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  • compounds
  • The abundance of flavonoids coupled with their low toxicity relative to other plant compounds means they can be ingested in large quantities by animals, including humans. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into: flavonoids or bioflavonoids isoflavonoids, derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure neoflavonoids, derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structure The three flavonoid classes above are all ketone-containing compounds, and as such, are anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms flavonoid and bioflavonoid have also been more loosely used to describe non-ketone polyhydroxy polyphenol compounds which are more specifically termed flavanoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 4,000 different flavonoid compounds found in foods, many of which have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and brain-protecting properties. (newsmax.com)
  • Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring, bioactive compounds found in many plant-based foods and drinks. (redorbit.com)
  • Flavonoids have been regarded as nutritionally good compounds. (medindia.net)
  • This can be combined with malonyl-CoA to yield the true backbone of flavonoids, a group of compounds called chalcones, which contain two phenyl rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • flavanone
  • Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.88) is an enzyme with systematic name flavanone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction flavanone + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + 2 O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + 2 NADP+ + 2 H2O (overall reaction) (1a) flavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O (1b) 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase is a heme-thiolate protein (P-450). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • root nodule
  • Rhizobia living in soil are able to sense the flavonoids and this triggers the secretion of Nod factors, which in turn are recognized by the host plant and can lead to root hair deformation and several cellular responses such as ion fluxes and the formation of a root nodule. (wikipedia.org)
  • vegetables
  • Flavonoids secreted by a plant's roots aid the symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and certain vegetables such as peas, clover and beans. (news-medical.net)
  • Because flavonoids provide the colour in many foods, to get the best dose you should seek out those fruit and vegetables with the brightest, deepest colours - which means choosing red grapes over white. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • naturally
  • Over 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been characterized from various plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavonoids exist naturally in cocoa, but because they can be bitter, they are often removed from chocolate, even dark chocolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavonoids are naturally occurring constituents of plants that have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer medicines. (google.com)
  • consumption
  • Some types of tea are also rich in flavonoids and their consumption is thought to lower levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. (news-medical.net)
  • Published today in the journal Neurology ®, the findings add to the growing body of evidence that regular consumption of some flavonoids can have a marked effect on human health. (redorbit.com)
  • These exciting findings provide further confirmation that regular consumption of flavonoids can have potential health benefits," said Prof Cassidy. (redorbit.com)
  • humans
  • This latest study is the first study in humans to show that flavonoids can protect neurons against diseases of the brain such as Parkinson's. (redorbit.com)
  • chemical
  • In higher order plants, flavonoids are also required for UV filtration, nitrogen fixation, cell cycle inhibition, and as chemical messengers. (news-medical.net)
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • onions
  • For example, onions will lose about one-quarter to one-third of their original flavonoid content over six months, with most of the loss occurring in the first two weeks. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • found
  • Oranges, however are an exception to the rule because the flavonoids contained in this fruit are mainly found in the white and pulp interior of the skin. (news-medical.net)
  • Natural
  • Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flavonoid alkaloid also known as a flavoalkaloid is a type of natural product produced by plants that contains both a flavonoid core structure and a nitrogen containing substituent so that the substance is also classified as an alkaloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • symbiotic
  • Flavonoids secreted by the root of their host plant help Rhizobia in the infection stage of their symbiotic relationship with legumes like peas, beans, clover, and soy. (wikipedia.org)
  • grapes
  • Flavonoids are all over the news at the moment, boasting how you can slim down by only eating a few grapes and how some fruit and veg is better than the rest . (nzherald.co.nz)
  • group
  • The exception is the 5-hydroxyl group of the flavonoid ring which generally does not undergo glucuronidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavanols (with an "a") are not to be confused with flavonols (with an "o"), a class of flavonoids containing a ketone group. (wikipedia.org)
  • foods
  • They can also be can be lost through contact with water - in some cases, up to 80 per cent of some flavonoids can be lost into cooking water during the boiling of foods. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Men who eat flavonoid-rich foods such as berries, tea, apples and red wine significantly reduce their risk of developing Parkinson's disease, according to new research by Harvard University and the University of East Anglia (UEA). (redorbit.com)