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  • renewable energy
  • Why are algae so exciting from a renewable energy standpoint? (oilgae.com)
  • While the bio-reactor process is currently in an experimental phase, recent advances in single step algae oil extraction and low energy high efficiency LEDs make the algae bio-reactor an extremely promising prospect on the renewable energy technology horizon. (dezeen.com)
  • In addition to being an active bio-reactor and local source of renewable energy, the Eco-Pod is also a research incubator in which scientists can test algae species and methods of fuel extraction, including new techniques of using low energy LED lighting for regulating the algae growth cycles. (dezeen.com)
  • Although renewable energy is used mostly to generate electricity, it is often assumed that some form of renewable energy or a percentage is used to create alternative fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • GreenFuel Technologies had launched the second phase of a major project with Spanish renewable energy firm Aurantia to build a large-scale algae farming plant adjacent to a CO2-spewing cement plant near Jerez, Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable progress is being made in the energy transition from fossil fuels to ecologically sustainable systems, to the point where many studies support 100% renewable energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to sustainable energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. (wikipedia.org)

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  • second-generat
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry journal Energy & Environmental Science recently published research by a team from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Oklahoma investigating the full life cycle impact of one promising "second-generation biofuel " produced from short-rotation oak. (phys.org)
  • Multistage torrefaction and in situ catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels: analysis of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions" took a novel approach to the production of second-generation biofuel while also comprehensively accounting for all of the steps involved in the full supply chain. (phys.org)
  • The study found the median EROI for multistage second-generation biofuel systems ranges from 1.32:1 to 3.76:1. (phys.org)
  • cellulosic biofuels
  • The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 states that cellulosic biofuels, like the ones used in the study, must outperform the greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels by reducing relative emissions by 60 percent to receive economic incentives from the government. (phys.org)
  • Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • jatropha
  • Trials are on of a new method of extracting jatropha oil that produces 20% more than current technologies, says the developer Jatropha Biofuels Technologies. (blogspot.com)
  • Air New Zealand eventually used jatropha biofuel as Aquaflow was unable to supply any fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first route involves using oil which is extracted from plant sources like Jatropha, algae, tallows, other waste oils, Babassu and Camelina to produce bio-SPK (Bio derived synthetic paraffinic Kerosene) by cracking and hydroprocessing. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • Some of the studies have suggested that after a full life cycle assessment-meaning an analysis of environmental impact throughout all stages of a product's life-biofuels like corn ethanol may not offer any greenhouse gas emissions reductions relative to petroleum fuels. (phys.org)
  • Whale oil was the dominant form of lubrication and fuel for lamps in the early 19th century, but the depletion of the whale stocks by mid century caused whale oil prices to skyrocket setting the stage for the adoption of petroleum which was first commercialized in Pennsylvania in 1859. (wikipedia.org)
  • The program, including the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was scrapped when petroleum prices plummeted in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrolysis oil, sometimes also known as biocrude or biooil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol has another advantage: it is the only alcohol-based motor fuel that can be transported readily by existing petroleum-product pipeline networks, instead of only by tanker trucks and railroad cars. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrile-based rubber materials expand in the presence of aromatic compounds found in conventional petroleum fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure biofuels that aren't mixed with petroleum and don't contain paraffin-based additives may cause rubber seals and hoses to shrink. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • A schematic showing the stages modeled in the biomass-to-fuel life cycle assessment. (phys.org)
  • Pyrolysis is the process of heating biomass to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen to and create biofuel," said Dr. Khanna. (phys.org)
  • Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the algal biomass produced by the process consists of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which could be used to produce a variety of products, GFT seems to be focusing on biofuel products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the algal biomass is harvested and processed, the resulting fuel may be sold for additional revenue or utilized on-site. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the National Academy of Sciences in 2011, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). (wikipedia.org)
  • This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new biomass can also be used directly for biofuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a series of physical and chemical treatments might be required to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels suitable for transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be produced from biomass (as "biobutanol") as well as fossil fuels (as "petrobutanol"), but biobutanol and petrobutanol have the same chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Science Online recently reported that the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies released a new report saying that "large-scale production of biofuels from algae is untenable with existing technology. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Biofuel production from algae involves catalytic processes to obtain fuel from a specific type of algae or fermentation process to convert carbohydrates from algae to bioethanol. (ferret.com.au)
  • Iran started investigating the production of algae from 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central location of the Eco-Pod and the public and visible nature of the research, allows the public to experience the algae growth and energy production processes. (dezeen.com)
  • This course is designed to introduce students to the issues of energy in the 21st century - including food and fuels - which are inseparably linked - and will discuss energy production and utilization from the biology, engineering, economics, climate science, and social science perspectives. (coursera.org)
  • After the introductory lectures, we will examine the emerging field of sustainable energy, fuel and food production, emphasizing the importance of developing energy efficient and sustainable methods of production, and how these new technologies can contribute to replacing the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels, and reduce the consequences of carbon dioxide release into the environment. (coursera.org)
  • It does not cover biofuel production and prices at this time. (blogspot.com)
  • Algae could yield more than 2000 gallons of fuel per acre per year of production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of biofuels also led into a flourishing automotive industry, where by 2010, 79% of all cars produced in Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues relating to biofuels production and use, which have been debated in the popular media and scientific journals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sustainable aviation fuels certification and production pace seems insufficient to meet the IATA target of halving the CO2 emissions by 2050. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aquatic Species Program was a research program in the United States launched in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter and was funded by the United States Department of Energy, which over the course of nearly two decades looked into the production of energy using algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microalgae are efficient for fuel production and they are capable of taking a waste (zero-energy) form of carbon (CO 2) and converting it into a high density liquid form of energy (natural oil). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis was that because when the algae is nutrient starved, oil production in the cells increases, so this might affect overall productivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They conducted studies in California, Hawaii, New Mexico, and found that the long term, reliable production of algae was possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single day production reported over the course of one year was as high as 50 grams (1.8 oz) of algae per square meter per day, the long-term target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although biofuel demand has risen to over one billion liters (about 260 million US gallons) yearly, fermentation remains a largely inefficient method of butanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • One promising development in biobutanol production technology was discovered in the late summer of 2011-Tulane University's alternative fuel research scientists discovered a strain of Clostridium, called "TU-103", that can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol, and is the only known strain of Clostridium-genus bacteria that can do so in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fermentation processes require glucose derived from foods, butanol production can negatively impact food supply (see food vs fuel debate). (wikipedia.org)
  • micro algae
  • The biggest challenge, according to Murthy, is separating water from the micro algae he is testing (Chlorella and Dunaliella), which must continually be mixed with carbon dioxide and light as they grow. (salem-news.com)
  • The pods would be continuously rearranged by robotic arms (powered by the micro-algae produced) to ensure the optimum growing conditions for alage in each pod. (dezeen.com)
  • green algae
  • Five groups were of primary importance to the ASP: diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae), green algae (Class Chlorophyceae), golden- brown algae (Class Chrysophyceae), prymnesiophytes (Class Prymnesiophyceae), and the eustigmatophytes (Class Eustigmatophyceae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria (Class Cyanophyceae), were also represented in some of the collections. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol fuel
  • This is why commercially practical cellulosic ethanol is widely viewed as a next level of development for the biofuel industry that could reduce demand for oil and gas drilling and even nuclear power in ways that grain-based ethanol fuel alone cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane
  • Methane can be produced through anaerobic fermentation of the algae mass. (ferret.com.au)
  • citation needed] Carbon neutral fuel is synthetic fuel-such as methane, gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel-produced from renewable or nuclear energy used to hydrogenate waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue exhaust gas or derived from carbonic acid in seawater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such carbon neutral and negative fuels can be produced by the electrolysis of water to make hydrogen used in the Sabatier reaction to produce methane which may then be stored to be burned later in power plants as synthetic natural gas, transported by pipeline, truck, or tanker ship, or be used in gas to liquids processes such as the Fischer-Tropsch process to make traditional transportation or heating fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • liters
  • No matter what the strategy, however, the NRC committee concluded that current technology scaled up to produce 39 billion liters a year-approximately 5% of U.S. transportation fuel needs-would require an unsustainable level of inputs. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Qantas will purchase a minimum of 200 to 400 million liters of Solazyme's jet fuel per year. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • ponds
  • Greenhouse gases from industry and coal-fired electrical-generating plants can be piped to algae ponds, where carbon dioxide is a necessary ingredient for growth. (salem-news.com)
  • But there are many different approaches to growing algae, such as growing the microscopic plants in shallow outdoor ponds, or in enclosed plastic tubes called bioreactors. (washingtontimes.com)
  • While the dominance of Bb can be seen as damaging to the environmental diversity of a body of water, the knowledge of how Bb can gain and maintain dominance is useful to those who intend to grow ponds of it as a fuel crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • In fact, research has shown that algae can grow 30 percent faster than normal when fed carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. (salem-news.com)
  • The company offers consumers and fleets new fuel choices that make progress toward reducing carbon emissions, creating jobs, and lowering America's dependence on foreign oil. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Propel has developed CleanDrive®, the nation's first integrated carbon emission reduction tracking platform, and is the only fueling company in the country to enable drivers to offset their emissions at the pump through their CarbonOffset program. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Algae can also be used to minimize the emissions of carbon dioxide of coal plants. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels, such as its high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's (CAER) Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Group has received a $2 million U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to develop new emissions technology for low-temperature gasoline. (uky.edu)
  • GreenFuel Technologies Corporation (GFT) was a startup that developed a process of growing algae using emissions from fossil fuels to produce biofuel from algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • As smokestack emissions are delivered to the algae bioreactor, carbon dioxide and other pollutants are absorbed and utilized by the algae to grow at an exponential rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in support of the goals of the aviation industry reaching carbon neutral growth by 2020 and a 50% decrease in carbon emissions by 2050 (relative to a 2005 baseline) A group of interested airlines has formed the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group (SAFUG). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The researchers were concerned with finding algae species which had a large lipid content, collecting over 3,000 North American species in their search. (wikipedia.org)
  • liter
  • Reports have it that Solazyme's lead microalgae strains produce oil for the fuels and chemicals markets achieve key performance metrics that the firm believes would allow them to manufacture oils today at a cost below $1,000 per metric ton ($3.44 per gallon or $0.91 per liter) if produced in a built-for-purpose commercial plant. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • research
  • Most research into algae has focused upon converting it into ethanol. (blogspot.com)
  • The pods will serve as bio-fuel sources and as micro-incubators for flexible research and development programs. (dezeen.com)
  • This blog is a roundup of research news and related topics dealing with biofuels. (blogspot.com)
  • Our research showed that a multistage, lower temperature system of pyrolysis can increase the carbon chain length, create more liquid fuel and improve the energy output of the entire process. (phys.org)
  • Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky. (uky.edu)
  • Working with the Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis group, the students have a chance to learn more about the Center's biofuels and sustainability research program as well as the CAER Lab #2, the first LEED-designed research laboratory in Kentucky. (uky.edu)
  • The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER) and other community partners will once again be taking a Thanksgiving leftover and giving it new life as a renewable fuel. (uky.edu)
  • Cooking oil will be used by UK's Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), with additional cooking oil recycled by Kelley Green Biofuel. (uky.edu)
  • UK CAER's Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Research Group utilizes the grease to support its novel biofuel research program. (uky.edu)
  • To accomplish this goal, we are conducting research on a class of materials (zeolites) that can effectively trap pollutants until the vehicle's catalytic converter is warm enough to convert them to harmless products," said Mark Crocker, Associate Director of UK CAER's Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Group and Professor of Chemistry. (uky.edu)
  • The International Air Transport Association (IATA) supports research, development and deployment of alternative fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universities working on algae jet fuel are Arizona State University and Cranfield University Major investors for algae based SPK research are Boeing, Honeywell/UOP, Air New Zealand, Continental Airlines, Japan Airlines, and General Electric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research is being done on an alcohol-to-jet pathway where alcohols such as ethanol or butanol are de-oxygenated and processed into jet fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • While its history dates back to 1978, much of the research from 1978 to 1982 was focused on using algae to produce hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995, DOE made the decision to eliminate funding for algae research within the Biofuels Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • However, should the president have been proposing algae as an energy source that could replace "17 percent of oil we import for transportation" before it is even shown to be sustainable on a mass scale? (washingtontimes.com)
  • The algae energy field is still in its nascency. (oilgae.com)
  • While people around the world have heard about the energy possibilities from algae and would like to know more, few resources are available that provide an overview of the algae energy industry, its potential, the status of various companies in this industry, and what the future is likely to hold for this industry. (oilgae.com)
  • Algae fix the sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy and that too very fast. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • A significant metric for determining the efficacy of fuel is the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) ratio. (phys.org)
  • Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seaweed fuel or seaweed oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses seaweed as its source of energy-rich oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biobutanol can be made entirely with solar energy and nutrients, from algae (called Solalgal Fuel) or diatoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • oils
  • Applying the findings to mass-produce algae and extract its oils could be five to 10 years in the future. (salem-news.com)
  • Applying the findings to mass-produce algae and extract its oils could be five to 10 years in the future, but the advantages are worth the wait, according to Ganti Murthy, assistant professor of biological and ecological engineering at OSU. (salem-news.com)
  • The primary focus of the OSU lab is to discover efficient ways to extract the oils (also called lipids) and process them into bio-diesel fuel and ethanol, with fertilizer and animal feed as co-products. (salem-news.com)
  • The algae consume the sugars and convert them into oils rapidly and efficiently taking only a few days. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is an enzyme which catalyzes a key metabolic step in the synthesis of oils in algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol
  • Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obtaining higher yields of butanol involves manipulation of the metabolic networks within bacteria to prioritize the synthesis of the biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of succinate and ethanol can be fermented to produce butyrate (a precursor to butanol fuel) by utilizing the metabolic pathways present in a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid fuels
  • Potential exists for the many benefits of carbonaceous liquid fuels and petrochemicals (which today's standard of living depends on) but in a carbon cycle-balanced and renewable way (recycling surface and atmosphere carbon instead of pumping underground carbon up into it and thus adding to it). (wikipedia.org)
  • diesel fuels
  • The fuel will be sold at the same price as conventional diesel fuels and will be available exclusively at Propel's Clean Fuel Points locations in Redwood City, San Jose (N. First St.), Berkeley, and Oakland. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • researchers
  • Researchers from the US National Science Foundation claimed to have achieved the first direct conversion of lignocellulose, a material found in plant stems, from plants into a petrol-like fuel. (blogspot.com)
  • acre
  • For example, a productivity model estimates that 48 gallons of bio-diesel can be produced from an acre of soybeans, whereas algae could produce 819 gallons - and theoretically as much as 5,000 gallons - from a single acre. (salem-news.com)
  • The focus of the studio is the design of a bioplastics factory within a 100 acre algae photobioreactor array that's adjacent to one of Kentucky's coal-fired power plants. (uky.edu)
  • hydrogen
  • They are looking at algae which contains an enzyme called hydrogenase, which creates small amounts of hydrogen gas. (blogspot.com)
  • sustainability
  • The report does say that "The committee does not consider any one of these sustainability concerns a definitive barrier to sustainable development of algal biofuels because mitigation strategies for each of those concerns have been proposed and are being developed. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The great thing about this project is it addresses full life cycle sustainability questions of new fuel sources before they come up later down the road. (phys.org)
  • Coal
  • In the late medieval period, coal was the new alternative fuel to save the society from overuse of the dominant fuel, wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster, [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1917, Alexander Graham Bell advocated ethanol from corn, wheat and other foods as an alternative to coal and oil, stating that the world was in measurable distance of depleting these fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • While achieving the desired yields of 50 grams (1.8 oz) of algae per square meter per day, low temperatures were found to hamper yields. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Algae are versatile organisms that are "plant-like" but do not have a root system or leaves. (salem-news.com)
  • We're making new investments in the development of gasoline, and diesel, and jet fuel that's actually made from a plant-like substance…algae. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The electricity for the lights and the CO2 for the algae are provided by the combined heat and power plant. (ferret.com.au)
  • Biofuel and ethanol are plant-derived gasoline substitutes for powering vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, the company had to shut down its third-generation bioreactor facility in Arizona after the plant produced more algae than the company's equipment could handle. (wikipedia.org)