• DHAP
  • The enzyme first uses Asp71 to specifically abstract the pro-S hydrogen from the C-3 of DHAP to form an ene-diol(ate)-enzyme intermediate, unlike the abstraction of C-3 pro-R hydrogen in TIM by Glu165. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • The cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • processes
  • Both animals and plants temporarily store the released energy in the form of high energy molecules, such as ATP, for use in various cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Nonenzymatic protein glycation is an endogenous process in which reducing sugars react with amino groups in proteins through a series of Maillard reactions forming reversible Schiff base and Amadori compounds, producing a heterogeneous class of molecules, collectively termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA (a form of acetate) is produced which enters the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • G3P is generally considered the prime end-product of photosynthesis and it can be used as an immediate food nutrient, combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, such as glucose, which can be transported to other cells, or packaged for storage as insoluble polysaccharides such as starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also present in the form of refined sugars including granulated sugars (white crystalline table sugar, brown sugar, confectioner's sugar, and turbinado sugar), refined crystalline fructose and as high fructose corn syrups. (wikipedia.org)
  • byproduct
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • It is convenient to think of this reaction as marking the "starting point" of the cycle, as this is when fuel - acetyl-CoA - is added to the cycle, which will be dissipated as CO2 and H2O with the release of a substantial quantity of energy captured in the form of ATP, during the course of each turn of the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are extracellular aggregation of amyloid β peptides and, the presence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by precipitation/aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. (hindawi.com)
  • triglycerides
  • The glycerol backbone is found in all lipids known as triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triglycerides are esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • It had previously been believed that the proteins of tissues are stable once formed, disappearing only with the death of the cell. (britannica.com)
  • citrate
  • Below is a schematic outline of the cycle: The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • At high glucose levels, glycolysis takes place rapidly, thus increasing the amount of citrate produced from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • TPI plays an important role in glycolysis and is essential for efficient energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some glycerol is burned for energy, but its heat value is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy released captured in the form of 11 ATP and one GTP per acetyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Dihydroxyacetone /ˌdaɪhaɪˌdrɒksiˈæsɪtoʊn/ ( listen), or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple saccharide (a triose) with formula C 3H 6O 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • product
  • When deprotonated, the enediolate then collapses and, abstracting a proton from protonated glutamate 165, forms the GAP product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed. (wikipedia.org)