• liver
  • In human liver the formation of bile acid-CoA thioesters is localized both to the microsomal fraction catalysed by an ATP-dependent synthetase and to the peroxisomal fraction catalysed by the thiolase in the last step of the beta-oxidative cleavage of the 5beta-cholestanoyl side chain. (hmdb.ca)
  • The compartmentalization of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity presents a possible explanation of earlier findings that premalignant liver tissue was able to respond with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, but not inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate formation after agonist stimulation. (oup.com)
  • 6. Total liver DHAPAT activity was significantly decreased by starvation (48 h), but was unaffected by administration of anti-insulin serum. (biochemj.org)
  • Using radioactive sphinganine, we have examined the site and topology of dihydroceramide synthesis in well-characterized subcellular fractions from rat liver. (biochemj.org)
  • The remainder of the administered dose was found throughout the rat, with it being found primarily in the digestive tract lumen and the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, one study done in rats found the greatest effect of BPF to be liver toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • littermates, display an " activated" phenotype in vitro and in vivo and have an elevated level of cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prior, in vitro studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in AO induced toxicity causing peroxidative damage of lipids in various hepatic sub-cellular fractions including microsomes and mitochondria of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell-free system is an in vitro tool widely used to study biological reactions that happen within cells apart from a full cell system, thus reducing the complex interactions typically found when working in a whole cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the full chlorophyllase and the cleaved, mature chlorophyllase, however, experienced similar levels of activity in an in vitro assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • It was found out that Al-AT activities under impairment of feeding regime depend on several factors including morphofunctional peculiarities of the brain structure, terms of protein-free feeding, studied cellular substrates and animal age. (ac.ir)
  • Our data are consistent with an increased role for PDE3 in regulating cAMP-dependent signaling in cp / cp VSMCs and identify PDE3 as a cellular activity potentially responsible for the phenotype of cp / cp VSMCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The method is based on the separation of cellular fractions via density gradients consisting of organic, non-aqueous solvents. (frontiersin.org)
  • p97/CDC48 is a member of the AAA+ (extended family of ATPases associated with various cellular activities) ATPase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these proteins serve as adaptors that link p97/CDC48 to a particular subcellular compartment to function in a specific cellular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcellular fractions can be isolated by ultracentrifugation to provide molecular machinery that can be used in reactions in the absence of many of the other cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of PAK1 activity is accompanied by a series of cellular processes that are fundamental to living systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the biochemical level, these activities are regulated by the ability of PAK1 to phosphorylate its effector interacting substrates, which in-turn set-up a cascade of biochemical events cumulating into a cellular phenotypic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetylcholine
  • Whittaker's work demonstrating acetylcholine in vesicle fractions from guinea-pig brain was first published in abstract form in 1960 and then in more detail in 1963 and 1964, and the paper of the de Robertis group demonstrating an enrichment of bound acetylcholine in synaptic vesicle fractions from rat brain appeared in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • It has been shown that elevation of NPEPPS activity in vivo could effectively block accumulation of hyperphosphorylated TAU protein and thus slow down the disease progression, suggesting increasing NPEPPS activity may be a feasible therapeutic approach to eliminate accumulation of toxic substrates, which are involved in neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteomic
  • This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Interestingly, the distinction between these two compounds disappeared in vivo, where their cancer chemopreventive efficacies were found to be very similar to each other[ in both methylnitrosourea and dimethylbenz( a )anthracene rat mammary tumor models]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A literature review of in vivo studies of BPF found that four out of five studies yielded results that BPF is estrogenic, androgenic and thyroidogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetase
  • Freshly isolated hPT cells had relatively high activities of γ-glutamyltransferase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione S -transferase (GST), glutathione disulfide reductase, and GSH peroxidase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • rats
  • In pregnant rats, the BPF was also found in the uterus, placenta, amniotic fluid and fetuses, indicating that BPF is able to be absorbed into the reproductive tract and pass through the placental barrier in pregnant rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • This was shortly after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction was found to induce postsynaptic miniature end-plate potentials that were ascribed to the release of discrete packages of neurotransmitter (quanta) from the presynaptic nerve terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • The calculation algorithm performs correlation of marker enzyme activity and metabolite abundance accounting for technical errors, reproducibility and the resulting error propagation. (frontiersin.org)
  • protein
  • The two ATPase domains of p97 (D1 and D2) are not equivalent because the D2 domain displays higher ATPase activity than the D1 domain in wild-type protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This data suggests that the mature protein comes in contact with its substrate more readily because of the N-terminal sequence and some natural regulation occurs that directly affects enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • citation needed] By repeatedly evaluating their course, and adjusting if they are moving in the wrong direction, bacteria can direct their motion to find favorable locations with high concentrations of attractants (usually food) and avoid repellents (usually poisons). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The virus proteins, reverse transcriptase (RT) and p30, were found to increase with time in the subcellular fractions of lymphocytic tissue from either the thymus or spleen of AKR mice with spontaneous lymphocytic leukaemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The conversion of phosphatidate occurs through the action of phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP) enzymatic activity, which is conferred by the lipin family of proteins (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • For example, p97 mutant proteins carrying single point mutations found in patients with IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia) (see below) have 2-3fold increase in ATPase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • 2000 ) and found that these cells contained CYP2B1/2, 3 CYP2C11, CYP2E1, CYP4A2/3, and GSTα but not CYP3A1/2, GSTμ, or GSTπ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 7. The specific activities of GPAT and DHAPAT were lower in non-parenchymal cells compared with parenchymal cells, but the GPAT/DHAPAT ratio was 5-6-fold higher in the parenchymal cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Although compartmentation is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, biological research is frequently limited by methods allowing for the comprehensive subcellular resolution of the metabolome. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, another study found BPF to be genotoxic when introduced to Hep G2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMAT1 may be found in neuroendocrine cells, particularly chromaffin and enterochromaffin granules which are largely found in the medulla of the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, the revolution of modern cell biology and biochemistry provided a series of novel techniques that became available to investigate the migratory responder cells and subcellular fractions responsible for chemotactic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Two different genes encoding PDE3 activity have been identified, PDE3A and PDE3B , and each is expressed in rat and human VSMCs ( 20 , 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2. GPAT activity in mitochondria differed from the microsomal activity in that it was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, had a higher affinity towards the palmitoyl-CoA substrate and showed a different response to changes in hormonal and dietary status. (biochemj.org)
  • However it was subsequently found that it shares little sequence similarity with the other opioid receptors, and has quite different function. (wikipedia.org)
  • various second messengers in different combinations can act on the C1 domain to direct subcellular translocation of PKCε. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • One day, the enzyme activity of purified cell fractions which had been refrigerated for five days was measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • It became clear that this enzyme from the cell fraction came from a membranous fractions, which were definitely cell organelles, and in 1955 De Duve named them "lysosomes" to reflect their digestive properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel prize winner Eduard Buchner was arguably the first to present a cell-free system using yeast extracts, but since then alternative sources have been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Adenyl cyclase has been shown to be of highest specific activity in brain tissue (Sutherland et al . (springer.com)
  • Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brain, and are also found in the spinal cord and digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • Using a direct phase microscope, he examined the urine specimens of several patients with urinary tract infections and found atypical bacteria in his samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • That study has been widely credited as the first definitive finding of an opioid receptor, although two other studies followed shortly after. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Finally, we conclude that subcellular metabolome analysis is essential to unambiguously unravel regulatory strategies being involved in plant-environment interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • availability
  • Argemone seeds find use as a substitute because of the easy availability, low cost and their complete miscibility of their oil with mustard oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the mRNA expression of p97 was found to be moderately elevated in certain types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)