• citation needed
  • Deriving from the different ages at which the landmasses had drained into the ocean, he was able to show that the amount of anthropogenic lead presently dispersed into the environment was about 80 times the amount being deposited in the ocean sediments previously:[citation needed] the geochemical cycle for lead appeared to be badly out of balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • refiners
  • Relying on the exhaustion doctrine and citing Adams v. Burke, the Court stated: By its sales to refiners, it relinquishes its exclusive right to use the patented fluid and it relinquishes to the licensed jobbers its exclusive rights to sell the lead-treated fuel by permitting the licensed refiners to manufacture and sell the fuel to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, by the authorized sales of the fuel by refiners to jobbers, the patent monopoly over it is exhausted, and, after the sale, neither [Ethyl] nor the refiners may longer rely on the patents to exercise any control over the price at which the fuel may be resold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refiners can still add lead to jet fuel and boat engines. (slate.com)
  • As the EPA began phasing out lead, refiners replaced it with a chemical called methyl tertiary-butyl ether . (slate.com)
  • British refiners originally used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rolls-Royce
  • The experience gained by Rolls-Royce and Supermarine designers from the R engine was invaluable in the subsequent development of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine and the Spitfire . (wikipedia.org)
  • notably the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine used in the Spitfire and Hurricane fighters, Mosquito fighter-bomber and Lancaster heavy bomber (the Merlin II and later versions required 100-octane fuel), as well as US-made liquid-cooled Allison V-1710 engines, and numerous radial engines from Pratt & Whitney, Wright, and other manufacturers on both sides of the Atlantic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Articulated rods were used in the Goshawk engine, but were not embodied in the later Rolls-Royce Merlin, for which Arthur Rowledge had designed a revised blade and fork system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular article deals only with Spitfire variants powered by early model Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, which mostly utilised single-speed, single-stage superchargers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spitfire L.F. Mk V), the "L" actually refers to the different versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines used, which were optimized for low-altitude performance with "cropped" supercharger impellers (Merlin 45M, 50M or 55M). (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • The lower temperature optimizes the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar, and therefore it is suitable for processing into fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • No. 4,797,135 describes a method of treating plant biomass with a weak caustic solution to produce a highly comminuted flour of wood and other vegetable biomass suitable for the use as fuel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • a suitable unleaded replacement fuel has not yet been developed and certified for most of these engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10,000
  • The young company received a boost in 1920 with the award of the RAC Dewar Trophy to a Rolls-Royce 40/50 hp that successfully completed a 10,000 mile reliability trial fueled exclusively by National Benzole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possession and use of leaded gasoline in a regular on-road vehicle now carries a maximum US$10,000 fine in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by injecting it into a combustion chamber previously compressed with air (which in turn raises the temperature) as opposed to using an outside ignition source, such as a spark plug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smidgen of lead had effectively increased the temperature at which the gasoline ignited, a fuel characteristic which would come to be known as its octane rating. (damninteresting.com)
  • The fuel cells will be run under a wide range of operating conditions, including temperature, pressure, inlet gas relative humidity as well as compression pressure. (mitacs.ca)
  • The amount of air flow an engine receives is usually carefully designed according to expected speed and altitude of the aircraft in order to maintain the engine at the optimal temperature. (thefullwiki.org)
  • deposits
  • Gasoline is a complex mixture of molecules with a boiling range of 40 - 200 ° C (104 - 392 ° F). To produce various grades, there is a blending of many refinery components, each of which promotes specific fuel qualities such as desired octane rating, volatility, and minimization of engine deposits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The end result of this complex process is the formation of deposits and gums that can block fuel filters and interfere with the metering of fuel and air in the carburetor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lead had one decisive drawback, however, which was its tendency to cause harmful deposits in human blood, bones, and brains. (damninteresting.com)
  • Also important is the corrosiveness of the gasoline as well as its tendency to form deposits in the engine during use. (avstop.com)
  • The lower grades of automobile fuel are not held within the tolerances required for aviation gasoline and usually contain a considerable amount of cracked gasoline, which may form excessive gum deposits. (avstop.com)
  • Some experts speculate that Leaded petrol was behind a global crime wave in the late 80's and early 90's To avoid deposits of lead inside the engine, lead scavengers are added to the gasoline together with tetraethyllead. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion
  • Combustion Maladies and Fuel Qualities. (jagweb.com)
  • Preflame reactions occur in the engine cylinders when portions of the fuel self-initiate combustion prior to the advancing flame from the spark plug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More power is developed in internal combustion engines and an increase in fuel economy of approximately 20% is obtainable under identical operating conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal combustion engines work by compressing a mixture of air and gasoline in a closed cylinder, then igniting the mixture to create a controlled explosion. (slate.com)
  • Organic bromides and chlorides are mixed with TEL so that during combustion volatile lead halides will be formed. (avstop.com)
  • These properties are volatility, the manner in which the fuel burns during the combustion process, and the heating value of the fuel. (avstop.com)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of internal combustion engines that are used in cars, trucks, and other kinds of machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1826, Samuel Morey uses alcohol in the first American internal combustion engine prototype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1860, German inventor Nikolaus Otto uses ethyl alcohol as a fuel in an early internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The power of an internal combustion reciprocating or turbine aircraft engine is rated in units of power delivered to the propeller (typically horsepower ) which is torque multiplied by crankshaft revolutions per minute ( RPM ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • A T-head engine is an early type of internal combustion engine that became obsolete after World War I. It is a sidevalve engine that is distinguished from the much more common L-head by its placement of the valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are most well known for their use in internal combustion and steam engines, as described below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines has a significant impact on the environment, both in local effects (e.g., smog) and in global effects (e.g., effect on the climate). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first automotive combustion engines, so-called Otto engines, were developed in the last quarter of the 19th century in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSAE, (22 March 1898 - 12 May 1985) was a British engineer who was involved in the development of the internal combustion engine, as well as special fuels for the engine, and was one of the people responsible for the development of higher octane fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • vapor
  • If the gasoline vaporizes too readily, fuel lines may become filled with vapor and cause decreased fuel flow. (avstop.com)
  • When the fuel changes from a liquid to a vapor state, it extracts heat from its surroundings to make this change. (avstop.com)
  • mixture
  • The octane number for a test gasoline represents the percentage by volume of isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) in a reference fuel consisting of the mixture of isooctane and heptane that would be necessary to match the test fuel's knocking tendency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Though they didn't know it at the time, the noisy destruction was caused when the increased heat and pressure prompted the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder to detonate all at once as opposed to an orderly burn. (damninteresting.com)
  • This led in 1922 to the replacement of benzole fuel with a "fifty-fifty mixture" of benzole and petroleum which addressed the supply issue and could be seen as an early example of customer responsiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to a method for producing lignin fuel (a mixture of lignin and ethyl alcohol), silica/sodium oxide, cellulose, and other cellulose derivatives from plant biomass. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This is necessary to obtain the required starting, acceleration, power, and fuel mixture characteristics for the engine. (avstop.com)
  • ethanol
  • however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), ethanol, and biodiesel, which are also categorized as a liquid fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygenates that are used in Race Gas are not derived from alcohol like methanol and ethanol and therefor do not damage fuel system and engine components like these oxygenates do. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • Both the 5-Carbon and 6-Carbon sugars are fermented to ethanol using an existing closed-loop fermentation system employing a genetically engineered thermophilic bacteria developed by Agrol, Ltd. The lignin and absolute ethanol are mixed producing a high energy fuel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. A method according to claim 1 wherein lignin and ethanol are mixed in a ration between 3.0 parts ethanol to 1.0 part lignin and 3.8 parts ethanol to 1.0 part lignin (weight/weight), thereby producing a petroleum-like fuel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Racing cars, on the other hand, usually used ethanol (and other alcohols) because more power could be developed in a smaller, lighter engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, gasoline also contains ethanol as an alternative fuel, for economic, political or environmental reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • excessive
  • Knocking in a gasoline engine is a metallic clattering noise (pinging), which indicates excessive intensity in preflame reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the fuel does not vaporize readily enough, it can result in hard starting, slow warmup, poor acceleration, uneven fuel distribution to cylinders, and excessive crankcase dilution. (avstop.com)
  • petrol
  • Although the idea of using benzole to power automobiles was not new, cars fueled on neat benzole needed altered carburetter settings which was inconvenient for owners who had previously used petrol and the effectiveness of neat benzole as a paint stripper raised concern about the possible effect on carburettor floats made of varnished cork - a common feature in US vehicles which at the time were being imported in greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, some reckoned neat benzole was a little strong for the average engine and started to mix it with petrol. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the product later found a new use as a motor fuel, Frederick Simms, an associate of Gottlieb Daimler, suggested to Carless that they register the trade mark "petrol", but by this time the word was already in general use, possibly inspired by the French pétrole, and the registration was not allowed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carless registered a number of alternative names for the product, but "petrol" became the common term for the fuel in the British Commonwealth. (wikipedia.org)
  • exhaust
  • Since 1974 all new U.S. automobile engines have used catalytic converters in order to reduce exhaust emissions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The intake valves are on one side of the engine block and the exhaust valves on the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heat transfer from the exhaust ports was thus minimized, and the extra volume of the open alcoves that housed the valves also lowered the effective compression ratio of the engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • internal
  • The Spitfires with the single-stage Merlin engines used four different wing types, Type A, B, C and D wings, which had the same dimensions and plan but different internal arrangements of armament and fuel tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • automobiles
  • However, with the discovery of the environmental and health damage caused by the lead, attributed to Derek Bryce-Smith, and the incompatibility of lead with catalytic converters found on virtually all US automobiles since 1975, this practice began to wane in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ban on leaded gasoline led to thousands fewer tons of lead being released into the air by automobiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • reliability
  • Long engine operation times and high power settings, combined with the requirement for high-reliability means that engines must be constructed to support this type of operation with ease. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This superior reliability made the design a favorite racing engine in the earliest days of auto racing, when engine reliability arguably mattered more than maximum performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As other engine designs improved in reliability thanks to the intense engine development done in World War I, the T-head's inherent compromises in performance caused it to rapidly fall out of favor for racing applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • kerosene
  • Soon, similar wells all over western Pennsylvania were providing crude oil for kerosene production that was needed to fuel the nation's streetlights and house lamps. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking, heating, and small engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jet fuel for jet engines is made in several grades (Avtur, Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B, JP-4, JP-5, JP-7 or JP-8) that are kerosene-type mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yields by volume of approximately 25% gasoline, 10% kerosene and 20% good quality fuel oil are obtainable from coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turbine and diesel engines are designed to use kerosene-based jet fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • blend
  • There are products that blend a trace of lead with other chemical substitutes so they can advertise a lead product. (batterystuff.com)
  • Shortly after the 1931 competition, an R engine using a special fuel blend powered the winning Supermarine S.6B aircraft to a new airspeed record of over 400 miles per hour (640 km/h). (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells convert hydrogen and oxygen into electrical power through an electrochemical reaction, producing water and heat. (mitacs.ca)
  • 1940s
  • Patterson had first encountered lead contamination in the late 1940s as a graduate student at the University of Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • American LaFrance produced T-head engines for their fire engines until the 1950s, though they also built overhead-cam engines in the 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrocarbons
  • By adding an oxygenate to RACE GAS TM we are adding that crucial oxygen to the fuel which, in turn, allows the engine to burn fuel more completely thereby taking advantage of the additional carbon atoms added by the fuel hydrocarbons. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • This patent uses zeolite catalysts to convert plant hydrocarbons with a molecular weight of over 150 into lower molecular weight entities for use as a liquid fuel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Decades
  • Decades ago, the United States and Europe banned leaded gas and many other uses of the metal, but the pollutant's fingerprint lingers on-as shown by remarkably detailed new 3-D maps released this week. (slashdot.org)
  • Over those two decades, the regulations reduced lead levels in American children's blood by 70 percent. (slate.com)
  • experimental
  • Research at the Experimental Mechanical Laboratory of Paris and at the Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Gesellschaft in Berlin in the 1890s helped pave the way for expanded use of alcohol fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1925, he became chief experimental engineer at Peter Hooker Limited, working to develop the 1500HP 178litre ELS 'Stromboli' airship engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiator
  • This allows an aircraft engine to be air cooled, as opposed to requiring a radiator . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The T-Head addressed both of these issues by putting the valves in open alcoves on opposite sides of the cylinder head and having cool water from the radiator enter the engine directly over the intake valves as an extra measure of safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ducting was added, which drew heated air from the engine radiator and transferred it into the now-closed weapon-bays. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The NSW Pollution Control Commission reported in August 1994 that CCs are likely to deteriorate much faster than was first thought, which may lead to increased carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide levels in cities rather than decreases. (fluoridationaustralia.com)