• metabolites
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) uses the same hardware, measuring the abundance of metabolites in the myocardium in vivo non-invasively without the use of radiation or external tracers. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the key metabolites involved in the control of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, during the elevated metabolic demands of exercise, in subject groups which were separated by distinct differences in their training status or by their exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia. (ubc.ca)
  • Since repeated measures of the key metabolites involved in energy metabolism (PCr, Pi, ATP) and intracellular pH (pHm) would be exceedingly difficult using the conventional muscle needle biopsy technique, ³¹P NMR was selected as an appropriate, noninvasive method for measuring these metabolites. (ubc.ca)
  • fMRS is based on the same principles as in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, while conventional MRS records a single spectrum of metabolites from a region of interest, a key interest of fMRS is to detect multiple spectra and study metabolite concentration dynamics during brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as dynamic MRS, event-related MRS or time-resolved MRS. A novel variant of fMRS is functional diffusion-weighted spectroscopy (fDWS) which measures diffusion properties of brain metabolites upon brain activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • High field strengths have the advantage of increased SNR as well as improved spectral resolution allowing to detect more metabolites and more detailed metabolite dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRS can be used to determine the relative concentrations and physical properties of a variety of biochemicals frequently referred to as "metabolites" due to their role in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types of biochemicals (metabolites) which can be studied include choline-containing compounds (which are used to make cell membranes), creatine (a chemical involved in energy metabolism), inositol and glucose (both sugars), N-acetylaspartate, and alanine and lactate which are elevated in some tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolites of Glutamate Metabolism Are Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Events in the PREDIMED PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Trial. (nih.gov)
  • nuclei
  • Like in vivo MRS, fMRS can probe different nuclei, such as hydrogen (1H) and carbon (13C). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like more common forms of MRI, sodium MRI relies on the use of a powerful magnetic field to induce alignment of nuclei with magnetic spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, 23Na MRI is complicated by the low concentrations of Na nuclei in biological tissues (10-15 mM) as compared to concentration of H2O molecules, and the lower gyromagnetic ratio of the 23Na nucleus as compared to a 1H nucleus (26% of the 1H nucleus gyromagnetic ratio), causing low NMR sensitivity and requiring a stronger magnetic field for higher resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain atomic nuclei are able to absorb and emit radio frequency energy when placed in an external magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Because standard radiolabeled or fluorescently-labeled pharmaceuticals are not well suited for long-term in vivo follow-up of carbon nanotubes, alternative methods are required. (dovepress.com)
  • rats
  • In a recent study reported in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 4, 2014), 7.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease rats, the N-acetylaspartate wave crest was reduced, and the creatine and choline wave crest was elevated. (medindia.net)
  • Here we analyse the influence of nicotine as well as that of the non competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate)] upon brain metabolism in anaesthetized rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • static magnetic field
  • But more importantly, the loud acoustic noise induced by TMS (increased compared with standard use because of the resonance of the scanner bore) and the increased TMS coil vibrations (caused by the strong mechanical forces due to the static magnetic field of the MR scanner) constitute a crucial problem when studying auditory processing. (jove.com)
  • glucose
  • Copper is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • The second phase of the thesis aims to characterize the detectability of the choline metabolite in canine lymph nodes ex vivo, and compare choline ii levels (via choline signal-to-noise ratio or Cho SNR) among populations of normal, reactive, and malignant lymph nodes. (illinois.edu)
  • Our hypothesis was that choline would be detectable in canine lymph nodes ex vivo, and that the Cho SNR in malignant lymph nodes would be significantly higher than in normal and reactive lymph nodes. (illinois.edu)
  • Malignant tumors in particular alter their metabolism drastically, often to account for hypoxic intratumor conditions, leading to an decrease in cytosolic pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • Association between a genetic variant related to glutamic acid metabolism and coronary heart disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • applications
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) hold promise for applications as contrast agents and target delivery carriers in the field of nanomedicine. (dovepress.com)
  • Typical applications of NIR spectroscopy include the analysis of food products, pharmaceuticals, combustion products, and a major branch of astronomical spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some of the early successes of molecular engineering have come in the fields of immunotherapy, synthetic biology, and printable electronics (see molecular engineering applications). (wikipedia.org)
  • NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • localize
  • The major components of an MRI scanner are: the main magnet, which polarizes the sample, the shim coils for correcting shifts in the homogeneity of the main magnetic field, the gradient system which is used to localize the MR signal and the RF system, which excites the sample and detects the resulting NMR signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • As energy is crucial for both systole and diastole, derangements in energy metabolism may be the first step in failure of the heart. (bmj.com)
  • 1 By using the gyromagnetic properties of 1 H, 31 P, 13 C, and 23 Na, MRS is a powerful tool to relate energy metabolism to (dys)function of the heart. (bmj.com)
  • The main goals of fMRS studies are to contribute to the understanding of energy metabolism in the brain, and to test and improve data acquisition and quantification techniques to ensure and enhance validity and reliability of fMRS studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often gives rise to fundamentally new materials and systems, which are required to address outstanding needs in numerous fields, from energy to healthcare to electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There it releases the oxygen to permit aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the functions of the organism in the process called metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Unlike in vivo MRS which is intensively used in clinical settings, fMRS is used primarily as a research tool, both in a clinical context, for example, to study metabolite dynamics in patients suffering from epilepsy, migraine and dyslexia, and to study healthy brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-voxel spectroscopy usually is performed when the specific volume of interest is not known or it is important to study metabolite dynamics in a larger brain region. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been used to study the metabolism of other organs such as muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a collaborative study, we have also been exploring appropriate use of computational screening together with NMR and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) to find small molecules that can bind to AAA ATPase p97/VCP. (ucsf.edu)
  • Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform a study, the person is positioned within an MRI scanner that forms a strong magnetic field around the area to be imaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy is based on molecular overtone and combination vibrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of electrically-conductive properties in polyacetylene by Alan J. Heeger in 1977 effectively opened the field of organic electronics, which has proved foundational for many molecular engineering efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • High
  • To balance the need for temporal resolution and sufficient SNR, fMRS requires a high magnetic field strength (1.5 T and above). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (≥ 7.0T) exhibits high spatial resolution and density resolution, microscopic imaging of the living body, and obtains both high scanning resolution and result precision within a shorter scan time, thus providing a higher value in clinical diagnosis. (medindia.net)
  • In the future, the arrival of ultra-high-field MR systems (7 T) and the ability to perform magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the abdomen promise even greater diagnostic insight into chronic liver disease. (springer.com)
  • High field (14.1T) 1HMRS was performed on each lymph node. (illinois.edu)
  • Due to conflicting findings, larger longitudinal ¹H MRS studies are expected to further explore glutamatergic neurotransmission in ACC of FEP in order to have a better understanding of the glutamatergic mechanisms underlying psychosis, possibly using ultra high field MR scanners. (cambridge.org)
  • Recent advances in cell surface and intracellular marker identification and single-cell analyses led to greater resolution and high-throughput ex-vivo quantification. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNP can be performed at operating temperatures of 1.1-1.2 K, and high magnetic fields (~4T). (wikipedia.org)
  • strengths
  • Lower field strengths can be achieved with permanent magnets, which are often used in "open" MRI scanners for claustrophobic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). (illinois.edu)
  • brain
  • The 1H nucleus is the most sensitive and is most commonly used to measure metabolite concentrations and concentration dynamics, whereas 13C is best suited for characterizing fluxes and pathways of brain metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike push-pull cannula, microdialysis and in vivo voltammetry, fMRS is a non-invasive method for studying dynamics of biochemistry in an activated brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, we selected twin studies, which focus on the relationship between BD, genetic factors and brain structure, evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. (cambridge.org)
  • Research
  • Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields. (omicsonline.org)
  • analysis
  • Further analysis is required in order to determine if TKA with tourniquet alters metabolism 2 weeks post-surgery. (wku.edu)
  • function
  • Alterations in TA metabolism following TKA surgery using tourniquet may impact recovery of strength and function in this population of older adults. (wku.edu)
  • prevents remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia via regulating the expression and function of spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in vivo and vitro. (jove.com)
  • Recently, MAT was noted to "produce a greater proportion of adiponectin - an adipokine associated with improved metabolism - than WAT", suggesting an endocrine function for this depot, akin, but different, from that of WAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • volume
  • Single Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS): has a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 1 cm3, and has the cleanest spectrum free from unwanted artefacts due to the small acquired volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • A minimally invasive procedure typically involves the use of arthroscopic (for joints and the spine) or laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or large scale display panel, and is carried out through the skin or through a body cavity or anatomical opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • provides
  • Multi-voxel spectroscopy provides information about group of voxels and data can be presented in 2D or 3D images, but it requires longer acquisition times and therefore temporal resolution is decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides MAT assessment in the vertebral skeleton in conjunction with μCT-based marrow density measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitive
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy is, therefore, not a particularly sensitive technique, but it can be very useful in probing bulk material with little or no sample preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, MRI has been demonstrated also at ultra-low fields, i.e., in the microtesla-to-millitesla range, where sufficient signal quality is made possible by prepolarization (on the order of 10-100 mT) and by measuring the Larmor precession fields at about 100 microtesla with highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Nanochemistry and other nanoscience fields have the same core concepts but the usages of those concepts are different. (wikipedia.org)