• organs
  • BOSTON) - Toward the ultimate goal of engineering human tissues and organs that can mimic native function for use in drug screening, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, a Wyss Institute team led by Core Faculty member Jennifer Lewis, Sc.D., has made another foundational advance using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. (harvard.edu)
  • As a fabrication platform, the approach is flexible, scalable, and adaptable, meaning that in addition to working towards larger, scaled-up kidney constructs, the team also plans to explore development of other types of complex functional human tissues and organs. (harvard.edu)
  • The kidneys are complex and critical organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How do animal cells assemble into tissues and organs? (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The defining feature of metazoa is that their cells are organized into multicellular tissues and organs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many epithelial organs make use of interconnected tubular networks, although the basic design principles (as defined by Rafelski and Marshall 8 ) are the same: a series of tubes terminates in a spherical ending or cap, which is referred to as an acinus, end bud, alveolus or cyst in different tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is emerging as a technology which has the potential to confront the crisis in transplantation caused by the shortage of donor tissues and organs. (ebscohost.com)
  • this involves excretion (getting rid of metabolic nitrogen wastes and other substances such as hormones that would be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the blood) through organs such as the skin and the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The evidence of cellular change of mouse stem cells in response to a rat scaffold is a promising step toward establishment of a xenogenic scaffold source for engineered kidneys. (ufl.edu)
  • The data show that our model could reproduce ischemically induced cell swelling and characterized the response at the cellular level of tubules to different components of preservation solutions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and is caused by an imbalance in the expression of certain genes that activate or inhibit vital cellular functions of kidney. (mdpi.com)
  • Agonal resorption of the proximal tubular contents after interruption of circulation in the capillaries surrounding the tubule often leads to disturbance of the cellular morphology of the proximal tubule cells, including the ejection of cell nuclei into the tubule lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Mice that are deficient in claudin-2 have reduced reabsorption of Na+ in the proximal tubule, consistent with a role in paracellular transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes and triglyceride deposition correlated with increased profibrotic factors were found in the kidney in diabetes in rats ( 4 ) and mice ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • kidney's
  • Using fugitive ink, a convoluted hollow channel is fabricated to mimic the winding shape of natural proximal tubules found inside a human kidney's nephrons. (harvard.edu)
  • Co-first authors of the study Kimberly Homan, Ph.D., a Wyss Research Associate, and David Kolesky, Ph.D., a Wyss Postdoctoral Fellow, stress that the most exciting aspect of the work is that - far beyond mimicking the form of the kidney's proximal tubule - it is a credible in vitro model that functions like living kidney tissue, representing a significant advance from traditional 2D cell culture. (harvard.edu)
  • Type IV renal tubular acidosis (aldosterone resistance of the kidney's tubules) Gordon's syndrome (pseudohypoaldosteronism type II) ("familial hypertension with hyperkalemia"), a rare genetic disorder caused by defective modulators of salt transporters, including the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • The alpha-ketoglutarate generated in this process is then further broken down to form two bicarbonate anions, which are pumped out of the basolateral portion of the tubule cell by co-transport with sodium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic kidney disease, hyperkalemia occurs as a result of reduced aldosterone responsiveness and reduced sodium and watery deliveries in distal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • In vertebrates, tight junctions (TJs) are found at the apical-most portion of the lateral surfaces, where the TJs form barriers both between the apical and basolateral surfaces and between adjacent cells, limiting paracellular permeability 7 ( FIG. 1a ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • functional
  • The current work further expands our bioprinting platform to create functional human tissue architectures with both technological and clinical relevance," said Lewis, who is also the Hansj√∂rg Wyss Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. (harvard.edu)
  • In this video, see how the Wyss Institute team has advanced bioprinting to the point of being able to fabricate a functional subunit of a kidney, as reported in a new study published in Scientific Reports. (harvard.edu)
  • The use of functional tissue-like models during pre-clinical studies will provide unprecedented insights into human-relevant drug response prior to clinical development," said Moisan, a Laboratory Head in Mechanistic Safety at Roche and author of this study. (harvard.edu)
  • Human proximal tubule cells adhere to the hollow channel, forming a functional, 3D renal architecture. (harvard.edu)
  • Populations of highly proliferative, multipotent cells of renal origin show the ability to engraft in injured kidneys, mitigate functional loss and occasionally show the ability to generate nephrons de novo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • diabetic
  • In this study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used to generate up- and down-regulated subtracted cDNA libraries in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. (mdpi.com)
  • The down- and up-regulated cDNA libraries differentially expressed in the kidney of STZ diabetic rats have been successfully constructed and some identified genes could be highly important in DN. (mdpi.com)
  • subunit
  • Therefore, the bioprinted 3D renal architecture recapitulates a very small - yet critical - subunit of a whole kidney. (harvard.edu)
  • While thus far we have merely demonstrated a functioning subunit within the kidney, we are actively scaling up the method and its complexity to enable future in vivo applications. (harvard.edu)
  • structures
  • A diverse array of tissue structures and shapes can be formed by organizing groups of cells into different polarized arrangements and by coordinating their polarity in space and time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We discuss how conserved polarity complexes, signalling networks, transcription factors, membrane-trafficking pathways, mechanisms for forming lumens in tubes and other hollow structures, and transitions between different types of polarity, such as between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, are used in similar and iterative manners to build all tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • occurs
  • Renal tubular acidosis (proximal type) (Fanconi syndrome) occurs when the PTECs are unable to properly reabsorb glomerular filtrate so that there is increased loss of bicarbonate, glucose, amino acids, and phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ-specific
  • Members of the claudin protein family, such as CLDN2, are expressed in an organ-specific manner and regulate the tissue-specific physiologic properties of tight junctions (Sakaguchi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • This work builds upon their demonstrated ability to bioprint tissue constructs composed of multiple types of living cells patterned alongside a vascular network in an extracellular matrix. (harvard.edu)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Increases in serum and urinary GST-A1 have been found in association with hepatocyte and renal proximal tubular necrosis respectively and have potential for monitoring injury to these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1895 Thomas Morgan removed one of a frog's two blastomeres and found that amphibians are able to form whole embryos from the remaining part. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole
  • Examining the ability of these cells to proliferate and differentiate in a whole kidney extracellular matrix scaffold would serve as a valuable baseline for future studies in producing a functioning organ. (ufl.edu)
  • Decellularization of whole rat kidneys was achieved by perfusion of detergent-based solutions through the renal artery. (ufl.edu)
  • Our novel analysis forms the basis of future whole-organ studies that ultimately may allow us to propose an optimum platform for improved preservation solutions. (ebscohost.com)
  • In relation to the morphology of the kidney as a whole, the convoluted segments of the proximal tubules are confined entirely to the renal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Physicians taking a medical history may focus on kidney disease, medication use (e.g. potassium-sparing diuretics), which are common causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The alpha class genes, located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6, are the most abundantly expressed glutathione S-transferases in liver (hepatocytes) and kidney (proximal tubules). (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the source of the increased net ROS production, and the site of electron leakage is located proximal to coenzyme Q at the electron transfer flavoprotein that shuttles electrons from acyl-CoA dehydrogenases to coenzyme Q. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • time
  • Even with considerable redundancy built in, the slow deterioration of renal tissue over time can lead to life threatening complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue damage at the time of organ transplantation has a negative impact on the subsequent success of the procedure, both in the immediate and longer term. (ebscohost.com)