• Allele
  • In 2015, it was found that chromothripsis can also be curative: a woman who had WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome, an extremely rare autosomal dominant combined immunodeficiency disease, found her symptoms disappeared during her 30s after chromothripsis of chromosome 2 deleted the disease allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In Muntiacus muntjac (a small SE Asian deer), the number of chromosomes differs between species: the Chinese subspecies has a haploid number of 23 (like humans) but the Assam subspecies has only 3 pairs of chromosomes. (tripod.com)
  • Different species normally have different numbers of chromosomes from one another, and the terms aneuploid and polyploid refer to the chromosome number being different from the usual number for that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • To compare major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of human colon cancer cell lines derived from the same tumor fragment using two protocols, the two pairs of cell lines obtained from 2 of 32 tumor fragments were extensively studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, xenotransplantation in mice of tumor fragments before establishment of cell lines enables generation of more novel human cancer cell lines for investigation of colon cancer cell biology, opening up the opportunity of reproducing the diversity of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study was undertaken in an attempt to increase the success rate of cell line establishment by engrafting tumor fragments in immunocompromised mice before the in vitro culture step. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study is also the first to compare two pairs of novel colon carcinoma cell lines obtained either directly from two colon tumor fragments or after corresponding established xenograft. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is well known that chromosome abnormalities boost the tumor development. (hindawi.com)
  • segregation
  • Mendel's first principle, segregation , is the direct result of the separation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis. (tripod.com)
  • Past methods have been used to track the inheritance patterns of chromatids on a per-strand basis and elucidate the process of non-random segregation: Pulse-chase experiments have been used for determining the segregation patterns of chromosomes in addition to studying other time-dependent cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, most neocentromeres are still able to carry out the functions of normal centromeres in regulating chromosome segregation and inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, segregation of these chromosomes result in partial trisomy, and at other times, a partial tetrasomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence Homology
  • Rejoining of fragments require very minimal or even no sequence homology and consequently suggesting that nonhomologous or microhomologous repair mechanisms such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated break induced repair (MMBIR) dominate double stranded break repair and are involved in modelling the chromothriptic landscape, opposed to homologous recombination which requires sequence homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haploid
  • In C.elegans (a nematode), the sexes differ in their chromosome numbers: the male is haploid for the sex chromosome (X,O) and the female is diploid (X,X) resulting in a total of 11 diploid chromosomes in males and 12 in females. (tripod.com)
  • restriction
  • Examples of these types of markers include (1) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which reflect sequence variations in DNA sites that can be cleaved by DNA restriction enzymes, and (2) variable number of tandem repeat sequences, which are short repeated sequences that vary in the number of repeated units and, therefore, in length (a characteristic easily measured). (lsu.edu)
  • Circles are subsequently fully digested with a second restriction enzyme (such as EcoRI) to generate a large number of fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • One suggestion for overcoming these problems would be to combine the two methods, i.e. to construct a jumping library from DNA fragments digested partially with a commonly cutting restriction enzyme and completely with a rare cutting restriction enzyme and circularizing them into plasmids cleaved with both enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This filling-in reaction worked by destroying the specific cohesive ends (resulting from restriction digests) of the DNA fragments that were nonligated and noncircularized, thus preventing them from cloning into the vectors, in a more energy-efficient and accurate manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • halves
  • It is interesting that despite having identical sequences in two halves of the chromosome, the neocentromere is only formed once. (wikipedia.org)
  • instability
  • Taken together, these data indicate that HCV infection inhibits multiple DNA repair processes to potentiate chromosome instability in both monocytes and hepatocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some have attributed this statistic to the possible mitotic instability of ring chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytogenetic
  • At the time, cloning techniques allowed for generation of clones of limited size (up to 240kb), and cytogenetic techniques allowed for mapping such clones to a small region of a particular chromosome to a resolution of around 5-10Mb. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The original technique of chromosome jumping was developed in the laboratories of Collins and Weissman at Yale University in New Haven, U.S. and the laboratories of Poustka and Lehrach at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • Inversions and translocations are relatively easy to detect by an invalid pair of sequenced-end. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s and is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Resolution of structural variation detection by ESP has been increased to the similar level as PCR, and can be further improved by selection of more evenly sized DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used in genetics to describe a structural alteration of the chromosomes that is present in a child but not in either parent. (pwsausa.org)
  • strands
  • At this point the chromosomes are composed of nascent strands with BrdU in place of thymidine and the original template strands are primed for DNA sequencing library preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Basically, the target chromosome is randomly digested and inserted into plasmids which are transformed and cloned in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • To preserve the fragments with their individual DNA sequences, the fragments were added into a system of continually replicating bacteria populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal populations of bacteria, each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • probe
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • A target-specific probe, composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, hybridizes to the target RNA(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • The probe is then applied to the chromosome DNA and incubated for approximately 12 hours while hybridizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two solutions were suggested: either screening junction fragments with a given probe or adding a second size-selection step after the ligation to separate single circular clones (monomers) from clones ligated to each other (multimers). (wikipedia.org)