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  • citation needed
  • Deriving from the different ages at which the landmasses had drained into the ocean, he was able to show that the amount of anthropogenic lead presently dispersed into the environment was about 80 times the amount being deposited in the ocean sediments previously:[citation needed] the geochemical cycle for lead appeared to be badly out of balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • refiners
  • Ethyl emphasized to the Supreme Court the fact that, while it sold the fuel to refiners subject to a post-sale restraint, it licensed the other patents, which covered the manufacture of the fuel (by adding tetra-ethyl lead to ordinary gasoline) and the method of using the fuel in automobile engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relying on the exhaustion doctrine and citing Adams v. Burke, the Court stated: By its sales to refiners, it relinquishes its exclusive right to use the patented fluid and it relinquishes to the licensed jobbers its exclusive rights to sell the lead-treated fuel by permitting the licensed refiners to manufacture and sell the fuel to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, by the authorized sales of the fuel by refiners to jobbers, the patent monopoly over it is exhausted, and, after the sale, neither [Ethyl] nor the refiners may longer rely on the patents to exercise any control over the price at which the fuel may be resold. (wikipedia.org)
  • British refiners originally used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline . (wikipedia.org)
  • Refiners can still add lead to jet fuel and boat engines. (slate.com)
  • As the EPA began phasing out lead, refiners replaced it with a chemical called methyl tertiary-butyl ether . (slate.com)
  • gaseous
  • Shortening gasoline to gas , which happens often, causes confusion with various forms of gaseous products also used as automotive fuel (for example, compressed natural gas (CNG) , liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rolls-Royce
  • notably the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine used in the Spitfire and Hurricane fighters, Mosquito fighter-bomber and Lancaster heavy bomber (the Merlin II and later versions required 100-octane fuel), as well as US-made liquid-cooled Allison V-1710 engines, and numerous radial engines from Pratt & Whitney, Wright, and other manufacturers on both sides of the Atlantic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experience gained by Rolls-Royce and Supermarine designers from the R engine was invaluable in the subsequent development of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine and the Spitfire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Articulated rods were used in the Goshawk engine, but were not embodied in the later Rolls-Royce Merlin, for which Arthur Rowledge had designed a revised blade and fork system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular article deals only with Spitfire variants powered by early model Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, which mostly utilised single-speed, single-stage superchargers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spitfire L.F. Mk V), the "L" actually refers to the different versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines used, which were optimized for low-altitude performance with "cropped" supercharger impellers (Merlin 45M, 50M or 55M). (wikipedia.org)
  • 10,000
  • The young company received a boost in 1920 with the award of the RAC Dewar Trophy to a Rolls-Royce 40/50 hp that successfully completed a 10,000 mile reliability trial fueled exclusively by National Benzole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possession and use of leaded gasoline in a regular on-road vehicle now carries a maximum US$10,000 fine in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • automobiles
  • Although the idea of using benzole to power automobiles was not new, cars fueled on neat benzole needed altered carburetter settings which was inconvenient for owners who had previously used petrol and the effectiveness of neat benzole as a paint stripper raised concern about the possible effect on carburettor floats made of varnished cork - a common feature in US vehicles which at the time were being imported in greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline" is a North American word that refers to fuel for automobiles . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with the discovery of the environmental and health damage caused by the lead, attributed to Derek Bryce-Smith, and the incompatibility of lead with catalytic converters found on virtually all US automobiles since 1975, this practice began to wane in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ban on leaded gasoline led to thousands fewer tons of lead being released into the air by automobiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • The lower temperature optimizes the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar, and therefore it is suitable for processing into fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • a suitable unleaded replacement fuel has not yet been developed and certified for most of these engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • Combustion Maladies and Fuel Qualities. (jagweb.com)
  • Preflame reactions occur in the engine cylinders when portions of the fuel self-initiate combustion prior to the advancing flame from the spark plug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by injecting it into a combustion chamber previously compressed with air (which in turn raises the temperature) as opposed to using an outside ignition source, such as a spark plug. (wikipedia.org)
  • More power is developed in internal combustion engines and an increase in fuel economy of approximately 20% is obtainable under identical operating conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It told about the new Wankel engine, and in the comparing that power-plant with the conventional automobile engine, Purdy said: 'The standard internal combustion reciprocating engine is basically so unsuited to its task that its universal acceptance and success are a source of wonderment. (bourke-engine.com)
  • In 1918 I was an instructor of the internal combustion engine theory and maintenance at the Air Service Mechanics School, Kelly Field, Tex. From daily discussions with students and fellow instructors I came to the realization that four-stroke engines were basically inefficient with three dead strokes and too many moving parts. (bourke-engine.com)
  • I was determined to find a way to make internal combustion engines simpler, more efficient and safer. (bourke-engine.com)
  • At that time our engines were really only a few years out of the inventors laboratories and we were closer to the ideas and writings of men who had conceived the internal combustion engine. (bourke-engine.com)
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines can have significant effects on the local environment, and is also a contributor to global human carbon dioxide emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal combustion engines work by compressing a mixture of air and gasoline in a closed cylinder, then igniting the mixture to create a controlled explosion. (slate.com)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of internal combustion engines that are used in cars, trucks, and other kinds of machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1826, Samuel Morey uses alcohol in the first American internal combustion engine prototype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1860, German inventor Nikolaus Otto uses ethyl alcohol as a fuel in an early internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are most well known for their use in internal combustion and steam engines, as described below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines has a significant impact on the environment, both in local effects (e.g., smog) and in global effects (e.g., effect on the climate). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first automotive combustion engines, so-called Otto engines, were developed in the last quarter of the 19th century in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • A T-head engine is an early type of internal combustion engine that became obsolete after World War I. It is a sidevalve engine that is distinguished from the much more common L-head by its placement of the valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSAE, (22 March 1898 - 12 May 1985) was a British engineer who was involved in the development of the internal combustion engine, as well as special fuels for the engine, and was one of the people responsible for the development of higher octane fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), ethanol, and biodiesel, which are also categorized as a liquid fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygenates that are used in Race Gas are not derived from alcohol like methanol and ethanol and therefor do not damage fuel system and engine components like these oxygenates do. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • Racing cars, on the other hand, usually used ethanol (and other alcohols) because more power could be developed in a smaller, lighter engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, gasoline also contains ethanol as an alternative fuel, for economic, political or environmental reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • petrol
  • At the same time, some reckoned neat benzole was a little strong for the average engine and started to mix it with petrol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carless registered a number of alternative names for the product, but "petrol" nonetheless became the common term for the fuel in the British Commonwealth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some experts speculate that Leaded petrol was behind a global crime wave in the late 80's and early 90's To avoid deposits of lead inside the engine, lead scavengers are added to the gasoline together with tetraethyllead. (wikipedia.org)
  • kerosene
  • Soon, similar wells all over western Pennsylvania were providing crude oil for kerosene production that was needed to fuel the nation's streetlights and house lamps. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking, heating, and small engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jet fuel for jet engines is made in several grades (Avtur, Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B, JP-4, JP-5, JP-7 or JP-8) that are kerosene-type mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yields by volume of approximately 25% gasoline, 10% kerosene and 20% good quality fuel oil are obtainable from coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turbine and diesel engines are designed to use kerosene-based jet fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • vapor
  • If the gasoline vapor got too hot or was compressed too much it could explode before being lit by the spark plug, a condition known as engine knocking or detonation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since detonation was-and still is-a primary cause of catastrophic engine failure, limiting both the temperature and compression of the extremely explosive gasoline vapor was critical for maximum engine reliability. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1921
  • The company chemistry lab cooked up a modest batch of tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) on 09 December 1921, and the researchers squeezed a few drops into their test rig. (damninteresting.com)
  • horsepower
  • By way of example, such a license might authorize a licensee to manufacture patented engines only for incorporation into trucks, or to manufacture such engines only for sale to farmers, or only engines rated from 100 to 200 horsepower. (wikipedia.org)
  • By adding Octane Supreme-130 to your fuel, your engine will perform better by increasing horsepower and burning the fuel more efficiently. (batterystuff.com)
  • Additionally, it was also quite heavy and inefficient for its displacement, producing less horsepower than a flathead or modern overhead valve engine of comparable displacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • blend
  • There are products that blend a trace of lead with other chemical substitutes so they can advertise a lead product. (batterystuff.com)
  • Shortly after the 1931 competition, an R engine using a special fuel blend powered the winning Supermarine S.6B aircraft to a new airspeed record of over 400 miles per hour (640 km/h). (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells convert hydrogen and oxygen into electrical power through an electrochemical reaction, producing water and heat. (mitacs.ca)
  • detonation
  • Lycoming also notes that the octane rating of the fuel used must also meet the requirements stated in the fuel specification, otherwise engine damage may occur due to detonation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detonation was thus eliminated, and the relative inefficiency of the engine design was offset by the dramatic reliability gains achieved and the generally lower speeds of travel and racing common to the era. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1940s
  • Patterson had first encountered lead contamination in the late 1940s as a graduate student at the University of Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • American LaFrance produced T-head engines for their fire engines until the 1950s, though they also built overhead-cam engines in the 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decades
  • Decades ago, the United States and Europe banned leaded gas and many other uses of the metal, but the pollutant's fingerprint lingers on-as shown by remarkably detailed new 3-D maps released this week. (slashdot.org)
  • Over those two decades, the regulations reduced lead levels in American children's blood by 70 percent. (slate.com)
  • experimental
  • Research at the Experimental Mechanical Laboratory of Paris and at the Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Gesellschaft in Berlin in the 1890s helped pave the way for expanded use of alcohol fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1925, he became chief experimental engineer at Peter Hooker Limited, working to develop the 1500HP 178litre ELS 'Stromboli' airship engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • reliability
  • This superior reliability made the design a favorite racing engine in the earliest days of auto racing, when engine reliability arguably mattered more than maximum performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As other engine designs improved in reliability thanks to the intense engine development done in World War I, the T-head's inherent compromises in performance caused it to rapidly fall out of favor for racing applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The NSW Pollution Control Commission reported in August 1994 that CCs are likely to deteriorate much faster than was first thought, which may lead to increased carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide levels in cities rather than decreases. (fluoridationaustralia.com)
  • By adding an oxygenate to RACE GAS TM we are adding that crucial oxygen to the fuel which, in turn, allows the engine to burn fuel more completely thereby taking advantage of the additional carbon atoms added by the fuel hydrocarbons. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • deposits
  • Gasoline is a complex mixture of molecules with a boiling range of 40 - 200 ° C (104 - 392 ° F). To produce various grades, there is a blending of many refinery components, each of which promotes specific fuel qualities such as desired octane rating, volatility, and minimization of engine deposits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The end result of this complex process is the formation of deposits and gums that can block fuel filters and interfere with the metering of fuel and air in the carburetor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lead had one decisive drawback, however, which was its tendency to cause harmful deposits in human blood, bones, and brains. (damninteresting.com)
  • Spitfire
  • This would lead to 19 marks of Spitfire and 52 sub-variants being produced throughout the Second World War, and beyond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second article describes Spitfire variants powered by later model Merlins, featuring two-stage, two-speed superchargers, while the final article covers the later Spitfire variants which were powered by the larger Rolls-Royce Griffon engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • tendency
  • The octane number for a test gasoline represents the percentage by volume of isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) in a reference fuel consisting of the mixture of isooctane and heptane that would be necessary to match the test fuel's knocking tendency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • motor
  • The licensing program fixed prices for the motor fuel and strictly limited the types of customer (i.e., no price-cutters) to which given licensees could sell the motor fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Court said that Ethyl used its patents and licensing program to obtain the power to exclude at will from participation in the nationwide market for lead-treated motor fuel all of the 12,000 motor fuel jobbers of the country, by refusing to license any of the 1,000 unlicensed jobbers, or by cancelling, as it may at will, the licenses of any of the 11,000 licensed jobbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the war motor fuel suppliers in the UK had typically included pharmacies, cycle shops or even blacksmiths, but after the war commercial roadside garages began to appear, slowly at first. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pierce-Arrow company introduced a production four-valve per cylinder T-head motor (Dual Valve Six) in 1918, one of the few, perhaps the only, multi-valve valve-in-block type engines produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition the work covered motor racing fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • Though they didn't know it at the time, the noisy destruction was caused when the increased heat and pressure prompted the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder to detonate all at once as opposed to an orderly burn. (damninteresting.com)
  • This led in 1922 to the replacement of benzole fuel with a "fifty-fifty mixture" of benzole and petroleum which addressed the supply issue and could be seen as an early example of customer responsiveness. (wikipedia.org)