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  • vulva
  • The signs of vulvovaginal inflammation include erythema (redness) of the vagina and vulva, vaginal fissuring (cracked skin), edema (swelling from a build-up of fluid), also in severe cases, satellite lesions (sores in the surrounding area). (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • pre-ejaculate fluid can cause pregnancy, modern research has shown that pre-ejaculate fluid does not contain viable sperm. (mcgill.ca)
  • In pregnancy, higher levels of estrogen make a woman more likely to develop a yeast infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • If pregnancy does not occur, the endometrium is shed causing the menstrual period. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaginal infections occur more commonly during pregnancy, in those with weak immune systems, and following antibiotic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical presentation of ectopic pregnancy occurs at a mean of 7.2 weeks after the last normal menstrual period, with a range of 4 to 8 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all forms of birth control can generally be used by young people, long-acting reversible birth control such as implants, IUDs, or vaginal rings are more successful in reducing rates of teenage pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Premature rupture of membranes (PROM), or pre-labor rupture of membranes, is a condition that can occur in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low levels of fluid around the fetus also increase the risk of umbilical cord compression and can interfere with lung and body formation in early pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactobacilli
  • Since the first description of lactobacilli by Döderlein, lactobacilli have been generally considered as the gatekeepers of the vaginal ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, lactobacilli normally help to prevent long-term colonization of the vagina by adhering to vaginal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • O'Hanlon and Baeten found that 96% of Lactobacillus species from a healthy vaginal ecosystem produced H2O2 (L. jensenii and L. vaginalis produce the highest levels of H2O2), whereas only 6% of the lactobacilli recovered from women with BV produced H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only supraphysiologic concentrations of exogenous H2O2 (0.34% w/v, 100 mM) were sufficient to inactivate BV-associated bacteria at which concentration it more potently inactivated vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners and L. jensenii). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, under optimal anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated the BV-associated pathogens without affecting the vaginal lactobacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, although the hydrogen peroxide production of lactobacilli has been considered as an important antimicrobial component, contributing to the colonization resistance provided by lactobacilli, and although there seems to be a link between H2O2-producing lactobacilli and normal vaginal microflora, recent data do not support this role for H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal lactobacilli produce antimicrobial peptides, i.e. bacteriocins such as lactocin 160 and crispasin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the predominance of lactobacilli in the vaginal canal creates a more acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • candidal
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus, such as L. crispatus, and the lactic acid they produce is thought to protect against infection by pathogenic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • tampons
  • Your doctor or nurse may tell you to not douche or use tampons for several weeks after cryotherapy. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Douching, overused or retained tampons, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, and products containing nonoxynol-9 may also disrupt the balance. (healthcommunities.com)
  • sprays
  • Chemicals in vaginal sprays, douches, or spermicidal products can cause it. (chkd.org)
  • Other factors that may increase the incidence of VVC include the use of douches, perfumed feminine hygiene sprays, topical antimicrobial agents, and tight, poorly ventilated clothing and underwear. (diagnose-me.com)
  • exam
  • Exam of vaginal fluid. (chkd.org)
  • Prepared with the knowledge of what actually occurs during an annual exam, females often find that it can be a straightforward and rewarding experience. (ucsb.edu)
  • Menstrual fluid can interfere with the exam as well as lab tests. (ucsb.edu)
  • It is best to be seen by a woman's health provider, get an exam to diagnose the cause and have treatment specific to the exact cause of the infection. (healthtap.com)
  • Cannot tell you without an exam, could also be a herpes infection or a vaginal dystrophy, there are many conditions that could cause burning in someone your age , you need to see your gyn. (healthtap.com)
  • A vaginal wet mount test, or vaginal smear, is a gynecological exam. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • complications
  • If rupture occurs before 37 weeks, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and the fetus and mother are at greater risk for complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who suspect they might have experienced premature rupture of membranes should be evaluated promptly in the hospital to determine whether a rupture of membranes has indeed occurred, and to be treated appropriately to avoid infection and other complications. (wikipedia.org)