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  • probes
  • In this article, we present the detailed protocols for detection of repeat sequences using oligonucleotides or fragments of cloned probes as primers for PRINS. (springer.com)
  • Koch, J., Hindkjær, J., Mogensen, J., Kølvraa, S., and Bolund, L. (1991) An improved method for chromosome-specific labeling of α satellite DNA in situ by using denatured double-stranded DNA probes as primers in a primed in situ labeling (PRINS) procedure. (springer.com)
  • This is based on the use of chromosome region specific fluorescent-labelled DNA probes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In keeping with the then new field of recombinant DNA work, lists of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and probes and clones were included. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • In this work, the quantification of the frequencies of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei were carried out based on cytogenetic analyses of peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer following radiotherapy in order to evaluate the absorbed dose as a result of partial-body exposure to 60 Co source. (scielo.br)
  • To examine the biological effect in the peripheral blood of the paediatric patients chromosome analysis was carried out in 10 children for whom the medical justifications for CT examinations were accidental injuries and not diseases as investigated in earlier studies. (radioprotection.org)
  • After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. (hindawi.com)
  • genetic
  • Any substance that damages DNA or chromosomes, or changes genetic activity, is genotoxic because it is acting on the same material, i.e. the DNA molecule. (scribd.com)
  • In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • segregation
  • Normal cells make errors in chromosome segregation in 1% of cell divisions, whereas cells with CIN make these errors approximately 20% of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • furthermore, it was assumed that chromosome aberrations derive from µm-scale mis-rejoining of chromatin fragments, which in turn originate from "dirty" DNA double-strand breaks (called "Cluster Lesions", or CLs). (unipv.it)
  • furthermore, the derived CL yields suggest that the critical DNA lesions leading to cell inactivation are more complex than "clean" DSBs, and that these lesions lead to chromosome aberrations via mis-rejoining of chromatin fragments at the µm-scale. (unipv.it)
  • nuclear
  • Following fusion, nuclear divisions begin, and a break in a chromosome can have drastic effects on the viability of the embryo as development proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • When a break is induced in a chromosome in mature sperm, it remains in this condition until after the sperm has entered an egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Abnormal sex chromosome numbers in humans are observed in Turner (45,X) and Klinefelter (47,XXY) syndromes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to understand the effect of abnormal numbers of X chromosome on the methylome and its correlation to the variable clinical phenotype, we performed a genome-wide methylation analysis using MeDIP and Illumina's Infinium assay on individuals with four karyotypes: 45,X, 46,XY, 46,XX, and 47,XXY. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular studies to gain knowledge on the changes in epigenetics and gene expressions associated with abnormal numbers of chromosomes could improve the understanding of the molecular basis of these symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Broken chromosomes that lead to acentric and dicentric fragments can be studied in S. cerevisiae due to its known ability to tolerate aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Even in small species such as yeast, Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a single round of DNA replication . (primidi.com)
  • In 1966, Kiwako Sakabe and Reiji Okazaki first showed that DNA replication was a discontinuous process involving fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fragments were further investigated by the researchers and their colleagues through their research including the study on bacteriophage DNA replication in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • To distinguish the method of replication used by DNA experimentally, the team pulse-labeled newly replicated areas of Escherichia coli chromosomes, denatured, and extracted the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • rearrangements
  • In this study we have compared array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and multipoint FISH (mpFISH) for their ability to characterize complex rearrangements on human chromosome 3 (chr3) in tumour cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In most cases, the changes in copy number seen on array-CGH profiles reflected cumulative chromosome rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to interpret ("decode") complex CGH profiles and to describe the underlying chromosome rearrangements, additional information is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their study revealed the chromosome rearrangements and CNV of MCF7 human cancer cells at a 150kb resolution, which is much more accurate compared to both CGH and spectral karyotyping at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • The model, which was "translated" into a Monte Carlo code called BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations) simulating survival curves for different radiation types, was tested against experimental data on V79 and AG1522 cells exposed to photons, protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. (unipv.it)
  • The primary lesion leading to a dominant lethal mutation is a break in the chromosome, in this case, induced by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetochore plates are large and cover a significant portion of the chromosome length, ensuring that more radiation-induced breaks will not lead to the loss of chromosome fragments as is typical in species with monocentric chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically
  • The existence of dicentric chromosomes has clinically relevant consequences for individuals, which may live with intellectual, neurological and physical disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • DNA methylation changes were widespread on all autosomal chromosomes in 45,X and in 47,XXY individuals, with Turner individuals presenting five times more affected loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment-induced drug resistance was associated with increased chromosomal aberrations as shown by spectral karyotyping analysis, suggesting changes beyond neu signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • primers
  • They are separated by ~120-nucleotide RNA primers and are unligated until RNA primers are removed, followed by enzyme ligase connecting (ligating) an Okazaki fragment onto the (now continuous) newly synthesized complementary strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • PRimed In Situ labeling (PRINS) is a fast and sensitive alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification of chromosome aberrations. (springer.com)
  • Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along the length of each chromosome for identification of chromosomal differences between the two sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • tolerate
  • It appears that lepidopteran chromosomes can tolerate telomere loss without the drastic effects that this has on chromosomes in other orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of S. cerevisiae that tolerate aneuploidy can stabilize products of broken chromosomes during proliferation, which can be recovered and studied in a laboratory setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere
  • Mapping Human Telomere Regions With YAC and P1 Clones: Chromosome-Specific Markers For 27 Telomeres Including 149 STSs and 24 Polymorphisms For 14 Proterminal Regions," Genomics 36:492-506 (1996). (patentgenius.com)
  • It appears that lepidopteran chromosomes can tolerate telomere loss without the drastic effects that this has on chromosomes in other orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • hybridization
  • It detects genomic copy number variations at a higher resolution level than conventional karyotyping or chromosome-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). (wikipedia.org)
  • aneuploidy
  • Aneuploids possess chromosome numbers that are not exact multiples of the haploid number and polysomy is a type of aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broken chromosomes that lead to acentric and dicentric fragments can be studied in S. cerevisiae due to its known ability to tolerate aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of S. cerevisiae that tolerate aneuploidy can stabilize products of broken chromosomes during proliferation, which can be recovered and studied in a laboratory setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unequal distribution of DNA to daughter cells upon mitosis results in a failure to maintain euploidy (the correct number of chromosomes) leading to aneuploidy (incorrect number of chromosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • possess
  • Polysomy is found in many diseases, including Down syndrome in humans where affected individuals possess three copies (trisomy) of chromosome 21. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lepidopteran chromosomes possess a localized kinetochore plate to which the spindle microtubules attach during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • In the eventual analysis, these fragments were put into order by digesting a copy of each fragment into still smaller fragments using sequence-specific endonucleases, measuring the size of each small fragment using size-exclusion chromatography, and using that information to determine where the large fragments overlapped one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomes consist of the DNA sequence, and the proteins (such as histones) that are responsible for its packaging into chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Targeted Integration Of Neomycin Into Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs) For Transfection Into Mammalian Cells," Nucleic Acids Research 20(12):2971-2976 (1992). (patentgenius.com)
  • Dicentric chromosomes are studied in model organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Clonal populations of bacteria, each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescent
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along the length of each chromosome for identification of chromosomal differences between the two sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • gametes
  • Autopolyploids may show polysomic inheritance of all the linkage groups, and their fertility may be reduced due unbalanced chromosome numbers in the gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • loss
  • A higher intensity of the test sample colour in a specific region of a chromosome indicates the gain of material of that region in the corresponding source sample, while a higher intensity of the reference sample colour indicates the loss of material in the test sample in that specific region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequences
  • The existence of dicentric chromosomes has clinically relevant consequences for individuals, which may live with intellectual, neurological and physical disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • They are separated by ~120-nucleotide RNA primers and are unligated until RNA primers are removed, followed by enzyme ligase connecting (ligating) an Okazaki fragment onto the (now continuous) newly synthesized complementary strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e., there may be three or more copies of the chromosome rather than the expected two copies. (wikipedia.org)