• proteins
  • Specifically, polymorphisms in autosomal genes encoding recognition and signaling proteins (but not antimicrobial peptides) associate consistently with bacterial load phenotypes, suggesting that not all functional classes of immune-related genes harbor equally influential genetic variation. (genetics.org)
  • We determined the sequence of the differentially expressed proteins and further investigated the function of OmpA, whose expression was increased in a mutant with an insertionally inactivated tcdA gene. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the BMC shell is architecturally similar to many viral capsids, the shell proteins have not been found to have any structural or sequence homology to capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such mechanism is the production of surface proteins that facilitate adhesive interactions with host and bacterial ligands. (springer.com)
  • The Cas proteins showed helicase and nuclease motifs, suggesting a role in the dynamic structure of the CRISPR loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the toxin is always a protein, both proteins as well as RNA molecules have been found as antitoxins. (mdpi.com)
  • Polycomb proteins are epigenetic regulators that localize to developmental loci in the early embryo where they mediate lineage-specific gene repression. (harvard.edu)
  • A significant challenge in studying the soil microbial community proteome is the initial dissociation of bacterial proteins from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. (jove.com)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of these recombination events was known to be unique as they occurred in the absence of bacterial RecA and RecBCD proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cpf1 loci encode Cas1, Cas2 and Cas4 proteins more similar to types I and III than from type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Database searches suggest the abundance of Cpf1-family proteins in many bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is predicted to function as the lytic protein that facilitates release since TcdA and TcdB lack a signal peptide for secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the basic components promoting initiation, elongation, and termination of replication are well-conserved, some important differences can be found (such as one bacterium missing proteins essential in the other). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • the 16S ribosomal locus universally found in the bacterial genome. (beds.ac.uk)
  • She used modified patterns of gene expression on different sectors of leaves of her corn plants show that transposable elements ("controlling elements") hide in the genome, and their mobility allows them to alter the action of genes at different loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome sequencing and BLAST searches using N-terminal sequences, protein size, and key words identified the gene associated with each ABP. (springer.com)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • We use the infection of E. coli cells by bacteriophage lambda, whose DNA integrates at a unique site into the bacterial genome, when following the lysogenic pathway. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Life at the level of single cells is subject to unavoidable fluctuations in gene expression, and cells having the same genome may behave rather differently. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Carlsbad, Calif. - (September 8, 2014) - Gene editing - the modification of an organism's genome via a specific, targeted approach - is among the fastest growing applications for molecular biologists. (thermofisher.com)
  • The targeting function is supplied by a short guide RNA (gRNA) which forms a complex with the Cas9 nuclease and directs it to the intended genome locus to create a double-stranded break, allowing modification at the site. (thermofisher.com)
  • In support of the second possibility, two UBact loci were found in the genome of an uncultured anaerobic methanotrophic Archaeon (ANME-1;locus CBH38808.1 and locus CBH39258.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Four genes in the human genome code for ubiquitin: UBB, UBC, UBA52 and RPS27A. (wikipedia.org)
  • The locus was given the official name "SPCH1" (for speech-and-language-disorder-1) by the Human Genome Nomenclature committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic or mutational reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Complex polysaccharide degradation and utilization by bacteria is only achieved by the concerted action of various enzymes synthetized by species typically found in human gut and animal rumen. (iamexpat.nl)
  • These bacterial species contain physically linked genes (Polysaccharide Utilization Loci, PULs). (iamexpat.nl)
  • Population genetic analysis can be used to determine whether sequence polymorphism and divergence patterns among Drosophila genes in innate immune pathways are consistent with signatures of selection acting within and between species of flies. (genetics.org)
  • These interactions often result in enzymatic activity and/or intra- and inter-species signaling functions that help to maintain a relatively stable collection of bacterial species comprising the oral microbiome. (springer.com)
  • CRISPRs are part of the natural immune system of many bacterial species and have been found to function in a wide variety of cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Ubiquitin was named for its ubiquitous presence among eukaryotes, while UBact ('Ubiquitin bacterial') is very limited in occurrence among the vast number of bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • PafA, (ii) C-terminal sequence that ends exclusively with glutamine or glutamate across bacterial species, (iii) short size (similar to that of ubiquitin) and, (iv) high sequence conservation across tremendous evolutionary distance (a characteristic also in common with ubiquitin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hylomantis lemur is a species of frog in the family Hylidae that is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Panama. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, through recent analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences the species was biologically related to the Hylidae and thus removed from its previous group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cpf1 appears in many bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maps can be created to determine distances between genes and differentiation between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, and evidence exists that B. subtilis is a normal gut commensal in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These differences underline the diversity in the mechanisms and strategies that various bacterial species have adopted to carry out the duplication of their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous sRNAs have been identified using both computational analysis and laboratory-based techniques such as Northern blotting, microarrays and RNA-Seq in a number of bacterial species including Escherichia coli, the model pathogen Salmonella, the nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, marine cyanobacteria, Francisella tularensis (the causative agent of tularaemia), Streptococcus pyogenes, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Comparative genomics focusing on the abpA gene locus provides evidence of horizontal gene transfer. (springer.com)
  • We address this question in the case of horizontal gene transfer processes such as viral transduction and conjugation, which result in the rapid acquisition of new traits in bacteria. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • From evolutionary perspective, the finding of the UBact-proteasome system in gram-negtive bacteria suggests that either the Pup/UBact-proteasome systems evolved in bacteria prior to the split into gram positive and negative clades over 3000 million years ago or, that these systems were acquired by different bacterial lineages through horizontal gene transfer(s) from a third, yet unknown, organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin genes are often transferred through horizontal gene transfer and are associated with pathogenic bacteria, having been found on plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Other protein-based compartments found in bacteria and archaea include encapsulin nanocompartments and gas vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation-proteasome components neighboring the UBact and Pup loci in these Nitrospirae bacteria show weak similarity and are probably not entirely redundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Pup is predominantly found in the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria, UBact was identified only in gram-negative bacteria from the following five phyla: Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, Armatimonadetes, Nitrospinae, and Planctomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria from the phyla where UBact is found interact with humans, and are found in the human gut microbiota. (wikipedia.org)
  • In marine systems, the most frequently encountered nitrogen-oxidizing bacteria are related to the UBact encoding Nitrospina gracilis From the knowledge accumlated about the Pup-proteasome system and its importance in bactrial durability and disease causing ability, the homologous UBact-proteasome system is expected to have similar impact on the gram-negative bacteria where it is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acquired immune mechanism is found in Prevotella and Francisella bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • IBD-affected individuals have been found to have 30-50 percent reduced biodiversity of commensal bacteria, such as decreases in Firmicutes (namely Lachnospiraceae) and Bacteroidetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, a sub-network including NOD2, Il10 and CARD9 seems to indicate a close relationship between IBD and genes related with host interaction with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • The humoral response, resulting in the production of antimicrobial peptides in response to bacterial or fungal infection, relies mainly on Toll and imd signal transduction pathways, both of which are highly homologous to pathways in mammalian immunity (reviewed in K imbrell and B eutler 2001 ). (genetics.org)
  • A major addition to the understanding of CRISPR came with Jansen's observation that the prokaryote repeat cluster was accompanied by a set of homologous genes that make up CRISPR-associated systems or cas genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Ubiquitin Bacterial (UBact) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is homologus to Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms 'Ubiquitin Bacterial' and 'Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein' suggest a molecular similarity between ubiquitin and UBact/Pup which is largely absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in situ lysis of bacterial cells in soil can lead to potentially high levels of protein adsorption to soil particles. (jove.com)
  • Here, we investigated various amino acids for their ability to block soil protein adsorption sites prior to in situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. (jove.com)
  • Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms i.e. it occurs ubiquitously. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cre protein was purified in 1983 and was found to be a 35,000 Da protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FOXP2 protein contains a forkhead-box DNA-binding domain, making it a member of the FOX group of transcription factors, involved in regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two amino acid substitutions distinguish the human FOXP2 protein from that found in chimpanzees, but only one of these two changes is unique to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the team identified in CS that the mutation is in the middle of a protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of bioinformatics and RNA analyses, they discovered that the gene codes for a novel protein belonging to the forkhead-box (FOX) group of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • If, for example, the innate immune pathways are involved in an evolutionary "arms race" with pathogenic organisms, genes in these pathways would be expected to show signs of positive selection driven by evolutionary pressure to counter virulence mechanisms of invading microbes. (genetics.org)
  • This is an example of altruism and how bacterial colonies resemble multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has suggested that estrogen may serve to block the production of caspase-12, resulting in a stronger inflammatory reaction to bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • Such mutants mapped within LEE genes and in open reading frames (ORFs) not directly associated with adherence, which suggests that LEE genes are playing major roles in in vitro adhesion ( 37 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Several other genes in D. melanogaster have been linked as well to both processes, by showing that mutants at these specific loci cannot undergo DNA repair or crossing over. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • Figure 2 illustrates the differences between the UBact and Pup loci in the representative Nitrospirae bacterium Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiates
  • Tir is also a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that initiates its intimate adherence by inserting a hairpin orientation in the intestinal cell membrane to enable tight binding to intimin on the bacterial cell outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that a 44 kb region corresponding to the Zfpm2 locus initiates de novo recruitment of PRC2. (harvard.edu)
  • melanogaster
  • When signs of selection (as inferred from sequence comparisons within Drosophila simulans populations and between D. simulans and D. melanogaster ) in immune genes and nonimmune genes were evaluated, immune genes as a group were found to have higher K A / K S ratios than nonimmune genes, providing evidence for elevated adaptive evolution ( S chlenke and B egun 2003 ). (genetics.org)
  • plasmid
  • Of particular interest is the Ssr8013-Slr8014 system encoded on plasmid pSYSG, which is part of a larger defense island or the pSYSX system Slr6056-Slr6057, which is linked to a bacterial ubiquitin-like system. (mdpi.com)
  • innate
  • THE deep evolutionary conservation of many specific genes in innate immunity underscores the potent forces of natural selection maintaining this vital function. (genetics.org)
  • alleles
  • In 2012, 163 IBD susceptibility loci were confirmed, which means that 163 alleles that can increase the susceptibility to the disease have been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Although the presence of multiple loci complicates the analysis of IFNg gene expression, it may also offer a mode of immune modulation not found among mammals. (jimmunol.org)
  • sRNAs
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play fundamental roles in the response of bacterial cells to environmental cues. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • It is now known that most bacterial sRNAs are encoded by free-standing genes located in the intergenic regions (IGR) between two known genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these initial discoveries, over six thousand bacterial sRNAs have been identified, largely through RNA-sequencing experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial sRNAs have a wide variety of regulatory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternately, sRNAs may interact with mRNA targets and regulate gene expression by binding to complementary mRNA and blocking transcription, or by unmasking or blocking the ribosome-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cis-acting sRNAs act as riboswitches, which have receptors for specific environmental or metabolic signals and activate or repress genes based on these signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, trans-encoded sRNAs interact with genes on separate loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst the targets of sRNAs are a number of house-keeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to five genotypes per fish were found, and sequence variations included microsatellites within introns and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exons. (jimmunol.org)
  • coli
  • The finding that intimin-negative strains are still associated with bloody diarrhea or hemolytic-uremic syndrome ( 5 ) led several research groups to seek additional adherence factors expressed by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. (asm.org)
  • The RpoS gene in E. coli encodes sigma 38, a sigma factor which regulates stress response and acts as a transcriptional regulator for many genes involved in cell adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Disruption of the ompA gene in the tdcA mutant strain abolished the hyperadherent phenotype, and anti-OmpA serum inhibited adhesion of wild-type and tdcA mutant strains to HeLa cells. (asm.org)
  • isolation
  • Automated AST systems are currently available within the clinical diagnostics market [ 12 ], and the technology used by these platforms require bacterial isolation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • mutations
  • Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma - including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. (oncolink.org)
  • Further screening of the gene identified multiple additional cases of FOXP2 disruption, including different point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, providing evidence that damage to one copy of this gene is sufficient to derail speech and language development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the gene are the cause of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria linked to the cblB complementation group. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMAB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Discovery of novel aquatic bacterial enzymes targeting host polysaccharides is the first step to develop new commercial enzyme cocktails for designs of efficient enzymatic pretreatment strategies functionalizing economically appealing biomass as food ingredients. (iamexpat.nl)
  • Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. (springer.com)
  • enzyme
  • The CRISPR/Cpf1 system consist of a Cpf1 enzyme and a guide RNA that finds and positions the complex at the correct spot on the double helix to cleave target DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production and used on an industrial scale by biotechnology companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes an enzyme (cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase) that catalyzes the final step in the conversion of vitamin B12 into adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), a vitamin B12-containing coenzyme for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Unlike some recombinase enzymes such as Flp recombinase, Cre does not form a shared active site between separate subunits and all the residues that contribute to the active site are found on a single subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • To shed light on the mechanisms by which lambda DNA finds its unique integration site, we follow in real time individual lambda DNAs and their integration site within live cells using fluorescent markers, until lysogeny is established, revealing the dynamics of the search process. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • virulence
  • Shortly after, the Staphylococcus aureus sRNA RNAIII was found to act as a global regulator of S. aureus virulence and toxin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • The differential extraction of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. (jove.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, this evidence suggests that it is a question of whether cross over is linked to DNA repair or bacterial transformation, as the two do not appear to be mutually exclusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that crossing over may have evolved from bacterial transformation, which in turn developed from DNA repair, thus explaining the links between all three processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • AST analysis with ETGA is shown to be equivalent to AST analysis using gene-specific qPCR assays against the measured microbe. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Her hypothesis led to a popularised existence of "grammar gene" and a controversial notion of grammar-specific disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Further analyses of the UBact (and not Pup) locus in Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum revealed its existence and extreme conservation across several gram-negative bacterial phyla, as illustrated in figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which are known collectively as nonmelanoma skin cancer, are two of the most common malignancies in the United States and are often caused by sun exposure, although several hereditary syndromes and genes are also associated with an increased risk of developing these cancers. (oncolink.org)
  • FOXP2 and its gene were discovered as a result of investigations on an English family known as the KE family, half of whom (fifteen individuals across three generations) suffered from a speech and language disorder called developmental verbal dyspraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • A 2009 study compared the density of spores found in soil (about 106 spores per gram) to that found in human feces (about 104 spores per gram). (wikipedia.org)
  • vast
  • A vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. (wikipedia.org)