• degradation
  • Contrary, inhibition of cathepsin S will lead to a delay in degradation of Ii and loading the antigen into MHC II as well as inappropriate presence of uncleaved Li-fragments in MHC II on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocampus
  • Because TNF α contributes to increased A β production from the A β precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/A β and TNF α during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. (hindawi.com)
  • lipids
  • In particular, exosomal molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, have been suggested as disease biomarkers or therapeutic targets in various diseases. (einj.org)
  • Among these, the secretion and uptake of molecular contents, including proteins, lipids, metabolites, and nucleic acids, from adjacent or remote cells is an efficient system that modulates cellular homeostasis and adaptation. (einj.org)
  • There is extensive evidence that cholesterol and membrane lipids play a key role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • proteolysis
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aβ is derived by proteolysis of larger transmembrane proteins, termed amyloid precursor proteins (APP). (jneurosci.org)
  • macrophages
  • Microglia are the primary immune cells of the Central Nervous System, similar to peripheral macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune cells, including macrophages and microglia, secrete cathepsin S in response to inflammatory mediators including lipopolysaccharides, proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • When microglia are activated they take on an amoeboid shape and they alter their gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in mRNA encoding the GluR2 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) was paralleled by elevated expression of the corresponding protein in IAD. (jove.com)
  • Cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated by feedback mechanisms: sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of genes that control the uptake, synthesis, and export of cholesterol. (rupress.org)
  • The combination of these approaches allows one to not only find new proteins and/or protein modifications in their expression thanks to its compatibility with mass spectrometry detection, but also a new insight into markers validation. (jove.com)
  • induce
  • OLE is able to induce autophagy, achieving a decrease of aggregated proteins and a reduction of cognitive impairment in vivo. (hindawi.com)
  • mediators
  • These mediators are important in the normal functions of microglia and their production is usually decreased once their task is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic neuroinflammation, microglia remain activated for an extended period during which the production of mediators is sustained longer than usual. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines play a potential role in neurodegeneration when microglia remain in a sustained activated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests a role for soluble alpha-amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) in pathomechanisms of Alzheimer disease (AD). (jove.com)
  • molecular
  • Basically, this technique is based on the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point in a first step, and secondly according to their molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). (jove.com)
  • isolation
  • However, several unresolved issues and challenges remain despite these promising results, including source variability before the isolation of exosomes from body fluids, the contamination of proteins during isolation, and methodological issues related to the purification of exosomes. (einj.org)
  • Complex
  • Cathepsin S cleaves the remaining fragment of Ii (IiP1) and leaves a small part of Ii known as CLIP which stays directly associated with the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Driven by the binding of RNA Binding Proteins (RBP), post-transcriptional regulation affects mRNA localization, stability and translation by forming a Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex with target mRNAs. (jove.com)
  • Identifying these unknown de novo mRNA targets from cellular extracts in the RNP complex is pivotal to understanding mechanisms and functions of the RBP and their resulting effect on protein output. (jove.com)
  • genetic
  • This review will describe the roles these vesicles play in neurodegenerative disease and their potential for diagnostics through the analysis of their protein and genetic cargo. (frontiersin.org)
  • receptors
  • The nociceptive activity results from cathepsin S functioning as a signaling molecule via activation of protease-activated receptors 2 and 4 members of the G-protein coupled receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • It was not until 1985 that interleukin 1 was discovered to consist of two distinct proteins, now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Acute neuroinflammation is generally caused by some neuronal injury after which microglia migrate to the injured site engulfing dead cells and debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglial cells are sources of some chemokines and express the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) chemokine in particular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proposed functions of these vesicles include roles in cell-cell signaling, removal of unwanted proteins, and the transfer of pathogens between cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Roles for these vesicles include cell-cell signaling, removal of unwanted proteins, and transfer of pathogens, such as prions, between cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies have detected insulin-degrading activity in the conditioned media of cultured cells, suggesting the permeability of the cell membrane and thus possible release of IDE from leaky cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Other inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may stimulate microglia to produce MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, CLU is an acute phase protein and therefore is a marker of an increased inflammatory response [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • disease
  • The cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is known for its crucial involvement, via its scrapie isoform PrP Sc , in the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man and scrapie in sheep and goats. (frontiersin.org)
  • In many research and disease models however, steady state levels of target gene mRNA does not always directly correlate with steady state protein levels. (jove.com)