• individual human chromosomes
  • Koch, J., Hindkjær, J., Kølvraa, S., and Bolund, L. (1995) Construction of a panel of chromosome-specific oligonucleotide probes (PRINS-primers) useful for the identification of individual human chromosomes in situ. (springer.com)
  • The authors painted a series of individual human chromosomes from a DNA library with two different fluorophores in different proportions to test the technique, and also applied CGH to genomic DNA from patients affected with either Downs syndrome or T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia as well as cells of a renal papillary carcinoma cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The NPYq-encoded multi-copy gene Sly controls the expression of sex chromosome genes after meiosis and Sly deficiency results in a remarkable upregulation of sex chromosome genes. (biologists.org)
  • Disorders such as chromosome instability can be inherited via genes, or acquired later in life due to environmental exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new maps ranged from a Mouse Chromosome Atlas that showed man-mouse homologies and correspondence between the genetic and G-band maps and replaced the previous linkage map, to maps of man-mouse homologies, cancer-related genes, the Genetic Imprinting map (http://mousebook.org), the chromosome aberration map, and a probe/clone map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first issue of the year was a "Maps" issue, the second issue was a "Genes" issue, the third issue was "Inbred Strains" and the fourth issue was a DNA probes and Restriction fragment length polymorphism issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • metaphase
  • We describe a multicolor PRINS procedure for simultaneous visualization of more probes in different colors on a metaphase preparation, and a PRINS-painting procedure, which combines PRINS and chromosome painting. (springer.com)
  • sperm
  • Epididymal sperm from mice with severe NPYq deficiency (i.e. deletion of nine-tenths or the entire NPYq gene complement) were impaired in oocyte activation ability following ICSI, and there was an increased incidence of oocyte arrest and paternal chromosome breaks. (biologists.org)
  • After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. (hindawi.com)
  • When a break is induced in a chromosome in mature sperm, it remains in this condition until after the sperm has entered an egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Any substance that damages DNA or chromosomes, or changes genetic activity, is genotoxic because it is acting on the same material, i.e. the DNA molecule. (scribd.com)
  • In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • segregation
  • Normal cells make errors in chromosome segregation in 1% of cell divisions, whereas cells with CIN make these errors approximately 20% of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • probes
  • In this article, we present the detailed protocols for detection of repeat sequences using oligonucleotides or fragments of cloned probes as primers for PRINS. (springer.com)
  • Koch, J., Hindkjær, J., Mogensen, J., Kølvraa, S., and Bolund, L. (1991) An improved method for chromosome-specific labeling of α satellite DNA in situ by using denatured double-stranded DNA probes as primers in a primed in situ labeling (PRINS) procedure. (springer.com)
  • In keeping with the then new field of recombinant DNA work, lists of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and probes and clones were included. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • furthermore, it was assumed that chromosome aberrations derive from µm-scale mis-rejoining of chromatin fragments, which in turn originate from "dirty" DNA double-strand breaks (called "Cluster Lesions", or CLs). (unipv.it)
  • furthermore, the derived CL yields suggest that the critical DNA lesions leading to cell inactivation are more complex than "clean" DSBs, and that these lesions lead to chromosome aberrations via mis-rejoining of chromatin fragments at the µm-scale. (unipv.it)
  • peripheral blood
  • To examine the biological effect in the peripheral blood of the paediatric patients chromosome analysis was carried out in 10 children for whom the medical justifications for CT examinations were accidental injuries and not diseases as investigated in earlier studies. (radioprotection.org)
  • nuclear
  • Following fusion, nuclear divisions begin, and a break in a chromosome can have drastic effects on the viability of the embryo as development proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Even in small species such as yeast, Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a single round of DNA replication . (primidi.com)
  • In 1966, Kiwako Sakabe and Reiji Okazaki first showed that DNA replication was a discontinuous process involving fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fragments were further investigated by the researchers and their colleagues through their research including the study on bacteriophage DNA replication in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • To distinguish the method of replication used by DNA experimentally, the team pulse-labeled newly replicated areas of Escherichia coli chromosomes, denatured, and extracted the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • The model, which was "translated" into a Monte Carlo code called BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations) simulating survival curves for different radiation types, was tested against experimental data on V79 and AG1522 cells exposed to photons, protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. (unipv.it)
  • The primary lesion leading to a dominant lethal mutation is a break in the chromosome, in this case, induced by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetochore plates are large and cover a significant portion of the chromosome length, ensuring that more radiation-induced breaks will not lead to the loss of chromosome fragments as is typical in species with monocentric chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically
  • The existence of dicentric chromosomes has clinically relevant consequences for individuals, which may live with intellectual, neurological and physical disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • primers
  • They are separated by ~120-nucleotide RNA primers and are unligated until RNA primers are removed, followed by enzyme ligase connecting (ligating) an Okazaki fragment onto the (now continuous) newly synthesized complementary strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • PRimed In Situ labeling (PRINS) is a fast and sensitive alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification of chromosome aberrations. (springer.com)
  • Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along the length of each chromosome for identification of chromosomal differences between the two sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • In the presence of OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. (hindawi.com)
  • A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. (hindawi.com)