• limbs
  • Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, fainting, heart murmur, under-development of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Interpretation of a CTG tracing requires both qualitative and quantitative description of: Uterine activity (contractions) Baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) Baseline FHR variability Presence of accelerations Periodic or episodic decelerations Changes or trends of FHR patterns over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sonographically, fetal activity can be noted as early as 7 to 8 weeks of gestation [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Although some studies report that fetal activity normally decreases near term, this is likely due to counting during fetal quiet cycles, which become longer with advancing gestation, or inclusion of high-risk pregnancies. (uptodate.com)
  • common
  • The most common method to evaluate fetal well being is the biophysical profile which is an ultrasould test that evaluates fetal breathing, fine motions, gross motions and amniotic fluid volume. (healthtap.com)
  • Heart defects are the most common birth defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital heart defects are associated with an increased incidence of some other symptoms, together being called the VACTERL association: V - Vertebral anomalies A - Anal atresia C - Cardiovascular anomalies T - Tracheoesophageal fistula E - Esophageal atresia R - Renal (Kidney) and/or radial anomalies L - Limb defects Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor (EFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the known causes of congenital heart disease are sporadic genetic changes, either focal mutations or deletion or addition of segments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • Small chromosomal abnormalities also frequently lead to congenital heart disease, and examples include microdeletion of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11, DiGeorge syndrome), the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21), the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p23) and many other, less recurrent regions of the genome, as shown by high resolution genome-wide screening (Array comparative genomic hybridization). (wikipedia.org)