• known
  • The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor (EFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the known causes of congenital heart disease are sporadic genetic changes, either focal mutations or deletion or addition of segments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • The fetal heart rate and the activity of the uterine muscle are detected by two transducers placed on the mother's abdomen (one above the fetal heart, to monitor heart rate and the other at the fundus of the uterus to measure frequency of contractions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain (MYH6) are associated with atrial septal defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • The problems may involve the interior walls of the heart, the heart valves, or the large blood vessels that lead to and from the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small chromosomal abnormalities also frequently lead to congenital heart disease, and examples include microdeletion of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11, DiGeorge syndrome), the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21), the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p23) and many other, less recurrent regions of the genome, as shown by high resolution genome-wide screening (Array comparative genomic hybridization). (wikipedia.org)