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  • second-generat
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry journal Energy & Environmental Science recently published research by a team from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Oklahoma investigating the full life cycle impact of one promising "second-generation biofuel " produced from short-rotation oak. (phys.org)
  • Multistage torrefaction and in situ catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels: analysis of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions" took a novel approach to the production of second-generation biofuel while also comprehensively accounting for all of the steps involved in the full supply chain. (phys.org)
  • The study found the median EROI for multistage second-generation biofuel systems ranges from 1.32:1 to 3.76:1. (phys.org)
  • cellulosic biofuels
  • The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 states that cellulosic biofuels, like the ones used in the study, must outperform the greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels by reducing relative emissions by 60 percent to receive economic incentives from the government. (phys.org)
  • Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • jatropha
  • Trials are on of a new method of extracting jatropha oil that produces 20% more than current technologies, says the developer Jatropha Biofuels Technologies. (blogspot.com)
  • Air New Zealand eventually used jatropha biofuel as Aquaflow was unable to supply any fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first route involves using oil which is extracted from plant sources like Jatropha, algae, tallows, other waste oils, Babassu and Camelina to produce bio-SPK (Bio derived synthetic paraffinic Kerosene) by cracking and hydroprocessing. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • Some of the studies have suggested that after a full life cycle assessment-meaning an analysis of environmental impact throughout all stages of a product's life-biofuels like corn ethanol may not offer any greenhouse gas emissions reductions relative to petroleum fuels. (phys.org)
  • Whale oil was the dominant form of lubrication and fuel for lamps in the early 19th century, but the depletion of the whale stocks by mid century caused whale oil prices to skyrocket setting the stage for the adoption of petroleum which was first commercialized in Pennsylvania in 1859. (wikipedia.org)
  • The program, including the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was scrapped when petroleum prices plummeted in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrolysis oil, sometimes also known as biocrude or biooil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol has another advantage: it is the only alcohol-based motor fuel that can be transported readily by existing petroleum-product pipeline networks, instead of only by tanker trucks and railroad cars. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Energy Agency has a goal for biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrile-based rubber materials expand in the presence of aromatic compounds found in conventional petroleum fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure biofuels that aren't mixed with petroleum and don't contain paraffin-based additives may cause rubber seals and hoses to shrink. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • A schematic showing the stages modeled in the biomass-to-fuel life cycle assessment. (phys.org)
  • Pyrolysis is the process of heating biomass to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen to and create biofuel," said Dr. Khanna. (phys.org)
  • Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the algal biomass produced by the process consists of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which could be used to produce a variety of products, GFT seems to be focusing on biofuel products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the algal biomass is harvested and processed, the resulting fuel may be sold for additional revenue or utilized on-site. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the National Academy of Sciences in 2011, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). (wikipedia.org)
  • This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new biomass can also be used directly for biofuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a series of physical and chemical treatments might be required to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels suitable for transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be produced from biomass (as "biobutanol") as well as fossil fuels (as "petrobutanol"), but biobutanol and petrobutanol have the same chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • ponds
  • Greenhouse gases from industry and coal-fired electrical-generating plants can be piped to algae ponds, where carbon dioxide is a necessary ingredient for growth. (salem-news.com)
  • But there are many different approaches to growing algae, such as growing the microscopic plants in shallow outdoor ponds, or in enclosed plastic tubes called bioreactors. (washingtontimes.com)
  • While the dominance of Bb can be seen as damaging to the environmental diversity of a body of water, the knowledge of how Bb can gain and maintain dominance is useful to those who intend to grow ponds of it as a fuel crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Science Online recently reported that the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies released a new report saying that "large-scale production of biofuels from algae is untenable with existing technology. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Iran started investigating the production of algae from 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central location of the Eco-Pod and the public and visible nature of the research, allows the public to experience the algae growth and energy production processes. (dezeen.com)
  • This course is designed to introduce students to the issues of energy in the 21st century - including food and fuels - which are inseparably linked - and will discuss energy production and utilization from the biology, engineering, economics, climate science, and social science perspectives. (coursera.org)
  • After the introductory lectures, we will examine the emerging field of sustainable energy, fuel and food production, emphasizing the importance of developing energy efficient and sustainable methods of production, and how these new technologies can contribute to replacing the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels, and reduce the consequences of carbon dioxide release into the environment. (coursera.org)
  • It does not cover biofuel production and prices at this time. (blogspot.com)
  • The algae will be used for value-added feed products, algae-derived bio-fuel and for the production of ethanol. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Due to the elimination of foreign contamination inhibiting algae growth, these new growing systems can produce big numbers in terms of algae oil production. (studymode.com)
  • According to page 30 on Aquatic Species Program (ASP) report, the A-strain of Botryococcus would not function well as a feedstock for lipid-based fuel production due to its slow growth (one doubling every 72 hours). (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae could yield more than 2000 gallons of fuel per acre per year of production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of biofuels also led into a flourishing automotive industry, where by 2010, 79% of all cars produced in Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues relating to biofuels production and use, which have been debated in the popular media and scientific journals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sustainable aviation fuels certification and production pace seems insufficient to meet the IATA target of halving the CO2 emissions by 2050. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aquatic Species Program was a research program in the United States launched in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter and was funded by the United States Department of Energy, which over the course of nearly two decades looked into the production of energy using algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microalgae are efficient for fuel production and they are capable of taking a waste (zero-energy) form of carbon (CO 2) and converting it into a high density liquid form of energy (natural oil). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis was that because when the algae is nutrient starved, oil production in the cells increases, so this might affect overall productivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They conducted studies in California, Hawaii, New Mexico, and found that the long term, reliable production of algae was possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single day production reported over the course of one year was as high as 50 grams (1.8 oz) of algae per square meter per day, the long-term target. (wikipedia.org)
  • One promising development in biobutanol production technology was discovered in the late summer of 2011-Tulane University's alternative fuel research scientists discovered a strain of Clostridium, called "TU-103", that can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol, and is the only known strain of Clostridium-genus bacteria that can do so in the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • micro algae
  • The biggest challenge, according to Murthy, is separating water from the micro algae he is testing (Chlorella and Dunaliella), which must continually be mixed with carbon dioxide and light as they grow. (salem-news.com)
  • The pods would be continuously rearranged by robotic arms (powered by the micro-algae produced) to ensure the optimum growing conditions for alage in each pod. (dezeen.com)
  • green algae
  • Five groups were of primary importance to the ASP: diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae), green algae (Class Chlorophyceae), golden- brown algae (Class Chrysophyceae), prymnesiophytes (Class Prymnesiophyceae), and the eustigmatophytes (Class Eustigmatophyceae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria (Class Cyanophyceae), were also represented in some of the collections. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol fuel
  • This is why commercially practical cellulosic ethanol is widely viewed as a next level of development for the biofuel industry that could reduce demand for oil and gas drilling and even nuclear power in ways that grain-based ethanol fuel alone cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • They are looking at algae which contains an enzyme called hydrogenase, which creates small amounts of hydrogen gas. (blogspot.com)
  • Such carbon neutral and negative fuels can be produced by the electrolysis of water to make hydrogen used in the Sabatier reaction to produce methane which may then be stored to be burned later in power plants as synthetic natural gas, transported by pipeline, truck, or tanker ship, or be used in gas to liquids processes such as the Fischer-Tropsch process to make traditional transportation or heating fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • While its history dates back to 1978, much of the research from 1978 to 1982 was focused on using algae to produce hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • liters
  • No matter what the strategy, however, the NRC committee concluded that current technology scaled up to produce 39 billion liters a year-approximately 5% of U.S. transportation fuel needs-would require an unsustainable level of inputs. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Qantas will purchase a minimum of 200 to 400 million liters of Solazyme's jet fuel per year. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • oils
  • Applying the findings to mass-produce algae and extract its oils could be five to 10 years in the future. (salem-news.com)
  • Applying the findings to mass-produce algae and extract its oils could be five to 10 years in the future, but the advantages are worth the wait, according to Ganti Murthy, assistant professor of biological and ecological engineering at OSU. (salem-news.com)
  • The primary focus of the OSU lab is to discover efficient ways to extract the oils (also called lipids) and process them into bio-diesel fuel and ethanol, with fertilizer and animal feed as co-products. (salem-news.com)
  • The algae consume the sugars and convert them into oils rapidly and efficiently taking only a few days. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Reports have it that Solazyme's lead microalgae strains produce oil for the fuels and chemicals markets achieve key performance metrics that the firm believes would allow them to manufacture oils today at a cost below $1,000 per metric ton ($3.44 per gallon or $0.91 per liter) if produced in a built-for-purpose commercial plant. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • The problem with using plant derived oils for fuels is the high viscosity of the oils harvested. (studymode.com)
  • These oils don't burn as completely and "cleanly" as fossil fuels do, so they leave deposits and build up in the engine's cylinders and fuel injectors. (studymode.com)
  • Seaweed fuel or seaweed oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses seaweed as its source of energy-rich oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is an enzyme which catalyzes a key metabolic step in the synthesis of oils in algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • In fact, research has shown that algae can grow 30 percent faster than normal when fed carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. (salem-news.com)
  • The company offers consumers and fleets new fuel choices that make progress toward reducing carbon emissions, creating jobs, and lowering America's dependence on foreign oil. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Propel has developed CleanDrive®, the nation's first integrated carbon emission reduction tracking platform, and is the only fueling company in the country to enable drivers to offset their emissions at the pump through their CarbonOffset program. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Algae can also be used to minimize the emissions of carbon dioxide of coal plants. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's (CAER) Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Group has received a $2 million U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to develop new emissions technology for low-temperature gasoline. (uky.edu)
  • These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels, such as its high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • GreenFuel Technologies Corporation (GFT) was a startup that developed a process of growing algae using emissions from fossil fuels to produce biofuel from algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • As smokestack emissions are delivered to the algae bioreactor, carbon dioxide and other pollutants are absorbed and utilized by the algae to grow at an exponential rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in support of the goals of the aviation industry reaching carbon neutral growth by 2020 and a 50% decrease in carbon emissions by 2050 (relative to a 2005 baseline) A group of interested airlines has formed the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group (SAFUG). (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • However, should the president have been proposing algae as an energy source that could replace "17 percent of oil we import for transportation" before it is even shown to be sustainable on a mass scale? (washingtontimes.com)
  • While the bio-reactor process is currently in an experimental phase, recent advances in single step algae oil extraction and low energy high efficiency LEDs make the algae bio-reactor an extremely promising prospect on the renewable energy technology horizon. (dezeen.com)
  • Algae fix the sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy and that too very fast. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • A significant metric for determining the efficacy of fuel is the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) ratio. (phys.org)
  • Our research showed that a multistage, lower temperature system of pyrolysis can increase the carbon chain length, create more liquid fuel and improve the energy output of the entire process. (phys.org)
  • Its energy research provides a focal point for environmental, renewable and fossil fuels research in Kentucky. (uky.edu)
  • Cooking oil will be used by UK's Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), with additional cooking oil recycled by Kelley Green Biofuel. (uky.edu)
  • Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we move up the timeline to modern warfare, the Department of Defense has a stake in solar energy, bio-fuels, algae for bio-fuels, energy storage, waste to energy, ocean energy, micro grids, and soldier power to name a few. (electrochem.org)
  • The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although renewable energy is used mostly to generate electricity, it is often assumed that some form of renewable energy or a percentage is used to create alternative fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable progress is being made in the energy transition from fossil fuels to ecologically sustainable systems, to the point where many studies support 100% renewable energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to sustainable energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biobutanol can be made entirely with solar energy and nutrients, from algae (called Solalgal Fuel) or diatoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Most research into algae has focused upon converting it into ethanol. (blogspot.com)
  • The pods will serve as bio-fuel sources and as micro-incubators for flexible research and development programs. (dezeen.com)
  • This blog is a roundup of research news and related topics dealing with biofuels. (blogspot.com)
  • Working with the Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis group, the students have a chance to learn more about the Center's biofuels and sustainability research program as well as the CAER Lab #2, the first LEED-designed research laboratory in Kentucky. (uky.edu)
  • UK CAER's Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Research Group utilizes the grease to support its novel biofuel research program. (uky.edu)
  • To accomplish this goal, we are conducting research on a class of materials (zeolites) that can effectively trap pollutants until the vehicle's catalytic converter is warm enough to convert them to harmless products," said Mark Crocker, Associate Director of UK CAER's Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Group and Professor of Chemistry. (uky.edu)
  • The research of algae potential has been ongoing for several years all over the world. (studymode.com)
  • The International Air Transport Association (IATA) supports research, development and deployment of alternative fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universities working on algae jet fuel are Arizona State University and Cranfield University Major investors for algae based SPK research are Boeing, Honeywell/UOP, Air New Zealand, Continental Airlines, Japan Airlines, and General Electric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research is being done on an alcohol-to-jet pathway where alcohols such as ethanol or butanol are de-oxygenated and processed into jet fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995, DOE made the decision to eliminate funding for algae research within the Biofuels Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol
  • Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obtaining higher yields of butanol involves manipulation of the metabolic networks within bacteria to prioritize the synthesis of the biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of succinate and ethanol can be fermented to produce butyrate (a precursor to butanol fuel) by utilizing the metabolic pathways present in a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid fuels
  • Potential exists for the many benefits of carbonaceous liquid fuels and petrochemicals (which today's standard of living depends on) but in a carbon cycle-balanced and renewable way (recycling surface and atmosphere carbon instead of pumping underground carbon up into it and thus adding to it). (wikipedia.org)
  • diesel fuels
  • The fuel will be sold at the same price as conventional diesel fuels and will be available exclusively at Propel's Clean Fuel Points locations in Redwood City, San Jose (N. First St.), Berkeley, and Oakland. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • acre
  • For example, a productivity model estimates that 48 gallons of bio-diesel can be produced from an acre of soybeans, whereas algae could produce 819 gallons - and theoretically as much as 5,000 gallons - from a single acre. (salem-news.com)
  • The focus of the studio is the design of a bioplastics factory within a 100 acre algae photobioreactor array that's adjacent to one of Kentucky's coal-fired power plants. (uky.edu)
  • Coal
  • In the late medieval period, coal was the new alternative fuel to save the society from overuse of the dominant fuel, wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster, [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1917, Alexander Graham Bell advocated ethanol from corn, wheat and other foods as an alternative to coal and oil, stating that the world was in measurable distance of depleting these fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers from the US National Science Foundation claimed to have achieved the first direct conversion of lignocellulose, a material found in plant stems, from plants into a petrol-like fuel. (blogspot.com)
  • plant
  • Algae are versatile organisms that are "plant-like" but do not have a root system or leaves. (salem-news.com)
  • We're making new investments in the development of gasoline, and diesel, and jet fuel that's actually made from a plant-like substance…algae. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The electricity for the lights and the CO2 for the algae are provided by the combined heat and power plant. (ferret.com.au)
  • Animal nutrition company Alltech has opened its $200 million algae plant in Winchester, Kentucky that is going to produce in April. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • A ribbon cutting ceremony at the plant was attended by Kentucky local and state government officials as well as the 60 global attendees of the first Annual Algae Conference hosted by Alltech in Lexington, Ky. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Biofuel and ethanol are plant-derived gasoline substitutes for powering vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, the company had to shut down its third-generation bioreactor facility in Arizona after the plant produced more algae than the company's equipment could handle. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The photobioreactors hold about six gallons of water and produce about .17 pounds of algae with each batch. (salem-news.com)
  • Taking something that otherwise would go up into the atmosphere and further lead to excess CO2 in the air, and then taking that and using it to feed algae (which in turn is used to produce this biofuel) is absolutely amazing. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • In addition, the amount of water and land needed to produce the algae is reduced to only a fraction of what was previously needed for earlier growing methods. (studymode.com)
  • Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • convert
  • Algae are the fastest growing plants in nature and have the ability to convert large amounts of carbon dioxide into oxygen, a characteristic that makes it particularly interesting in today's environmentally conscious world. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • sustainability
  • The report does say that "The committee does not consider any one of these sustainability concerns a definitive barrier to sustainable development of algal biofuels because mitigation strategies for each of those concerns have been proposed and are being developed. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The great thing about this project is it addresses full life cycle sustainability questions of new fuel sources before they come up later down the road. (phys.org)