• pregnancy
  • pre-ejaculate fluid can cause pregnancy, modern research has shown that pre-ejaculate fluid does not contain viable sperm. (mcgill.ca)
  • In pregnancy, higher levels of estrogen make a woman more likely to develop a yeast infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal infections occur more commonly during pregnancy, in those with weak immune systems, and following antibiotic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical presentation of ectopic pregnancy occurs at a mean of 7.2 weeks after the last normal menstrual period, with a range of 4 to 8 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all forms of birth control can generally be used by young people, long-acting reversible birth control such as implants, IUDs, or vaginal rings are more successful in reducing rates of teenage pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Premature rupture of membranes (PROM), or pre-labor rupture of membranes, is a condition that can occur in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low levels of fluid around the fetus also increase the risk of umbilical cord compression and can interfere with lung and body formation in early pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppository
  • pessary (a vaginal suppository) made of various acidic substances (crocodile dung is alleged) and lubricated with honey or oil, which may have been somewhat effective at killing sperm. (mcgill.ca)
  • lactobacilli
  • Since the first description of lactobacilli by Döderlein, lactobacilli have been generally considered as the gatekeepers of the vaginal ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, lactobacilli normally help to prevent long-term colonization of the vagina by adhering to vaginal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • O'Hanlon and Baeten found that 96% of Lactobacillus species from a healthy vaginal ecosystem produced H2O2 (L. jensenii and L. vaginalis produce the highest levels of H2O2), whereas only 6% of the lactobacilli recovered from women with BV produced H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only supraphysiologic concentrations of exogenous H2O2 (0.34% w/v, 100 mM) were sufficient to inactivate BV-associated bacteria at which concentration it more potently inactivated vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners and L. jensenii). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, under optimal anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated the BV-associated pathogens without affecting the vaginal lactobacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, although the hydrogen peroxide production of lactobacilli has been considered as an important antimicrobial component, contributing to the colonization resistance provided by lactobacilli, and although there seems to be a link between H2O2-producing lactobacilli and normal vaginal microflora, recent data do not support this role for H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal lactobacilli produce antimicrobial peptides, i.e. bacteriocins such as lactocin 160 and crispasin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the predominance of lactobacilli in the vaginal canal creates a more acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • candidal
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus, such as L. crispatus, and the lactic acid they produce is thought to protect against infection by pathogenic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • This can help to reduce your risk of experiencing any complications caused by the infection, or from experiencing a recurrence. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • If rupture occurs before 37 weeks, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and the fetus and mother are at greater risk for complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who suspect they might have experienced premature rupture of membranes should be evaluated promptly in the hospital to determine whether a rupture of membranes has indeed occurred, and to be treated appropriately to avoid infection and other complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • condoms
  • Use of male condoms or female condoms may help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis, although careful studies have never been done that focus on how to prevent this infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced abortion, use of an IUD , non-use of barrier contraceptives such as condoms, and frequent douching are all associated with a higher risk of developing PID. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Safe sex practices, such as with the use of male or female condoms, can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • thrush
  • In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouth wash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. (wikipedia.org)