• genome
  • FISH is a screening test that uses multicolour probes or comparative genomic hybridization to find any chromosome irregularities in a genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • End-sequence profiling (ESP) (sometimes "Paired-end mapping (PEM)") is a method based on sequence-tagged connectors developed to facilitate de novo genome sequencing to identify high-resolution copy number and structural aberration such as inversion and translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following size-fractionation, the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which will be sequenced and compared to the reference genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences, including orientation and length variations between constructed chromosomes and the reference genome, will suggest copy number and structural aberration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before analyzing target genome structural aberration and copy number variation (CNV) with ESP, the target genome is usually amplified and conserved with artificial chromosome construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a translocation can be detected if the paired-ends are mapped onto different chromosomes on the reference genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of an insertion or a deletion, mapping of the paired-end is consistent with the reference genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a BAC has an insert of length (l), a concordant mapping will show a fragment of size (l) in the reference genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary goal of the Human Genome Project is to make a series of descriptive diagrams maps of each human chromosome at increasingly finer resolutions. (lsu.edu)
  • Probes are often derived from fragments of DNA that were isolated, purified, and amplified for use in the Human Genome Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the human genome is so large, compared to the length that could be sequenced directly, that it was necessary to divide the genome into fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome has about 3 billion base pairs. (eufic.org)
  • A decade after the initial observation of neocentromeres, 60 more cases of human neocentromeres from across the genome, not just chromosome 10, were documented by 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent investigations using genome-wide paired-end sequencing and SNP array analysis have found similar patterns of chromothripsis in various human cancers, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next step is to screen this library with a probe that represents a "starting point" of the desired "chromosome hop", i.e. determining the location of the genome that is being interrogated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial evidence that DNA could move among cell compartments came when fragments of chloroplast DNA were found in the maize mitochondrial genome with the help of cross-hybridization, between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, and physical mapping of homologous regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrations
  • Their data have suggested that exo- chromosome aberrations polysaccharides exhibits major hypoglycemic effect and alternations, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats even improve the medical activity of insulin . (medpdffinder.com)
  • species
  • In Muntiacus muntjac (a small SE Asian deer), the number of chromosomes differs between species: the Chinese subspecies has a haploid number of 23 (like humans) but the Assam subspecies has only 3 pairs of chromosomes. (tripod.com)
  • Different species normally have different numbers of chromosomes from one another, and the terms aneuploid and polyploid refer to the chromosome number being different from the usual number for that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • To compare major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of human colon cancer cell lines derived from the same tumor fragment using two protocols, the two pairs of cell lines obtained from 2 of 32 tumor fragments were extensively studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, xenotransplantation in mice of tumor fragments before establishment of cell lines enables generation of more novel human cancer cell lines for investigation of colon cancer cell biology, opening up the opportunity of reproducing the diversity of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study was undertaken in an attempt to increase the success rate of cell line establishment by engrafting tumor fragments in immunocompromised mice before the in vitro culture step. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study is also the first to compare two pairs of novel colon carcinoma cell lines obtained either directly from two colon tumor fragments or after corresponding established xenograft. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is well known that chromosome abnormalities boost the tumor development. (hindawi.com)
  • segregation
  • Mendel's first principle, segregation , is the direct result of the separation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis. (tripod.com)
  • Past methods have been used to track the inheritance patterns of chromatids on a per-strand basis and elucidate the process of non-random segregation: Pulse-chase experiments have been used for determining the segregation patterns of chromosomes in addition to studying other time-dependent cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, most neocentromeres are still able to carry out the functions of normal centromeres in regulating chromosome segregation and inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, segregation of these chromosomes result in partial trisomy, and at other times, a partial tetrasomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence Homology
  • Rejoining of fragments require very minimal or even no sequence homology and consequently suggesting that nonhomologous or microhomologous repair mechanisms such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated break induced repair (MMBIR) dominate double stranded break repair and are involved in modelling the chromothriptic landscape, opposed to homologous recombination which requires sequence homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haploid
  • In C.elegans (a nematode), the sexes differ in their chromosome numbers: the male is haploid for the sex chromosome (X,O) and the female is diploid (X,X) resulting in a total of 11 diploid chromosomes in males and 12 in females. (tripod.com)
  • In the strict sense, a chromosome complement having a number of chromosomes other than 46 (in humans) is considered heteroploid while an exact multiple of the haploid chromosome complement is considered euploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • Examples of these types of markers include (1) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which reflect sequence variations in DNA sites that can be cleaved by DNA restriction enzymes, and (2) variable number of tandem repeat sequences, which are short repeated sequences that vary in the number of repeated units and, therefore, in length (a characteristic easily measured). (lsu.edu)
  • Circles are subsequently fully digested with a second restriction enzyme (such as EcoRI) to generate a large number of fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • One suggestion for overcoming these problems would be to combine the two methods, i.e. to construct a jumping library from DNA fragments digested partially with a commonly cutting restriction enzyme and completely with a rare cutting restriction enzyme and circularizing them into plasmids cleaved with both enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This filling-in reaction worked by destroying the specific cohesive ends (resulting from restriction digests) of the DNA fragments that were nonligated and noncircularized, thus preventing them from cloning into the vectors, in a more energy-efficient and accurate manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • Although, the extended translocation of mtDNA fragments and their co-amplification with free mitochondrial DNA has been problematic in the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, in the study of population genetics, and phylogenetic analyses, scientists have used NUMTs as the genetic markers to figure out the relative rate of nuclear and mitochondrial mutation and recreating the evolutionary tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • halves
  • It is interesting that despite having identical sequences in two halves of the chromosome, the neocentromere is only formed once. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • A genetic test is the analysis of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), chromosomes, and proteins to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes (standard pictures of the chromosomes in a cell) for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision making. (encyclopedia.com)
  • instability
  • Taken together, these data indicate that HCV infection inhibits multiple DNA repair processes to potentiate chromosome instability in both monocytes and hepatocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some have attributed this statistic to the possible mitotic instability of ring chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytogenetic
  • At the time, cloning techniques allowed for generation of clones of limited size (up to 240kb), and cytogenetic techniques allowed for mapping such clones to a small region of a particular chromosome to a resolution of around 5-10Mb. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The original technique of chromosome jumping was developed in the laboratories of Collins and Weissman at Yale University in New Haven, U.S. and the laboratories of Poustka and Lehrach at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Gain and loss of chromosomes in the malignant cell population is considered a process of diversification that leads to survival of the fittest clones ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiplexing PCR primers are then ligated to the PCR amplicons with hexamer barcodes identifying which cell each fragment they are derived from. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, it breaks down unneeded DNA molecules or fragments that may be generated during genetic material in preparation for cell division, DNA repair, cell death, and other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggest that the rearrangements took place at a time that both parental copies of the chromosome were present and hence early on the development of the cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell with the correct number of chromosomes is called a euploid cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such a case, most chromosomes would separate normally (with one chromatid ending up in each cell), while others could fail to separate at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third daughter cell may end up with the 'missing' chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • each cell may possess an unpredictable complement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction of this chromosome into the once active cancer cell inhibited it from spreading and the cDNA responsible was taken from that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • At this point the chromosomes are composed of nascent strands with BrdU in place of thymidine and the original template strands are primed for DNA sequencing library preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Deletion of a number of pairs that is not evenly divisible by three will lead to a frameshift mutation, causing all of the codons occurring after the deletion to be read incorrectly during translation, producing a severely altered and potentially nonfunctional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • base
  • The DNA samples (which are 25-80 base pairs in length) are then placed on slides to be observed under microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • After mapping is completed, the next step is to determine the base sequence of each of the ordered DNA fragments. (lsu.edu)
  • These fragments are on the order of 100 thousand base-pairs, and are the basis for most FISH probes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the small genomes from bacteria have approximately 600,000 DNA base pairs (bps). (eufic.org)
  • For example, tremella-fuciformis (snow than treatment with amaryl in case of genetic changes fungus) is commonly used in Chinese sweet-cuisine and it is (DNA fragmentation, disappear of some base pairs and tasteless. (medpdffinder.com)
  • Variable mapping resolutions are obtainable by adjusting the amount of sequence overlap between probes, or the amount of known base pairs between probe sequences, as well as probe length. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Basically, the target chromosome is randomly digested and inserted into plasmids which are transformed and cloned in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • To preserve the fragments with their individual DNA sequences, the fragments were added into a system of continually replicating bacteria populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal populations of bacteria, each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • probe
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • A target-specific probe, composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, hybridizes to the target RNA(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • The probe is then applied to the chromosome DNA and incubated for approximately 12 hours while hybridizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two solutions were suggested: either screening junction fragments with a given probe or adding a second size-selection step after the ligation to separate single circular clones (monomers) from clones ligated to each other (multimers). (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • In living organisms, DNA does not usually exist as a single molecule, but instead as a pair of molecules that are held tightly together. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • It was developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s and is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive DNA sequences must be blocked by adding short fragments of DNA to the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • evenly
  • Resolution of structural variation detection by ESP has been increased to the similar level as PCR, and can be further improved by selection of more evenly sized DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)