• metabolites
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) uses the same hardware, measuring the abundance of metabolites in the myocardium in vivo non-invasively without the use of radiation or external tracers. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the key metabolites involved in the control of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, during the elevated metabolic demands of exercise, in subject groups which were separated by distinct differences in their training status or by their exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia. (ubc.ca)
  • Since repeated measures of the key metabolites involved in energy metabolism (PCr, Pi, ATP) and intracellular pH (pHm) would be exceedingly difficult using the conventional muscle needle biopsy technique, ³¹P NMR was selected as an appropriate, noninvasive method for measuring these metabolites. (ubc.ca)
  • fMRS is based on the same principles as in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, while conventional MRS records a single spectrum of metabolites from a region of interest, a key interest of fMRS is to detect multiple spectra and study metabolite concentration dynamics during brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as dynamic MRS, event-related MRS or time-resolved MRS. A novel variant of fMRS is functional diffusion-weighted spectroscopy (fDWS) which measures diffusion properties of brain metabolites upon brain activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • High field strengths have the advantage of increased SNR as well as improved spectral resolution allowing to detect more metabolites and more detailed metabolite dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRS can be used to determine the relative concentrations and physical properties of a variety of biochemicals frequently referred to as "metabolites" due to their role in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types of biochemicals (metabolites) which can be studied include choline-containing compounds (which are used to make cell membranes), creatine (a chemical involved in energy metabolism), inositol and glucose (both sugars), N-acetylaspartate, and alanine and lactate which are elevated in some tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolites of Glutamate Metabolism Are Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Events in the PREDIMED PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Trial. (nih.gov)
  • methods
  • Because standard radiolabeled or fluorescently-labeled pharmaceuticals are not well suited for long-term in vivo follow-up of carbon nanotubes, alternative methods are required. (dovepress.com)
  • Tumor
  • Choline (Cho) levels have been described as diagnostic markers for malignancy for many different tumor types in vivo and ex vivo (tissue biopsies). (illinois.edu)
  • nuclei
  • Like in vivo MRS, fMRS can probe different nuclei, such as hydrogen (1H) and carbon (13C). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like more common forms of MRI, sodium MRI relies on the use of a powerful magnetic field to induce alignment of nuclei with magnetic spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Na+ ions play key roles in biological processes, homeostasis, and metabolism, imaging 23Na nuclei can provide direct insights into the metabolic activity and cellular integrity of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, 23Na MRI is complicated by the low concentrations of Na nuclei in biological tissues (10-15 mM) as compared to concentration of H2O molecules, and the lower gyromagnetic ratio of the 23Na nucleus as compared to a 1H nucleus (26% of the 1H nucleus gyromagnetic ratio), causing low NMR sensitivity and requiring a stronger magnetic field for higher resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain atomic nuclei are able to absorb and emit radio frequency energy when placed in an external magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption
  • Copper is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These measurements are indicative of the state of vascular activity and the state of the oxygen saturation, thus of the level of metabolism in the living tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • Differentiation of neoplastic tissue from surrounding normal tissue is dependent on variations in cellular metabolism. (illinois.edu)
  • The tissue distribution of carbon nanotubes and their potential impact on metabolism depend on their shape, coating, and metallic impurities. (dovepress.com)
  • These supplies are necessary to carry out such metabolic functions as cellular respiration, melanin pigment and connective tissue synthesis, iron metabolism, free radical defense, gene expression, and the normal functioning of the heart and immune systems in infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique that is well described in the human medical literature and is most frequently used to evaluate the metabolic activity of tissues with questionable malignant transformation. (illinois.edu)
  • The second phase of the thesis aims to characterize the detectability of the choline metabolite in canine lymph nodes ex vivo, and compare choline ii levels (via choline signal-to-noise ratio or Cho SNR) among populations of normal, reactive, and malignant lymph nodes. (illinois.edu)
  • Our hypothesis was that choline would be detectable in canine lymph nodes ex vivo, and that the Cho SNR in malignant lymph nodes would be significantly higher than in normal and reactive lymph nodes. (illinois.edu)
  • Malignant tumors in particular alter their metabolism drastically, often to account for hypoxic intratumor conditions, leading to an decrease in cytosolic pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) hold promise for applications as contrast agents and target delivery carriers in the field of nanomedicine. (dovepress.com)
  • Typical applications of NIR spectroscopy include the analysis of food products, pharmaceuticals, combustion products, and a major branch of astronomical spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some of the early successes of molecular engineering have come in the fields of immunotherapy, synthetic biology, and printable electronics (see molecular engineering applications). (wikipedia.org)
  • NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • As 19 F-MRS is able to detect TAS-102 in phantom and murine models, the use of 19 F-MRS remains a potential tool to noninvasively detect and possibly monitor the metabolism when higher dosages of TAS-102 are administered, for example in organoid and animal studies. (springer.com)
  • type 2 diabet
  • Association between a genetic variant related to glutamic acid metabolism and coronary heart disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • interactions
  • The Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions provides essential support during all phases of drug development, from drug design to drug action and interaction within the human body. (wiley.com)
  • By collecting and reviewing the current literature in the field in one expertly organized work, this encyclopedia is the ideal place to begin researching any question involving drug metabolism and interactions. (wiley.com)
  • By reviewing and contextualizing the current literature, the authors offer new perspectives on our current state of knowledge as well as future directions for research in drug metabolism and interactions. (wiley.com)
  • The Encyclopedia of Drug Metabolism and Interactions is recommended for researchers, physicians, and students at all levels. (wiley.com)
  • Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14.1
  • High field (14.1T) 1HMRS was performed on each lymph node. (illinois.edu)
  • These systems are located in two separate labs, with one of the homebuilt systems located next to an Agilent 4.7 T animal imaging system and the other two sharing space with Agilent 14.1 T/51 mm high resolution spectroscopy and 9.4 T/89 mm microimaging systems. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The Analytical NMR Spectroscopy Lab is occupied by three 600 MHz spectrometers, all 14.1 T/5.1 cm systems. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • metabolite
  • Unlike in vivo MRS which is intensively used in clinical settings, fMRS is used primarily as a research tool, both in a clinical context, for example, to study metabolite dynamics in patients suffering from epilepsy, migraine and dyslexia, and to study healthy brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1H nucleus is the most sensitive and is most commonly used to measure metabolite concentrations and concentration dynamics, whereas 13C is best suited for characterizing fluxes and pathways of brain metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-voxel spectroscopy usually is performed when the specific volume of interest is not known or it is important to study metabolite dynamics in a larger brain region. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • It has also been used to study the metabolism of other organs such as muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a collaborative study, we have also been exploring appropriate use of computational screening together with NMR and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) to find small molecules that can bind to AAA ATPase p97/VCP. (ucsf.edu)
  • localize
  • The major components of an MRI scanner are: the main magnet, which polarizes the sample, the shim coils for correcting shifts in the homogeneity of the main magnetic field, the gradient system which is used to localize the MR signal and the RF system, which excites the sample and detects the resulting NMR signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • As energy is crucial for both systole and diastole, derangements in energy metabolism may be the first step in failure of the heart. (bmj.com)
  • 1 By using the gyromagnetic properties of 1 H, 31 P, 13 C, and 23 Na, MRS is a powerful tool to relate energy metabolism to (dys)function of the heart. (bmj.com)
  • The main goals of fMRS studies are to contribute to the understanding of energy metabolism in the brain, and to test and improve data acquisition and quantification techniques to ensure and enhance validity and reliability of fMRS studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often gives rise to fundamentally new materials and systems, which are required to address outstanding needs in numerous fields, from energy to healthcare to electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There it releases the oxygen to permit aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the functions of the organism in the process called metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantum
  • Recently, MRI has been demonstrated also at ultra-low fields, i.e., in the microtesla-to-millitesla range, where sufficient signal quality is made possible by prepolarization (on the order of 10-100 mT) and by measuring the Larmor precession fields at about 100 microtesla with highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy is based on molecular overtone and combination vibrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of electrically-conductive properties in polyacetylene by Alan J. Heeger in 1977 effectively opened the field of organic electronics, which has proved foundational for many molecular engineering efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields. (omicsonline.org)
  • strengths
  • Lower field strengths can be achieved with permanent magnets, which are often used in "open" MRI scanners for claustrophobic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • In the future, the arrival of ultra-high-field MR systems (7 T) and the ability to perform magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the abdomen promise even greater diagnostic insight into chronic liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). (illinois.edu)
  • brain
  • Unlike push-pull cannula, microdialysis and in vivo voltammetry, fMRS is a non-invasive method for studying dynamics of biochemistry in an activated brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular the data gathered show similarity of action of the two chemicals studied on influencing metabolic brain "behaviour" proposing that their central protective action may pass via the observed similar changes in brain metabolism. (omicsonline.org)
  • drug discovery
  • In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Due to conflicting findings, larger longitudinal ¹H MRS studies are expected to further explore glutamatergic neurotransmission in ACC of FEP in order to have a better understanding of the glutamatergic mechanisms underlying psychosis, possibly using ultra high field MR scanners. (cambridge.org)
  • volume
  • Single Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS): has a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 1 cm3, and has the cleanest spectrum free from unwanted artefacts due to the small acquired volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Further analysis is required in order to determine if TKA with tourniquet alters metabolism 2 weeks post-surgery. (wku.edu)