Loading...
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • The initial aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide, an iodate, divalent manganese (Mn2+) as catalyst, a strong chemically unreactive acid (sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) are good), and an organic compound with an active ("enolic") hydrogen atom attached to carbon which will slowly reduce free iodine (I2) to iodide (I−). (Malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2) is excellent for that purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2O2
  • Basal (substrate alone) and maximum rates of H2O2 production, oxygen consumption and free radical leak in the respiratory chain were higher in heart mitochondria of the short-lived rat (4 years) than in the long-lived pigeon (35 years). (nih.gov)
  • Myocardium
  • In the nonischemic myocardium, the primary energy substrate is free fatty acids [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, during ischemia when free fatty acids cannot be metabolized, increased levels of free fatty acids can be detrimental to the myocardium because they increase oxygen consumption, depress contractility, and increase arrhythmias and oxygen free radicals, which ultimately impair endothelial function [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the nondiabetic ischemic myocardium, the change from the oxidative metabolism of free fatty acids to that of glucose is protective since it allows the ischemic myocardium to more efficiently utilize oxygen to generate the ATP necessary to preserve cellular transport systems and prevent cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • occurs
  • For example, while heavy alcohol consumption is estimated to cause 60-70% of cirrhosis, the vast majority of HCC occurs in cirrhosis attributed to viral hepatitis (although there may be overlap). (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Exposure to a low concentration of oxygen (1.5%) that promoted the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in human smooth muscle and epithelial kidney cells had little effect on HIF-1α abundance in human vascular endothelial cells unless the production of NO was inhibited. (sciencemag.org)
  • impair
  • Thus, in the intact awake animal postischemic myocardial contractile dysfunction was not associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and did not impair the normal relation between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen utilization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Increased levels of free fatty acids also impair glucose metabolism which is the preferred myocardial substrate during periods of ischemia [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • nitric oxide
  • These changes in endothelial function contribute to decreased nitric oxide activity and increase production of superoxide radicals in diabetic internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts [ 24 , 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Edestin is similar to serum globulin (blood plasma), and the biologically active protein of edestin is metabolized in the human body and capable of biosynthesizing: hormones (which regulate all the body processes), haemoglobin (which transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide), enzymes (which catalyze and control biochemical reactions), antibodies (immunoglobulins which fend off invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • solvent
  • Secondly, the indole ring of a tryptophan (Trp290) lies above and parallel to Tyrosine-Cysteine, behaving like a shield protecting the radical from the external solvent environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, acetic acid is the solvent and oxygen from compressed air is the oxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • In the presence of starch the number of oscillations are higher and the period times are longer compared to the starch-free mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also found that the iodine consumption segment within one period of oscillation is also significantly longer in the starch containing mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure oxygen cannot be used in the traditional system due to hazards of flammable organic-O2 mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Under anoxic conditions, the predominant double-base lesion is a species in which C8 of guanine is linked to the 5-methyl group of an adjacent 3'-thymine (G[8,5- Me]T). Most of these oxygen-derived species are produced at a low level by normal aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The chain reaction caused by free radicals can lead to cross-linking of atomic structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bubbles of free oxygen are evolved throughout, and in most cases, the final state is rich in free iodine As noted above, the reaction will oscillate in a fairly wide range of initial concentrations of the reactants. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Since in quiet waking the brain is responsible for 20% of the body's energy use, this reduction has an independently noticeable impact on overall energy consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In addition, the technique of saturation recovery was further developed across most of this range of microwave frequencies, which led to an extensive body of work on transport and cellular consumption of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Two sources inspired Harman: 1) the rate of living theory, which holds that lifespan is an inverse function of metabolic rate which in turn is proportional to oxygen consumption, and 2) Rebbeca Gershman's observation that hyperbaric oxygen toxicity and radiation toxicity could be explained by the same underlying phenomenon: oxygen free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • generator
  • This suggests that the free radical generator of Complex I is located after the ferricyanide reduction site, between the ethoxyformic and the rotenone-sensitive sites. (nih.gov)
  • So far, AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride) is the sole free-radical generator used. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The assay measures the oxidative degradation of the fluorescent molecule (either beta-phycoerythrin or fluorescein) after being mixed with free radical generators such as azo-initiator compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • However, the consumption of oxygen also results in the generation of free radicals that may have damaging effects on cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the authors came to the intriguing conclusion that, in vascular endothelial cells, mitochondria may function primarily as NO-regulated organelles that signal through oxygen or ROS rather than as the "powerhouse" that provides cells with ATP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stabilizes biomembranes, i.e. membrane structures of blood cells - erythrocytes and thrombocytes during their haemolysis or mechanical injury accompanied by the formation of free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • Starch is optionally added as an indicator to show the abrupt increase in iodide ion concentration as a sudden change from amber (free iodine) to dark blue (the "iodine-starch complex", which requires both iodine and iodide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidation
  • Oxidation: As we know from exercise science, our fitness, health is completely dependent on how efficiently we use oxygen. (bestinhealthradio.com)
  • These imbalances are caused by the disruption of a variety of major body processes including, as a minimum, the regulation of metabolism by the thyroid, potential liver enlargement, a decrease of oxygen in the circulatory system, the utilization of amino acids important to the body, the oxidation of iron and a potential impact to neural pathways. (carnicominstitute.org)
  • For example, the presence of racemic 9-HODE and 9-EE-HODE mixtures reflects free radical oxidation of linoleic acid whereas the presence of racemic 10-hydroxy-8E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid and 12-hydroxy-9Z-13-E-octadecadienoic acid reflects singlet oxygen attack on linoleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coating metal parts with oil also keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the principal greenhouse gas emission from powered aircraft in flight is CO2, other emissions may include nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (together termed oxides of nitrogen or NOx), water vapour and particulates (soot and sulfate particles), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (which bonds with oxygen to become CO2 immediately upon release), incompletely burned hydrocarbons, tetraethyllead (piston aircraft only), and radicals such as hydroxyl, depending on the type of aircraft in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide variety of foods have been tested using this method, with certain spices, berries and legumes rated highly in extensive tables once published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), but withdrawn in 2012 since no correlation between test results and biological activity could be determined, stating that no physiological proof in vivo existed in support of the free-radical theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 4) there is no evidence that ORAC values have any biological significance following consumption of any food. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • One of their many critical roles is to produce energy by combining nutrients from the sugars and fats you eat with oxygen from the air you breathe. (wddty.com)
  • produce
  • Azo-initiators are considered to produce the peroxyl radical by heating, which damages the fluorescent molecule, resulting in the loss of fluorescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Today, the average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is approximately 130 terawatts, which is about three times the current power consumption of human civilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • citation needed] The gas is not flammable at a low pressure/temperature, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel
  • Instead of maximizing for fuel consumption as our current economy does, one could maximize for efficiency in the road system, which clearly has not been an objective. (greencheck.nl)
  • In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide (often referred to as just "nitrous") allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Under anoxic conditions, the predominant double-base lesion is a species in which C8 of guanine is linked to the 5-methyl group of an adjacent 3'-thymine (G[8,5- Me]T). Most of these oxygen-derived species are produced at a low level by normal aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • In the presence of a heated catalyst, N 2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of approximately 1,070 °F (577 °C). Because of the large heat release, the catalytic action rapidly becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • citation needed] In the ancient Vedic period (between 1500 and 500 BCE), although the laws allowed the consumption of some kinds of meat, vegetarianism was encouraged. (wikipedia.org)
  • theory
  • Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of voluntary non-consumption of the flesh of any animal (including sea animals), with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives (such as dairy products or eggs). (wikipedia.org)
  • directly
  • the excess oxygen they produced contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth, which rendered the evolution of complex life possible. (wikipedia.org)