• normal vaginal
  • This infection is caused when certain types of normal vaginal bacteria grow out of control and cause inflammation. (chkd.org)
  • In summary, although the hydrogen peroxide production of lactobacilli has been considered as an important antimicrobial component, contributing to the colonization resistance provided by lactobacilli, and although there seems to be a link between H2O2-producing lactobacilli and normal vaginal microflora, recent data do not support this role for H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactobacilli
  • Diagnosis is based on the absence of lactobacilli, the presence of numerous "clue cells" (cells from the vaginal lining that are coated with BV organisms), a fishy odour, and/or decreased acidity or change in pH of vaginal fluid. (scarleteen.com)
  • Since the first description of lactobacilli by Döderlein, lactobacilli have been generally considered as the gatekeepers of the vaginal ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, lactobacilli normally help to prevent long-term colonization of the vagina by adhering to vaginal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • O'Hanlon and Baeten found that 96% of Lactobacillus species from a healthy vaginal ecosystem produced H2O2 (L. jensenii and L. vaginalis produce the highest levels of H2O2), whereas only 6% of the lactobacilli recovered from women with BV produced H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only supraphysiologic concentrations of exogenous H2O2 (0.34% w/v, 100 mM) were sufficient to inactivate BV-associated bacteria at which concentration it more potently inactivated vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners and L. jensenii). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, under optimal anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated the BV-associated pathogens without affecting the vaginal lactobacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal lactobacilli produce antimicrobial peptides, i.e. bacteriocins such as lactocin 160 and crispasin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the predominance of lactobacilli in the vaginal canal creates a more acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • flora
  • Douching can increase the risk of acquiring BV, but the root cause of this disruption in the balance of the vaginal flora is not fully understood, and it is not clear exactly what role sexual activity may have as BV can occur in women who are not sexually active . (scarleteen.com)
  • One of the main risks for developing BV is douching, which alters the vaginal flora and predisposes women to developing BV. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • PID, also called salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes), endometritis (inflammation of the inside lining of the body of the uterus), or pelvicperitonitis (inflammation inside of the abdominal cavity surrounding the female reproductive organs), is the most common and most serious consequence of infection with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women. (faqs.org)
  • Infection and inflammation likely explains why membranes break earlier than they are supposed to. (wikipedia.org)
  • condoms
  • Use of male condoms or female condoms may help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis, although careful studies have never been done that focus on how to prevent this infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced abortion, use of an IUD, non-use of barrier contraceptives such as condoms, and frequent douching are all associated with a higher risk of developing PID. (faqs.org)
  • Safe sex practices, such as with the use of male or female condoms, can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • Less commonly, women are infected during a vaginal delivery, an abortion, or a medical procedure, such as dilation and curettage (D and C) or gynecologic surgery-when bacteria are introduced into the vagina or when bacteria that normally reside in the vagina are moved into the uterus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The sac (consisting of 2 membranes, the chorion and amnion) contains amniotic fluid, which surrounds and protects the fetus in the uterus (womb). (wikipedia.org)
  • After rupture, the amniotic fluid leaks out of the uterus, through the vagina. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrent
  • What's more, 5 to 8 percent of women experience recurrent or chronic yeast infections , and come down with four or more yeast infections in a single year. (everydayhealth.com)
  • This special Pull Out and Save feature, "Common Gynecological Infections in Women with HIV," identifies the signs and symptoms of these infections, describes how they are diagnosed and treated, offers alternative therapies, alerts care providers to potential problems that can occur when these treatments are administered, and suggests ways that providers and patients can work together to reduce the likelihood of recurrent infections. (thebody.com)
  • Some common triggers which can lead to the development of yeast infections include: poor diet, elevated stress, a chronic yeast overgrowth, use of the birth control pill, any change in vaginal ph (if the body becomes too alkaline or too acidic), and most commonly, the recurrent use of antibiotics . (lunapads.com)
  • thrush
  • But if you have a compromised immune system, such as from HIV or from persistent steroid use, thrush can lead to life-threatening systemic infections. (everydayhealth.com)
  • complications
  • What Complications Are Related to Yeast Infections? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • If rupture occurs before 37 weeks, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and the fetus and mother are at greater risk for complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who suspect they might have experienced premature rupture of membranes should be evaluated promptly in the hospital to determine whether a rupture of membranes has indeed occurred, and to be treated appropriately to avoid infection and other complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus, such as L. crispatus, and the lactic acid they produce is thought to protect against infection by pathogenic species. (wikipedia.org)