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  • ingest
  • When an ameba is divided artificially, the portion containing the nucleus forms a new cell membrane and continues as a whole animal, while the other portion lives only as long as its present food supply lasts, ultimately dying, since it cannot ingest food or reproduce. (encyclopedia.com)
  • testate
  • Free-living amoebae may be "testate" (enclosed within a hard shell), or "naked" (a.k.a. gymnamoebae, lacking any hard covering). (wikipedia.org)
  • The shells of testate amoebae may be composed of various substances, including calcium, silica, chitin, or agglutinations of found materials like small grains of sand and the frustules of diatoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelomyxa
  • However, studies of the fine structure and physiology of the amoeba made it increasingly clear that there were profound differences between it and the other Pelomyxa (including the complete absence, in true Pelomyxa, of mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multinucleate amoebae like Chaos and Pelomyxa (the so-called "giant amoebae") may be several millimetres in length, and some multicellular amoebozoa, such as the "dog vomit" slime mold Fuligo septica, can cover an area of several square meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • moves
  • It is interesting to know how an amoeba moves itself because the process is completely different from normal locomotion process of other living beings. (biologywise.com)
  • pseudopods
  • The appearance and internal structure of pseudopods are used to distinguish groups of amoebae from one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most amoebozoans are "naked," like the familiar Amoeba and Chaos, or covered with a loose coat of minute scales, like Cochliopodium and Korotnevella, members of the order Arcellinida form rigid shells, or tests, equipped with a single aperture through which the pseudopods emerge. (wikipedia.org)
  • vacuole
  • Symbiosis with the mitochondial ancestor evolved after phagotrophy as alphaproteobacterial prey developed post-ingestion defence mechanisms to circumvent digestion in the food vacuole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • eukaryotic
  • Regardless of this, a hardly debatable fundamental novel characteristic of the last eukaryotic common ancestor was the ability to exploit prokaryotic biomass by the ingestion of entire cells, i.e. phagocytosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Digestion
  • The stages of phagocytosis include the engulfment of a food particle, the digestion of the particle using enzymes contained within a lysosome, and the expulsion of undigested materials from the cell. (lumenlearning.com)
  • diatoms
  • Amebas can distinguish food (e.g., algae, diatoms, bacteria, and other protozoans) from other material and use different tactics in approaching different food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • microorganisms
  • In 1848, in light of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, the anatomist and zoologist C.T. von Siebold proposed that the bodies of microorganisms such as ciliates and amoebae were made up of single cells, similar to those from which the multicellular tissues of plants and animals were constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestive
  • In paramecium, the entrance of food into the cell and the excretion of digestive waste products occur in specialized regions of the plasma membrane, called the cytostome and the cytopyge. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • aquatic
  • Amebas live in freshwater, the oceans, and in the upper layers of the soil, and many have adapted to a parasitic life on the body surface of aquatic animals or in the internal organs of both aquatic and terrestrial animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • known
  • The interchange of these two states, i.e. from plasmasol to plasmagel is known as Sol-Gel theory, which is responsible for movement of amoeba. (biologywise.com)
  • Sexual phenomena have not been observed in Amoeba, although sexual exchange of genetic material is known to occur in other Amoebozoan groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • testate
  • Free-living amoebae may be "testate" (enclosed within a hard shell), or "naked" (a.k.a. gymnamoebae, lacking any hard covering). (wikipedia.org)
  • The shells of testate amoebae may be composed of various substances, including calcium, silica, chitin, or agglutinations of found materials like small grains of sand and the frustules of diatoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • ciliates
  • Ciliates also engage in phagocytosis. (blogspot.com)
  • In ciliates there is a specialized groove or chamber in the cell where phagocytosis takes place, called the cytostome or mouth. (blogspot.com)
  • In 1848, in light of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, the anatomist and zoologist C.T. von Siebold proposed that the bodies of microorganisms such as ciliates and amoebae were made up of single cells, similar to those from which the multicellular tissues of plants and animals were constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt water) species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 m (5.5 mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans . (wikipedia.org)
  • When conditions deteriorate, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules , "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve and then either form completely new sponges or recolonize the skeletons of their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demosponges constitute about 90% of all known sponge species, including all freshwater ones, and have the widest range of habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free-living species are common in both salt and freshwater, as well as soil, moss and leaf litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] When food is scarce, most species can form cysts, which may be carried aerially and introduce them to new environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest and best known species, the so-called "giant amoeba" Chaos carolinense, can reach lengths of 5 mm, although most specimens fall between 1 and 3 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Furthermore, this effector function is particularly important in light of the documented ability of antibodies to enhance infection by providing pathogens access into host cells via Fc receptor-driven phagocytosis 7 . (jove.com)
  • Written by a team of prominent scientists under the expert editorship of Joerg Graf, the topics covered include taxonomy, fish pathogens, infections in humans, beneficial associations, antigen structures, virulence mechanisms, molecular diagnostics and Aeromonas in food and water. (caister.com)
  • Opsonins such as C3b and antibodies can act as attachment sites and aid phagocytosis of pathogens. (blogspot.com)
  • digestive
  • In paramecium, the entrance of food into the cell and the excretion of digestive waste products occur in specialized regions of the plasma membrane, called the cytostome and the cytopyge. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • marine
  • Arthropods are common throughout marine, freshwater, terrestrial, and even aerial environments, as well as including various symbiotic and parasitic forms. (msnucleus.org)
  • immune
  • Phagocytosis in mammalian immune cells is activated by attachment to Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), which leads to NF-κB activation. (blogspot.com)
  • Although
  • Sexual phenomena have not been observed in Amoeba, although sexual exchange of genetic material is known to occur in other Amoebozoan groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies
  • Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. (wikipedia.org)