• mutations
  • This DNA damage can be in the form of single- and double-strand breaks, loss of excision repair, cross-linking, alkali-labile sites, point mutations, and structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutagenic property of mutagens was first demonstrated in 1927, when Hermann Muller discovered that x-rays can cause genetic mutations in fruit flies, producing phenotypic mutants as well as observable changes to the chromosomes, visible due to presence of enlarged 'polytene' chromosomes in fruit fly salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The NPYq-encoded multi-copy gene Sly controls the expression of sex chromosome genes after meiosis and Sly deficiency results in a remarkable upregulation of sex chromosome genes. (biologists.org)
  • The new maps ranged from a Mouse Chromosome Atlas that showed man-mouse homologies and correspondence between the genetic and G-band maps and replaced the previous linkage map, to maps of man-mouse homologies, cancer-related genes, the Genetic Imprinting map (http://mousebook.org), the chromosome aberration map, and a probe/clone map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first issue of the year was a "Maps" issue, the second issue was a "Genes" issue, the third issue was "Inbred Strains" and the fourth issue was a DNA probes and Restriction fragment length polymorphism issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In this study, we demonstrated that PBMCs obtained from HCV-infected patients showed frequent chromosomal aberrations and that HCV infection of B cells in vitro induced enhanced chromosomal breaks and sister chromatid exchanges. (jimmunol.org)
  • The present study was undertaken in an attempt to increase the success rate of cell line establishment by engrafting tumor fragments in immunocompromised mice before the in vitro culture step. (aacrjournals.org)
  • peripheral
  • After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. (hindawi.com)
  • sperm
  • Epididymal sperm from mice with severe NPYq deficiency (i.e. deletion of nine-tenths or the entire NPYq gene complement) were impaired in oocyte activation ability following ICSI, and there was an increased incidence of oocyte arrest and paternal chromosome breaks. (biologists.org)
  • When a break is induced in a chromosome in mature sperm, it remains in this condition until after the sperm has entered an egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • The unequal distribution of DNA to daughter cells upon mitosis results in a failure to maintain euploidy (the correct number of chromosomes) leading to aneuploidy (incorrect number of chromosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • survival curves
  • The model, which was "translated" into a Monte Carlo code called BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations) simulating survival curves for different radiation types, was tested against experimental data on V79 and AG1522 cells exposed to photons, protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. (unipv.it)
  • restriction
  • All five immortal cell lines exhibited variability in the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs). (oup.com)
  • Briefly, the target genomic DNA is isolated and partially digested with restriction enzymes into large fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In keeping with the then new field of recombinant DNA work, lists of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and probes and clones were included. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Even in small species such as yeast, Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a single round of DNA replication . (primidi.com)
  • In 1966, Kiwako Sakabe and Reiji Okazaki first showed that DNA replication was a discontinuous process involving fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fragments were further investigated by the researchers and their colleagues through their research including the study on bacteriophage DNA replication in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • To distinguish the method of replication used by DNA experimentally, the team pulse-labeled newly replicated areas of Escherichia coli chromosomes, denatured, and extracted the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • in this work, a mechanism-based, two-parameter model based on the link between cell death and chromosome aberrations was developed. (unipv.it)
  • as a result the chromosome is fragmented, which causes the death of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lepidopteran chromosomes possess a localized kinetochore plate to which the spindle microtubules attach during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In species with large kinetochore plates, the fragments may persist for a number of mitotic cell divisions, and can even be transmitted through germ cells to the next generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compare major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of human colon cancer cell lines derived from the same tumor fragment using two protocols, the two pairs of cell lines obtained from 2 of 32 tumor fragments were extensively studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, xenotransplantation in mice of tumor fragments before establishment of cell lines enables generation of more novel human cancer cell lines for investigation of colon cancer cell biology, opening up the opportunity of reproducing the diversity of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gain and loss of chromosomes in the malignant cell population is considered a process of diversification that leads to survival of the fittest clones ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study is also the first to compare two pairs of novel colon carcinoma cell lines obtained either directly from two colon tumor fragments or after corresponding established xenograft. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In other words, the daughter cells do not have the same number of chromosomes as the cell they originated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal cells make errors in chromosome segregation in 1% of cell divisions, whereas cells with CIN make these errors approximately 20% of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cell senses extra chromosomes, the cell can attempt to remove the extra chromosome in another cell membrane, separate from the other normal chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors painted a series of individual human chromosomes from a DNA library with two different fluorophores in different proportions to test the technique, and also applied CGH to genomic DNA from patients affected with either Downs syndrome or T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia as well as cells of a renal papillary carcinoma cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their formation results in the daughter cell lacking a part or all of a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Following fusion, nuclear divisions begin, and a break in a chromosome can have drastic effects on the viability of the embryo as development proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along the length of each chromosome for identification of chromosomal differences between the two sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • In the presence of OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. (hindawi.com)
  • A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. (hindawi.com)
  • nucleus
  • This results in parts of the chromatids or chromosomes being broken off and enveloped as an extra nucleus in one of the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Based on these lines, 88 markers specific for chromosome 2R were physically mapped to 13 different blocks of 2R with three in arm 2RS and 10 in arm 2RL. (springer.com)
  • In those organism the chromosome instead of remaining at specific position remain dispersed throughout the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A higher intensity of the test sample colour in a specific region of a chromosome indicates the gain of material of that region in the corresponding source sample, while a higher intensity of the reference sample colour indicates the loss of material in the test sample in that specific region. (wikipedia.org)