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  • Serum
  • It was found that when a strain was introduced into serum/blood from a subject who was already infected with the alternate one, bactericidal activity was detected in whole blood assay against the opposite strain, while serum blood assay failed to. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1888, George Nuttall found that sheep blood serum had mild killing activity against the bacterium that causes anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors, which we now call "antibodies," were called by Ehrlich "amboceptors" to emphasise their bifunctional binding capacity: They recognise and bind to a specific antigen, but they also recognise and bind to the heat-labile antimicrobial component of fresh serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Similarly, adhesion molecule ICAM3, normally recognized by macrophage integrins, is after alteration bound by macrophage CD14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another molecule, CD300a binds the externalized phospholipids and prevents the phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important function of MBL is that this molecule binds senescent and apoptotic cells and enhances engulfment of whole, intact apoptotic cells, as well as cell debris by phagocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The sugar chains are usually terminated with sialic acid which then binds various molecules and receptors and efficiently prevents the cell from phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first lectin to be purified on a large scale and available on a commercial basis was concanavalin A, which is now the most-used lectin for characterization and purification of sugar-containing molecules and cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • They were found to have higher levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines - which speed up the body's natural ability to break down the viral cells and stop their activity within the body. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • The B cell waits for the TH cell to bind to the complex and this binding will activate TH cell and it releases cytokines that induce B cells to divide rapidly which make thousands of identical clones of B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • The enzyme uses a mannose derivative as a substrate, inserting three carbons from pyruvate into the resulting sialic acid structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid-rich glycoproteins (sialoglycoproteins) bind selectin in humans and other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • ricin
  • Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A which promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrent
  • University of Liverpool researchers found that lower mannose-binding lectin levels were associated with a higher risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections . (realnatural.org)
  • Mannose-binding Lectin deficiency - These individuals are prone to recurrent infections, including infections of the upper respiratory tract and other body systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the clinical significance of MBL-Deficiency is debated Infants and young children with mannose-binding lectin deficiency seem to be more susceptible to infections, but adults can also develop recurrent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic cells
  • These patterns include eat-me signals on the apoptotic cells, loss of don't-eat-me signals on viable cells and come-get-me signals (also find-me signals)) secreted by the apoptotic cells in order to attract phagocytes (mostly macrophages and immature dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytes are attracted to the site with apoptotic cells by so-called come-get-me or find-me signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoproteins
  • Normally they can be found as components of oligosaccharide chains of mucins, glycoproteins and glycolipids occupying terminal, nonreducing positions of complex carbohydrates on both external and internal membrane areas where they are very exposed and develop important functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the glycolipids and glycoproteins on an individual's red blood cells can be identified by lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoconjugates
  • These modifications along with linkages have shown to be tissue specific and developmentally regulated expressions, so some of them are only found on certain types of glycoconjugates in specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, we modeled the basal level fluid-phase activation of lectin pathway proteases and their subsequent inactivation by C1 inhibitor and antithrombin using available and newly determined kinetic constants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glycobiology
  • Raval et al, "A database analysis of jacalin-like lectins: sequence-structure-function relationships" Glycobiology vol. 14 no. 12 pp. 1247-1263, 2004 http://glycob.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/12/1247.full.pdf Jeyaprakash AA, Geetha Rani P, Banuprakash Reddy G, Banumathi S, Betzel C, Sekar K, Surolia A, Vijayan M (August 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • As investigators have found over the past decade of research on not just viruses, but many other infectious diseases, part of immunosuppression comes in the form of a lack of production of mannose-binding lectins. (realnatural.org)
  • Fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans as well as some viruses such as HIV-1 and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are bound by MBL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The researchers suggest that such an inhibitor of HIV infection may find use as a topical treatment, such as a vaginal microbicide, and may be cheaper to produce than current antiviral topical treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • An Italian review of five studies found that mutations of the MBL2 gene - which can predispose a person to reduced MBL levels - was associated with a greater risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis - Candida infections of the vagina. (realnatural.org)
  • They found infections of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more evident among low MBL patients. (realnatural.org)
  • But other infections - especially those related to bacterial infections - are not necessarily connected with mannose-binding lectin levels. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • surface
  • The C4b fragments can then bind to the surface of the bacterium, and initiate the formation of a C3-convertase. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • They may bind to a soluble carbohydrate or to a carbohydrate moiety that is a part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several plant lectins have been found to recognize non-carbohydrate ligands that are primarily hydrophobic in nature, including adenine, auxins, cytokinin, and indole acetic acid, as well as water-soluble porphyrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • This binding occurs independently of C3b, which is additional to the standard model wherein properdin binds to preexisting clusters of C3b on targets and stabilizes the convertase C3bBb. (jimmunol.org)
  • defect
  • The most common subtype is CDG-Ia (also referred to as PMM2-CDG) where the genetic defect leads to the loss of phosphomannomutase 2, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into mannose-1-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Affinity chromatography can be used to purify and concentrate a substance from a mixture into a buffering solution, reduce the amount of unwanted substances in a mixture, identify the biological compounds binding to a particular substance, purify and concentrate an enzyme solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The B cell waits for the TH cell to bind to the complex and this binding will activate TH cell and it releases cytokines that induce B cells to divide rapidly which make thousands of identical clones of B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • An example of this situation is when trying to find an enzyme with a particular activity, where it can be possible to build an affinity column with an attached ligand that is similar or identical to the substrate of choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Inasmuch as the V domains can occur in a nearly unlimited variety of amino acid sequences, immunoglobulins collectively have the potential of binding to virtually any molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • It consists of fifteen repeats homologous to the 157-residue CD-M6PR domain, two of which are responsible for binding to M6P. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promotor region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most research on the TATA box has been conducted on yeast, human, and Drosophila genomes, however, similar elements have been found in archaea and ancient eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologues of CD-MPR are found in all eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Accumulation of viscous, poorly dispersed, and less transportable mucus leading to improper mucus rheology and dysfunctional mucociliary clearance are typically found to associate with many respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). (jove.com)
  • known
  • Although they were first discovered more than 100 years ago in plants, now lectins are known to be present throughout nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A which promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The large concentration of lectins in plant seeds decreases with growth, and suggests a role in plant germination and perhaps in the seed's survival itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • target
  • Target biomolecules have a much higher affinity for the stationary phase, and remain bound to the stationary phase, not being washed away by wash buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elution buffer disrupts interactions between the bound target biomolecules with the stationary to a much greater extent than the wash buffer, effectively removing the target biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent steric interference or overlap during the binding process of the target molecule to the ligand, an inhibitor containing a hydrocarbon chain is first attached to the agarose bead (solid support). (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The selectivity of lectins means that they are very useful for analyzing blood type, and they are also used in some genetically engineered crops to transfer traits, such as resistance to pests and resistance to herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • When there is an absence of the TATA box and TBP is not present, the downstream promoter element (DPE) in cooperation with the initiator element (Inr) bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • diet
  • Some foods such as beans and grains need to be cooked or fermented to reduce lectin content, but the lectins consumed in a typical balanced diet are not harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans. (wikipedia.org)