• hydrogen
  • Polyunsaturated fats and their breakdown products-aldehydes, prostaglandins, isoprostanes, hydrocarbons, and free radicals-and carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide are increased in the breath by most stresses. (functionalps.com)
  • 4-6 Among them, the 3 superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, the cytosolic copper zinc SOD (CuZnSOD, SOD-1), mitochondrial manganese SOD (MnSOD, SOD-2), and extracellular SOD (EC-SOD, SOD-3), have evolved as the key enzymatic defense system for converting O 2 − to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and molecular oxygen (O 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The initial aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide, an iodate, divalent manganese (Mn2+) as catalyst, a strong chemically unreactive acid (sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) are good), and an organic compound with an active ("enolic") hydrogen atom attached to carbon which will slowly reduce free iodine (I2) to iodide (I−). (Malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2) is excellent for that purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bromide source can be sodium bromide, hydrogen bromide or tetrabromoethane where bromine functions as a regenerative source of free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • Moreover, the formation of cross-linking thioether bond is believed to lower the oxidation potential of Tyr272 phenoxide, making this phenoxyl more easily oxidized to form the radical in post-translational modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Amoco process, terephthalic acid is produced by oxidation of p-xylene by oxygen in air: The process uses a cobalt-manganese-bromide catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the presence of racemic 9-HODE and 9-EE-HODE mixtures reflects free radical oxidation of linoleic acid whereas the presence of racemic 10-hydroxy-8E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid and 12-hydroxy-9Z-13-E-octadecadienoic acid reflects singlet oxygen attack on linoleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • In 1939, experiments using minced muscle cells demonstrated that cellular respiration using one oxygen atom can form two adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, and, in 1941, the concept of the phosphate bonds of ATP being a form of energy in cellular metabolism was developed by Fritz Albert Lipmann. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • This is generally due to the biological effects of antioxidants being misunderstood in popular culture, focusing only on their beneficial qualities to reduce ROS to prevent excessive free-radicals which may otherwise lead to well-known disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several complex biological free-radical collection systems already exist for the purpose of scavenging, which normally, do not require augmentation by supplementation of antioxidants to function nominally. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide variety of foods have been tested using this method, with certain spices, berries and legumes rated highly in extensive tables once published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), but withdrawn in 2012 since no correlation between test results and biological activity could be determined, stating that no physiological proof in vivo existed in support of the free-radical theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 4) there is no evidence that ORAC values have any biological significance following consumption of any food. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemia
  • Increased levels of free fatty acids also impair glucose metabolism which is the preferred myocardial substrate during periods of ischemia [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Animal studies suggest the theoretical benefits to humans likely arise from altering the inflammatory response to ischemia, decreasing oxygen consumption in the brain, and reducing free radical formation in ischemic tissue. (ems1.com)
  • Myocardium
  • Oxygen consumption and coronary reactivity in postischemic myocardium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the nonischemic myocardium, the primary energy substrate is free fatty acids [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the nondiabetic ischemic myocardium, the change from the oxidative metabolism of free fatty acids to that of glucose is protective since it allows the ischemic myocardium to more efficiently utilize oxygen to generate the ATP necessary to preserve cellular transport systems and prevent cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • cellular
  • In addition, the technique of saturation recovery was further developed across most of this range of microwave frequencies, which led to an extensive body of work on transport and cellular consumption of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The basic control of blood flow in the brain is the result of the relaxation of the wall of blood vessels in the presence of carbon dioxide, which is produced in proportion to the rate at which oxygen and glucose are being metabolically combined by active cells. (functionalps.com)
  • solvent
  • Secondly, the indole ring of a tryptophan (Trp290) lies above and parallel to Tyrosine-Cysteine, behaving like a shield protecting the radical from the external solvent environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, acetic acid is the solvent and oxygen from compressed air is the oxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • Two sources inspired Harman: 1) the rate of living theory, which holds that lifespan is an inverse function of metabolic rate which in turn is proportional to oxygen consumption, and 2) Rebbeca Gershman's observation that hyperbaric oxygen toxicity and radiation toxicity could be explained by the same underlying phenomenon: oxygen free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • In the presence of starch the number of oscillations are higher and the period times are longer compared to the starch-free mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also found that the iodine consumption segment within one period of oscillation is also significantly longer in the starch containing mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure oxygen cannot be used in the traditional system due to hazards of flammable organic-O2 mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • detrimental
  • The concept of antioxidative stress may best be described by excessive or detrimental nutritional consumption of a diet rich in antioxidants, unbalancing the immune systems' pathogenic response processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Stabilizes biomembranes, i.e. membrane structures of blood cells - erythrocytes and thrombocytes during their haemolysis or mechanical injury accompanied by the formation of free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • generator
  • This suggests that the free radical generator of Complex I is located after the ferricyanide reduction site, between the ethoxyformic and the rotenone-sensitive sites. (nih.gov)
  • So far, AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride) is the sole free-radical generator used. (wikipedia.org)
  • antioxidants
  • Rather, the activation of AMPK at 3% oxygen was stimulated by ROS and was inhibited by antioxidants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over-consumption of exogenous antioxidants could thus lead to the state of antioxidative stress, where antioxidants might attenuate or block the adaptive stress responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Bubbles of free oxygen are evolved throughout, and in most cases, the final state is rich in free iodine As noted above, the reaction will oscillate in a fairly wide range of initial concentrations of the reactants. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The assay measures the oxidative degradation of the fluorescent molecule (either beta-phycoerythrin or fluorescein) after being mixed with free radical generators such as azo-initiator compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segment
  • Left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow and oxygen extraction, aortic and left ventricular pressures, and regional myocardial segment shortening were determined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • degeneration
  • But when they are compared with saturated fats (as I mentioned in the "Fats and degeneration" newsletter) or with a fat free diet, their effects are seen to be pro-inflammatory and toxic. (functionalps.com)
  • rate
  • Astaxanthin Consumption Market report analyses the market potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, and market demand and supply scenarios. (sbwire.com)
  • naturally
  • Astaxanthin Consumption Market is a naturally occurring dark red carotenoid found in nature primarily in aquatic animals such as salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, and crustaceans. (sbwire.com)
  • concentration
  • Starch is optionally added as an indicator to show the abrupt increase in iodide ion concentration as a sudden change from amber (free iodine) to dark blue (the "iodine-starch complex", which requires both iodine and iodide. (wikipedia.org)