• redox
  • 5.  The presence of low concentrations of free radicals is important for normal cellular redox status, immune function and intracellular signaling. (slideshare.net)
  • Thus, the redox process gives rise to an equilibrium between dormant (Polymer-Halide) and active (Polymer-radical) chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • 2. chain propagation (two steps): a hydrogen atom is pulled off from methane leaving a primary methyl radical. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this last experiment tetramethyllead is decomposed at elevated temperatures to methyl radicals and elemental lead in a quartz tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gaseous methyl radicals are moved to another part of the chamber in a carrier gas where they react with lead in a mirror film which slowly disappears. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • In human body the most common form of free radicals are the oxygen free radicals. (buzzle.com)
  • Vitamin C greatly enhances the ability of vitamin E to prevent damage to LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, which, if damaged, is suspected of being the first step in the progression to heart disease, according to researchers at the University of California at Berkeley.In the past few years, scientists have found that oxygen-free radicals, toxic byproducts of normal chemistry, can damage LDL. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Free radicals are associated with oxidization which is an interaction between oxygen molecule and other properties. (hubpages.com)
  • When a heart attack occurs, extra oxygen is sent to the weakened heart, and this glut of oxygen starts to cause free radical damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radical can then react with molecular oxygen, creating a peroxyl radical which can be reduced and dehydrated to yield a 2'-deoxyribonolactone and free base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two sources inspired Harman: 1) the rate of living theory, which holds that lifespan is an inverse function of metabolic rate which in turn is proportional to oxygen consumption, and 2) Rebbeca Gershman's observation that hyperbaric oxygen toxicity and radiation toxicity could be explained by the same underlying phenomenon: oxygen free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Not so with free radicals: those bandits react quickly and indiscriminately with whatever cellular structures are at hand, inflicting damage as a result. (smartskincare.com)
  • Free radicals are not new to the body and are a part of the destruction in the biochemical and physiological process in tissue repair and cellular replication as people age. (hubpages.com)
  • They are effective in preventing cellular damages and diseases caused by free radicals. (hubpages.com)
  • damage
  • 1.  Free radical damage has been implicated in a wide variety of age related chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, ophthalmic and neurodegenerative disease as well as being involved in the ageing process. (slideshare.net)
  • Free radical damage to DNA can lead to mutations, knocking out or disrupting the activity of genes, thus altering vital functions or even causing cancer. (smartskincare.com)
  • In the course of evolution, organisms developed the means to protect themselves from free radical damage. (smartskincare.com)
  • Despite such sophisticated security system, a few free radicals always manage to escape and cause damage. (smartskincare.com)
  • The amount of free radical damage appears to be proportionate to the organism's metabolic rate, which is essentially the rate of burning calories. (smartskincare.com)
  • Second, even though there are a lot more free radicals inside mitochondria than elsewhere in the cell, mitochondria is actually far less protected from free radical damage than the rest of the cell. (smartskincare.com)
  • Free radical damage to DNA can occur as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation or to radiomimetic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to DNA as a result of free radical attack is called indirect DNA damage because the radicals formed can diffuse throughout the body and affect other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2O + hν → H2O+ + e− H2O + e− → H2O− H2O+ → H+ + OH· H2O− → OH− + H· 2 OH· →H2O2 Free radical damage to DNA is thought to result in mutations that may lead to some cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radical damage to DNA can also occur through the interaction of DNA with certain natural products known as radiomimetic compounds, molecular compounds which affect DNA in similar ways to radiation exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most biological structures, free radical damage is closely associated with oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free radical damage within cells has been linked to a range of disorders including cancer, arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This damage then causes mutations which lead to an increase of ROS production and greatly enhance the accumulation of free radicals within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • Similar to atom transfer radical polymerization (discussed below), the equilibrium between dormant chains (those reversibly terminated with the stable free radical) and active chains (those with a radical capable of adding to monomer) is designed to heavily favor the dormant state. (wikipedia.org)
  • From all LRP methods, Atom transfer radical polymerization or ATRP is the most studied and since its development in 1995 an exhaustive amount of articles has been published about this topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic chemistry
  • New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-85472-7 Advanced Organic Chemistry F.A. Carey R.J. Sundberg ISBN 0-306-41198-9 Robert T. Morrison, Robert N. Boyd, and Robert K. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, 6th edition (Benjamin Cummings), 1992, ISBN 0-13-643669-2 Free Radic Biol Med. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yorker
  • In 2000, The New Yorker wrote "The horn-heavy, continually evolving collective Free Radicals produces a wildly eclectic fusion that has as many influences as there are items in the Houston, Texas, pawnshop in which they honed their sound during all-night jam sessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free Radicals" was first published in The New Yorker in 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elimination
  • For example, when polystyrene decomposes upon heating at a temperature above 300°C, a styrene monomer is generated via a radical elimination mechanism (See Fig. 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • When the coupling of the stable free radical with the polymeric radical is sufficiently reversible, termination is reversible, and the propagating radical concentration can be limited to levels that allow controlled polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equilibrium is designed to heavily favor the dormant state, which effectively reduces the radical concentration to a sufficiently low level to limit bimolecular coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • reacts
  • When a growing polymer chain reacts with the addition fragmentation agent the radical end-group attacks the vinyl bond and forms a bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • musicians
  • These number systems became the basis for much of the music of Free_Radicals and the key for real interaction between the dancers and musicians. (harmonies.com)
  • On recordings - The Rising Tide Sinks All (1998), Our Lady of Eternal Sunny Delights (2000), Aerial Bombardment (2004), and The Freedom Fence (2012) - Free Radicals invites a group of 50 or more musicians and vocalists into the studio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free Radicals frequent collaborators and guest musicians include Al Pagliuso, Dan Cooper, Harry Sheppard, Gloria Edwards, Nelson Mills III, and Subhendu Chakraborty. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In this CD version of Free_Radicals David Hudson presents improvisations as an alternative to the choreographed interaction of the original stage version. (harmonies.com)
  • immune
  • Even though the effects of free radical have a negative effect, the body benefits from nerve conductions, energy production and immune responses. (hubpages.com)
  • vulnerable
  • DNA is vulnerable to radical attack because of the very labile hydrogens that can be abstracted and the prevalence of double bonds in the DNA bases that radicals can easily add to. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • From late 1998 to early 1999, this team left Rare to form Free Radical Design, which was established in April 1999, their first release being TimeSplitters for the PlayStation 2 in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because less energy is required to form the H-Br and tertiary radical (380 − 366 kJ/mol = +14 kJ/mol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some important aspects of these are compared in the table: Although not a strictly living form of polymerization catalytic chain transfer polymerization must be mentioned as it figures significantly in the development of later forms of living free radical polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds
  • Compounds bearing carbon-hydrogen bonds react with radicals in the order primary (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiomimetic compounds induce double-strand breaks in DNA via highly specific, concerted free-radical attacks on the deoxyribose moieties in both strands of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerization
  • Living free radical polymerization is a type of living polymerization where the active polymer chain end is a free radical. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUPAC recommends to use the term "reversible-deactivation radical polymerization" instead of "living free radical polymerization", though the two terms are not synonymous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two options of SFRP are nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP) and verdazyl mediated polymerization (VMP), SFRP was discovered while using a radical scavenger called TEMPO when investigating the rate of initiation during free radical polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metal has a number of different oxidation states that allows it to abstract a halide from the organohalide, creating a radical that then starts free radical polymerization. (wikipedia.org)