• neurons
  • To address these limitations, we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from multiple patients with FXS and the characterization of their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons and glia. (nih.gov)
  • They are also using brand-new stem cell technology to grow neurons from autistic patients' skin cells and examine their mechanics in a petri dish. (acs.org)
  • In Drosophila, bantam microRNA works in the epithelial cells where it regulates the growth of dendrites in sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a coculture design, we found that hippocampal neurons exhibited abnormal dendritic morphology and a decreased number of presynaptic and postsynaptic protein aggregates when they were grown on astrocytes from a fragile X mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, we found that normal astrocytes could prevent the development of abnormal dendrite morphology and preclude the reduction of presynaptic and postsynaptic protein clusters in neurons from a fragile X mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • Scientists
  • HEIDELBERG, 17 September 2013 - Scientists have succeeded in growing stem cells that have the ability to develop into two different types of cells that make up a healthy pancreas. (embo.org)
  • The research team led by Dr. Hans Clevers of the Hubrecht Institute, The Netherlands, have isolated and grown stem cells from the pancreases of mice using a 3-D culture system previously developed by the scientists. (embo.org)
  • HEIDELBERG, 19 July 2013 - Scientists have identified higher levels of a receptor protein found on the surface of human breast tumour cells that may serve as a new drug target for the treatment of breast cancer. (embo.org)
  • So the scientists turned to human embryonic stem cells. (fraxa.org)
  • In the last three years, a new technique for reprogramming adult cells has given scientists an easier and less controversial way to harness the power of embryonic-like stem cells to study human disease from its earliest beginnings in hopes of gleaning new insights into the root causes of disease and developing new therapies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Scientists hope a stem cell model of fragile X will help them study what goes wrong and test drugs that may help treat both abnormal conditions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Hundreds of genes have been tagged so far, and some scientists are now taking the next steps to identify what they do, what brain circuits they affect, and how the proteins they encode function. (acs.org)
  • The latter of these, scientists have shown, actually holds the neurotransmitter receptors in place in the neuron's cell membrane. (acs.org)
  • Scientists show how drug-laden nanoparticles can find and destroy cancer stem cells that hide in tissue for years before causing the cancer to return. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • epithelial cells
  • The researchers demonstrated that bacteria in the gut, particularly members of the genus Lactobacillus , promote the growth of host epithelial cells and that this is essential for maintaining homeostasis in the intestinal system. (embo.org)
  • This book is the first to summarize the current knowledge of the cell biology of lens epithelial cells in relation to and in the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). (stanford.edu)
  • Opacification of the posterior capsule appears to be linked to lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the eye during cataract removal. (stanford.edu)
  • The first section of the text explains the molecular mechanism and biology of lens epithelial cells that lead to the incidence of PCO. (stanford.edu)
  • RNAs
  • Stress granules are dense aggregations in the cytosol composed of proteins & RNAs that appear when the cell is under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts to identify all RNAs within stress granules (the stress granule transcriptome) in an unbiased way by sequencing RNA from biochemically purified stress granule "cores" have shown that mRNAs may be only generically associated with stress granules, since particular mRNAs are not comparatively enriched in stress granules compared to the cytosol and nearly all mRNAs in the cell can be found in stress granules to some extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • While researchers have known for more than two decades that the culprit behind Fragile X is an unusual mutation characterized by the excess repetition of a particular segment of the genetic code, they weren't sure why the presence of a large number of these repetitions - 200 or more - sets the disease process in motion. (fraxa.org)
  • Because the fragile X syndrome mutation is a repeat sequence, it is very easy for just a small portion of this sequence in the messenger RNA to find a matching repeat sequence on the DNA," Dr. Jaffrey says. (fraxa.org)
  • If a pregnant woman is told that her fetus carries the genetic mutation causing fragile X syndrome, we could potentially intervene and give the drug during gestation. (fraxa.org)
  • Affecting ∼1 of 2500 individuals (both male and female with the full mutation) ( Hagerman, 2008 ), FXS is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. (jneurosci.org)
  • mRNA
  • As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: Cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, Destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and Less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complementarity was proposed to inhibit the translation of the lin-14 mRNA into the LIN-14 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA molecules stored are stalled translation pre-initiation complexes: failed attempts to make protein from mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it was estimated that only about 10% of the total mRNA in the cell is localized to stress granules, suggesting that stress granules only influence a minority of mRNAs in the cell and may not be as important for mRNA processing as previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Indeed, lactoferrin exerts its biological effects by binding to specific lactoferrin receptors on target cells. (stanford.edu)
  • SHANK and Homer scaffolding proteins normally help organize the synapse and support a number of other macromolecules, including neurotransmitter receptors. (acs.org)
  • SHANK3 codes for a scaffolding protein located at the very tip of the postsynapse that helps anchor neurotransmitter receptors at the nerve cell surface. (acs.org)
  • Altered GABAergic transmission through Cl--permeable GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is known to contribute to learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome mouse models. (ommbidblog.com)
  • Molecular
  • The stress proteins that are the main component of stress granules in plant cells are molecular chaperones that sequester, protect, and possibly repair proteins that unfold during heat and other types of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the importance of the growth and structuring of the brain has long been recognized for disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation, there is consensus building that adult-onset mental disorders also have origins early in neurodevelopment. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the last three years a new technique for reprogramming adult cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this study, GABAAR signaling was found to be excitatory rather than inhibitory, and the reversal potential for GABAAR-driven Cl- currents (ECl) was shifted toward more positive potentials in the hippocampi of adult Down syndrome mice. (ommbidblog.com)
  • Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in postnatal and adult brains may play a major role in both normal brain functions, such as learning and memory, as well as the brain's response to injury and disease. (grantome.com)
  • Understanding NSCs and adult neurogenesis holds the key to therapeutic applications of not only NSCs but also many other types of stem cells. (grantome.com)
  • mice
  • Behavioral and stereological characterization of Hdc KO mice: relation to Tourette syndrome. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Parvalbumin-expressing ependymal cells in rostral lateral ventricle wall adhesions contribute to aging-related ventricle stenosis in mice. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • disorders
  • We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to expand our understanding of these origins, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is investing in studies of developmental neurobiology, choosing one of its strategies to be the support of "research to improve our basic understanding of the development, structure, and function of neural circuits, with a focus on those most relevant to mental disorders" ( NAMHC, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Indication, Collection, and Laboratory Processing of Cytologic Samples -- The Cellular and Acellular Components of the Urinary Sediment -- The Cytologic Makeup of the Urinary Sediment According to the Collection Technique -- Cytologic Manifestations of Benign Disorders Affecting Cells of the Lower Urinary Tract -- Tumors and Related Conditions of the Bladder and Lower Urinary Tract -- Urine-Based Assays Complementing Cytologic Examination in the Detection of Urothelial Neoplasm. (stanford.edu)
  • Our ultimate goal is to reveal mechanisms regulating NSCs and uncover new therapeutic targets for treating mental disorders. (grantome.com)
  • tissue
  • 4 Although the fundamental principle of stem cell research remains the same (ie, the development of undifferentiated cells into committed cell lineages for the purpose of tissue renewal and repair), the science has evolved to encompass many new applications, including cell-based therapies 5 and drug screening. (aappublications.org)
  • Both models strongly suggest that minocycline acts on the FXS disease state via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a class of zinc-dependent extracellular proteases important in tissue remodeling and cell-cell signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • miRNA
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other experiments show that a single miRNA species may repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression often is relatively mild (much less than 2-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurobiology
  • Announcer: Recently, Dr. Ricardo Dolmetsch, an associate professor of neurobiology at Stanford, spoke with National Institute of Mental Health Director Dr. Thomas Insel. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Biology
  • The study appears in The Journal of Cell Biology . (newswise.com)
  • About The Journal of Cell Biology The Journal of Cell Biology (JCB) is published by The Rockefeller University Press. (newswise.com)
  • Laboratory methods in cell biology : biochemistry and cell culture. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell biology spans among the widest diversity of methods in the biological sciences. (stanford.edu)
  • This new volume of Methods in Cell Biology covers laboratory methods in cell biology, and includes methods that are among the most important and elucidating in the discipline, such as transfection, cell enrichment and magnetic batch separation. (stanford.edu)
  • Covers the most important laboratory methods in cell biology Chapters written by experts in their fields. (stanford.edu)
  • Laboratory methods in cell biology : imaging. (stanford.edu)
  • commonly known
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Research reported in this press release was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health, Empire State Stem Cell Fund, Starr Tri-Institutional Stem Cell Initiative, and Neurogenomics. (newswise.com)
  • brains
  • A recent paper in Nature Medicine showed that Down syndrome brains have reduced expression of Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) and identified C/EBP beta as a transcription factor for SNX27. (ommbidblog.com)