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  • antigen bindi
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was determined that the two antigen binding sites of the antibody are located opposite the Fc fragment, the part of the antibody responsible for binding to receptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Using a library of malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified polypeptides covering the complete amino acid sequence of human apoB-100, we have recently identified a large number of epitopes recognized by antibodies present in human plasma. (ahajournals.org)
  • More particularly, the animal is administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector having an AAV capsid having packaged therein nucleic acid sequences comprising an AAV 5' inverted terminal repeat (ITR), a sequence encoding a polypeptide which specifically binds gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) under control of regulatory sequences which direct expression of the polypeptide, and an AAV 3' ITR. (patents.com)
  • The step involving recombinant DNA provides an intervention point that can be readily exploited to alter the protein sequence of the expressed antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the CDR segments, the portions of the Fab sequence that differ from those in humans can be corrected by exchanging the appropriate individual amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence corresponding to the antibody CDRs can then be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the precise sequence of the desired CDRs are known, a strategy can be devised for inserting these sequences appropriately into a construct containing the DNA for a human antibody variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGHA1 was first described in detail in 1975, when the primary structure (the amino acid sequence) of IgA was elucidated through the sequencing of tryptic and chymotryptic peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane is then exposed to a hybridization probe-a single DNA fragment with a specific sequence whose presence in the target DNA is to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization of the probe to a specific DNA fragment on the filter membrane indicates that this fragment contains DNA sequence that is complementary to the probe. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Another possibility is the creation of scFvs with linker peptides that are too short for the two variable regions to fold together (about five amino acids), forcing scFvs to dimerize. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • 1) sandwich 342 FFGVG-G2 ELISA, (2) competition NITEGE 373 ELISA (3) sandwich G1-NITEGE 373 ELISA (4) competition 374 ARGSV ELISA, and (5) sandwich 374 ARGSV-G2 ELISA all detecting aggrecan fragments, and (6) sandwich CTX-II ELISA, detecting C-telopeptides of type II collagen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • polyclonal
  • The molecular basis of such specificity has remained largely enigmatic, and biophysical analyses with X-ray crystallography and other detailed structural techniques are compromised by the limited availability of many antibodies or their existence only in polyclonal formats. (pnas.org)
  • Calsequestrin 1 antibody LS-C155368 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) from human, mouse and rat. (lsbio.com)
  • scaffold
  • Lately, amino acids outside of the binding surface have been substituted in the scaffold to create a surface entirely different from the ancestral protein A domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The native FN3 scaffold consists of 94 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 10 kDa, fifteen times smaller than an IgG type antibody and comparable to the size of a single variable domain of an antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • One of the IgG1 antibodies significantly and dose-dependently reduced the extent of atherosclerosis as well as the plaque content of oxidized LDL epitopes and macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study was initiated to develop and characterize new immunoassays for the quantitative detection of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments carrying neo-epitopes in the interglobular domain of aggrecan, and to compare these tests to the MMP-derived aggrecan profile obtained from ex vivo cultures of bovine articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different antibodies have the potential to discriminate among specific epitopes present on the antigen surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Alfred Nisonoff (1923-2001) was a 20th-century chemist who helped to experimentally determine the molecular structure of the antibody, and, as a result, made major contributions to the field of immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction endonucleases are used to cut high-molecular-weight DNA strands into smaller fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, it was found that this fragment is responsible for antigen interaction and agglutination and precipitation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principles of specificity and cross-reactivity of the antigen-antibody interaction are useful in clinical laboratory for diagnositic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-antibody interaction is used in laboratory techniques for serological test of blood compatibility and various pathogenic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody-antigen interaction is generally irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the binding sites, the opposite side of the beta-sandwich is connected by a series of loops, which define a hypervariable loop system, that may have a role in determining the specificity of an interaction between IgA and an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • There are limitations with using antibodies in sensors: 1.The antibody binding capacity is strongly dependent on assay conditions (e.g. pH and temperature) and 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent cloning studies showed that the mesothelin gene encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield mesothelin which is attached to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol linkage and a 31-kDa shed fragment named megakaryocyte-potentiating factor (MPF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • However the dissimilarity between murine and human immune systems led to the clinical failure of these antibodies, except in some specific circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report the biotechnological generation and biochemical characterization of an oligomer-specific antibody fragment, KW1. (pnas.org)
  • Conformation-specific antibodies recently emerged as potentially powerful tools in amyloid research. (pnas.org)
  • Outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies. (lsbio.com)
  • Type-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. (rupress.org)
  • When covalently linked to tetanus toxoid, S-M5(1-20), but not S-M5(20-40), evoked significant levels of type-specific, opsonic (and presumably protective) antibodies in rabbits without evoking heart cross-reactive antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • We therefore investigated the time-dependant release ex vivo of MMP- and aggrecanase-derived fragments of aggrecan and type II collagen into the supernatant of bovine cartilage explants cultures using neo-epitope specific immunoassays, and to associate the release of these fragments with the activity of proteolytic enzymes using inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, release of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments in explants cultures in the presence of protease-inhibitors have until now not been monitored by neo-epitope specific immunoassays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The furthest developed of these are bispecific tandem di-scFvs, known as bi-specific T-cell engagers (BiTE antibody constructs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The specificity of the binding is due to specific chemical constitution of each antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collision-induced dissociation is used in mainstream applications to generate a set of fragments from a specific peptide ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humanization can be necessary when the process of developing a specific antibody involves generation in a non-human immune system (such as that in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure the specificity of the binding of the probe to the sample DNA, most common hybridization methods use salmon or herring sperm DNA for blocking of the membrane surface and target DNA, deionized formamide, and detergents such as SDS to reduce non-specific binding of the probe. (wikipedia.org)
  • define
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycan arrays, like that offered by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics and Z Biotech LLC, contain carbohydrate compounds that can be screened with lectins or antibodies to define carbohydrate specificity and identify ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • While the type of biomolecule used can vary widely, biosensors can be classified according to common types bioreceptor interactions involving: anitbody/antigen, enzymes/ligands, nucleic acids/DNA, cellular structures/cells, or biomimetic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy can aid the immune system because the innate immune system responds to the environmental factors it encounters by discriminating against foreign cells from cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is not actually a fragment of an antibody, but instead is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fragments can often be purified or immobilized using protein L, since protein L interacts with the variable region of kappa light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgA shows the same typical structure of other antibody classes, with two heavy chains and two light chains, and four distinct domains: one variable region, and three variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to immune complex formation), limited penetration into tumour sites and inadequately recruit host effector functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • siRNA is also similar to miRNA, however, miRNAs are derived from shorter stemloop RNA products, typically silence genes by repression of translation, and have broader specificity of action, while siRNAs typically work by cleaving the mRNA before translation, and have 100% complementarity, thus very tight target specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Natural or bacterial cleavage of lacritin releases a C-terminal fragment that is bactericidal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysins are being used as antibacterial agents due to their high effectiveness and specificity in comparison with antibiotics, which are susceptible to bacterial resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that the main mechanism of evolution in phage lysins is the exchange of modular units, a process by which different catalytic and cell-binding domains have been swapped between lysins, which would have resulted in new combinations of both bacterial binding and catalytic specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Functionally, five types of lysin catalytic domain can be distinguished: Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase N-acetylmuramidase (lysozyme-like) Endopeptidase N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase γ-D-glutaminyl-L-lysine endopeptidase Peptidoglycan consists of cross-linked amino acids and sugars which form alternating amino sugars: N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbe
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • However, the direct method is far less practical than the indirect method, and is not commonly used in laboratories, since the primary antibodies must be covalently labeled, which require an abundant supply of purified antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hapten is covalently linked to the primary antibody by succinyl imidesters or conjugated IgG Fc-specific Fab sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Rabbit Anti-Human Androgen Receptor antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Rabbit Anti-Human Androgen Receptor. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moiety
  • More particularly, this invention is directed to a process for preparing labeled single-stranded nucleic acids by use of an alkylating agent containing a label moiety, where the word label is intended to include moieties which may be detected both directly and indirectly. (google.com)
  • digestion
  • As an alternative to the cloning bias associated with partial digestion, DNA fragments can be produced by randomly shearing the genome. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Then the chromatin is sheared by micrococcal nuclease digestion, which cuts DNA at the length of the linker, leaving nucleosomes intact and providing DNA fragments of one nucleosome (200bp) to five nucleosomes (1000bp) in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • They can generate TH and antibody responses, but not killer T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • a translocation domain that is capable of translocating the protease or protease fragment from within an endosome, across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol of the nociceptive sensory afferent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)