNF-α or PMA. (jimmunol.org)
  • 9 While some diseases, such as hematologic neoplasms, cause neutropenia, it occurs most often as a result of the myelosuppression caused by antineoplastic chemotherapy, especially when such therapy is administered at doses designed to achieve maximum antitumor activity. (nih.gov)
  • inflammation
  • Increased hepcidin activity is partially responsible for reduced iron availability seen in anemia of chronic inflammation, such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Hypothiocyanite is one of the reactive intermediates produced by the activity of lactoperoxidase on thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide produced by dual oxidase 2 proteins, also known as Duox2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis infections can mimic appendicitis, especially in children and younger adults, and, in rare cases, the disease may cause skin complaints (erythema nodosum), joint stiffness and pain (reactive arthritis), or spread of bacteria to the blood (bacteremia). (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • In neonates, young infants, and individuals with impaired kidney function, excretion is considerably delayed. (nih.gov)
  • action
  • The primary mode of action of fluoroquinolones involves interaction with enzymes essential for major DNA functions such as replication, transcription and recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillin V exerts a bactericidal action against penicillin-sensitive microorganisms during the stage of active multiplication. (nih.gov)
  • genetic
  • While also known as type II interferon, interferon gamma has only modest direct antiviral activity and is unrelated in structure, genetic linkage and function to the type I interferons, such as interferon alpha, beta and lambda. (nih.gov)
  • high
  • Common adverse drug reactions associated with daptomycin therapy include: Cardiovascular: low blood pressure, high blood pressure, swelling Central nervous system: insomnia Dermatological: rash Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, abdominal pain Hematological: eosinophilia Respiratory: dyspnea Other: injection site reactions, fever, hypersensitivity Also, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients simultaneously taking statins, but whether this is due entirely to the statin or whether daptomycin potentiates this effect is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • The release of C3a and C5a increases vascular permeability and blood flow, thereby promoting further transport of other snake venom components ( Vogel and Fritzinger, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • individuals
  • We report the analyses of the transmission-blocking (TB) activity of sera collected from 105 Plasmodium vivax-infected and 44 non-infected individuals from a malaria endemic region of Colombia, using a membrane feeding assay in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes. (jove.com)
  • stream
  • This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • GPR4, OGR1 (GPR68), and TDAG8 (GPR65), G2A is a G protein coupled receptor that resides in the cell surface membrane, senses changes in extracellular pH, and can alter cellular function as a consequence of these changes. (wikipedia.org)