• trait
  • Despite multiple origins of the fragrance trait, a single allele, badh2.1 , is the predominant allele in virtually all fragrant rice varieties today, including the widely recognized Basmati and Jasmine types. (pnas.org)
  • Individuals who are heterozygous for this trait appear to be intermediate in appearance and thus experience increased predation and lowered overall fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphic
  • Eventually, a polymorphic "a" allele may be introduced into the population, resulting in an individual who is capable of exploiting a different resource. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common situation arises when genotypes are collected at a set of polymorphic sites from a group of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • In experimental populations, the ebony allele was more prevalent and therefore advantageous when flies were raised at low, dry temperatures, but less so in warm, moist environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both branches use the frequencies of different alleles of a gene in breeding populations (gamodemes), and combine them with concepts from simple Mendelian inheritance to analyze inheritance patterns across generations and descendant lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "wild type" allele is sometimes used to describe an allele that is thought to contribute to the typical phenotypic character as seen in "wild" populations of organisms, such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two groups of trees were treated as one population because no deviations from expected genotype frequencies were observed, as would be expected if the populations were diverging from one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to examples of overdominance in actual populations, underdominance is considered more unstable and may lead to the fixation of either allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • A population or species of organisms typically includes multiple alleles at each locus among various individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • If in either monoecious or dioecious organisms, either the allele or genotype proportions are initially unequal in either sex, it can be shown that constant proportions are obtained after one generation of random mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diploid organisms, one allele is inherited from the male parent and one from the female parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • allelic
  • More generally, where a gene exists in two allelic versions (designated A and a), three combinations of alleles are possible: AA, Aa, and aa. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Seven SNPs were genotyped in the replication cohorts from the Steno Diabetes Center and All Ireland/Warren 3/Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) U.K. study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The General Selection Model (GSM) is a model of population genetics that describes how a population's allele frequencies will change when acted upon by natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, at the gene locus for the ABO blood type carbohydrate antigens in humans, classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and i, that determine compatibility of blood transfusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example in human genetics, genome-wide association studies collect genotypes in thousands of individuals at between 200,000-5,000,000 SNPs using microarrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • viability
  • I assume that fitness (viability) of an individual depends on its genotype at a single diallelic locus as well as on the genotype of its mother at this locus. (genetics.org)
  • If w i,j = w i for all i,j , that is, if the fitness of an individual depends only on its own genotype, one has a classical model of "pure" viability selection. (genetics.org)
  • genotypic
  • RESULTS In a meta-analysis, the minor T allele of the exonic SNP rs17353856 in the SUV39H2 was associated with diabetic retinopathy (genotypic odds ratio 0.75, P = 1.2 × 10 −4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The HWP states the population will have the given genotypic frequencies (called Hardy-Weinberg proportions) after a single generation of random mating within the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • If weakness were the only effect of the mutant allele, so it conveyed only disadvantages, natural selection would weed out this version of the gene until it became extinct from the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutant allele that produces no protein is called a protein null (shown by western analysis), and one that produces no RNA is called an RNA null (shown by Northern analysis or by DNA sequencing of a deletion allele). (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane) cohort, 37 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 2,991 individuals with type 1 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we consider the problem of using genotype data from a sample of individuals to distinguish between two forms of nonrandom mating: inbreeding or mating among relatives and population subdivision or limited dispersal of gametes. (genetics.org)
  • Therefore, considerable interest exists in the development of an approach that can reliably estimate the degree of population subdivision and inbreeding rates from a sample of genotyped individuals of unknown relatedness. (genetics.org)
  • which implements a Bayesian clustering algorithm that simultaneously estimates locus allele frequencies and probabilistically assigns individuals to one of K subpopulations. (genetics.org)
  • Individuals with two copies of 677C (677CC) have the most common genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low folate intake affects individuals with the 677TT genotype to a greater extent than those with the 677CC/CT genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Rr individuals the R allele masks the presence of the r allele, so these individuals also have round peas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of "aa" individuals would increase until the abundance of the "a" resource begins to decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the "AA" and "aa" genotypes would reach equilibrium with each other, with "Aa" heterozygotic individuals potentially experiencing a reduced fitness compared to those individuals who are homozygotic for utilization of either resource. (wikipedia.org)
  • haplotypes
  • When there are N {\displaystyle N} heterozygous genotypes present in an individual's set of genotypes, there will be 2 N {\displaystyle 2^{N}} possible pairs of haplotypes that could underlie the genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SHAPEIT1 method made a major advance by introducing a linear O ( K ) {\displaystyle O(K)} complexity method that operates only on the space of haplotypes consistent with an individual's genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonfunctional
  • a 2AP precursor), so that a nonfunctional allele results in the accumulation of both AB-ald and its cyclic form, Δ 1 pyrroline, resulting in enhanced 2AP synthesis ( 14 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • traits
  • Recent findings suggest that although Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa ) is comprised of several genetically distinct groups, a number of the alleles responsible for key domestication and grain quality traits are shared among these groups. (pnas.org)
  • equilibrium
  • This example of underdominance is stable because any shift in equilibrium would result in selection for the rare allele due to increased resource abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • XX females and XY males, as in humans], f′(a) in the heterogametic sex 'chases' f(a) in the homogametic sex of the previous generation, until an equilibrium is reached at the weighted average of the two initial frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • substitution
  • The remainder of the equation, [ q ( W 2 − W 1 ) + p ( W 1 − W 0 ) ] {\displaystyle {\big [}q(W_{2}-W_{1})+p(W_{1}-W_{0}){\big ]}} , refers to the mean effect of an allele substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 677T allele (leading to a valine substitution at amino acid 222) encodes a thermolabile enzyme with reduced activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • fixation
  • This system of underdominance allowed manipulation of the population and ultimate fixation of the constructed genotype and has potential applications in a number of settings, including agriculture and the reduction of various pest-carried diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphisms
  • The frequency of the 2 polymorphisms was no higher in those who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=12) or intrauterine growth retardation (n=9), and none of the screened population developed thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • single
  • An extreme case of fitness that depends entirely on the mother's genotype at a single diallelic locus was considered by W right ( 1969 , pp. 57-59) and N agylaki ( 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • confer
  • This species possesses two alleles which each confer an appearance similar to that of another local butterfly species that is toxic to its predator. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Although this phenomenon is appreciated by many population geneticists, many modern statistical approaches for analyzing genotype data ignore one of these two components. (genetics.org)
  • The records cover gene frequency and population size for much of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Let us consider a situation in which a population is completely homozygotic for an "A" allele, allowing exploitation of a particular resource. (wikipedia.org)